1147

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1147 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1147
MCXLVII
Ab urbe condita 1900
Armenian calendar 596
ԹՎ ՇՂԶ
Assyrian calendar 5897
Balinese saka calendar 1068–1069
Bengali calendar 554
Berber calendar 2097
English Regnal year 12  Ste. 1   13  Ste. 1
Buddhist calendar 1691
Burmese calendar 509
Byzantine calendar 6655–6656
Chinese calendar 丙寅(Fire  Tiger)
3843 or 3783
     to 
丁卯年 (Fire  Rabbit)
3844 or 3784
Coptic calendar 863–864
Discordian calendar 2313
Ethiopian calendar 1139–1140
Hebrew calendar 4907–4908
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1203–1204
 - Shaka Samvat 1068–1069
 - Kali Yuga 4247–4248
Holocene calendar 11147
Igbo calendar 147–148
Iranian calendar 525–526
Islamic calendar 541–542
Japanese calendar Kyūan 3
(久安3年)
Javanese calendar 1053–1054
Julian calendar 1147
MCXLVII
Korean calendar 3480
Minguo calendar 765 before ROC
民前765年
Nanakshahi calendar −321
Seleucid era 1458/1459 AG
Thai solar calendar 1689–1690
Tibetan calendar 阳火虎年
(male Fire-Tiger)
1273 or 892 or 120
     to 
阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
1274 or 893 or 121
Conrad III arrives at Constantinople Arrivee des croises a Constantinople.jpg
Conrad III arrives at Constantinople

Year 1147 ( MCXLVII ) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Contents

Events

By place

Second Crusade

  • Late Spring A expedition of Crusaders leaves from Dartmouth in England to the Holy Land. Englishmen together with forces from Flanders, Frisia, Scotland, and some German polities. Leadership is provided by Hervey de Glanvill, an Norman nobleman and constable of Suffolk, who leads a fleet of some 200 ships. Bad weather forced the ships to take refuge at the mouth of the Douro River, on the Portuguese coast on June 16.
  • MayJuly A German expeditionary force (some 20,000 men) under King Conrad III leaves Regensburg and passes into Hungary. The German nobility is headed by Conrad's nephew and heir, Frederick I, duke of Swabia. On July 20, Conrad crosses into the Byzantine Empire, and reaches Sofia – where Michael Palaiologos (a nephew of Emperor Manuel I) gives Conrad an official welcome and provides the Crusaders with food. [1]
  • June A French expeditionary force (some 18,000 men) led by King Louis VII departs from Metz and travels through Bavaria. Louis is accompanied by the French nobility and his wife, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, heiress of France. At Regensburg – where it arrives on June 29, the Crusaders journey peaceably for fifteen days through Hungary and reach the Byzantine frontier at the end of August. [2]
  • July 1 October 25 Siege of Lisbon: King Afonso I (the Great) conquers Lisbon after a 4-month siege, with support of English, Flemish and German Crusaders. [3] The garrison surrenders on the guarantee that their lives will be spared. The Crusaders break the terms and take part in a bloody massacre. [4] Afonso rules from his capital at Coimbra and takes Sintra and Santarém, and sack Palmela. [5]
  • September 7 The German crusaders suffer a natural disaster near Constantinople, when part of their encampment is swept away by a flash flood with considerable loss of life. Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos) orders the Crusaders to cross to Asia Minor by the Hellespont. Conrad III ignores the advice of Manuel and after some minor clashes with the Byzantines, pushes towards Constantinople. [6]
  • September 10 The German crusaders under Conrad III reach Constantinople – where there is a frosty exchange of letters between Conrad and Manuel I. The German forces make camp at Galata on the northern shore of the Golden Horn. Manuel orders that a full-scale effort must be made to transport the Germans across the Bosporus, who are causing troubles by sacking the Philopatium. [7]
  • Autumn Conrad III decides not to wait for the French and crosses the Bosporus into Asia Minor. He leads the German crusader army to Nicomedia, and divides his forces into two divisions. Conrad takes the knights and his professional soldiers across Seljuk central territory – while the baggage train, pilgrims and a defending force under Bishop Otto of Freising travel along the Aegean coast. [8]
  • October 4 5 Louis VII arrives at Constantinople and joins with forces from Savoy under Amadeus III (his uncle) – who have taken the land route through Italy. Louis crosses the Bosporus, and leads the French crusader army into Asia Minor – where he hears in Nicaea of Conrad's defeat at the end of October. Louis sends a military escort for Conrad and agrees to rendezvous at Lopardium. [9]
  • The German crusaders under Otto of Freising follow the coastal road before turning inland, up the Gediz River valley to Philadelphia. Otto's force is ambushed by the Seljuk Turks, just outside Laodicea, losing many man killed or taken prisoner. Otto and the survivors struggle on to Adalia from where they sail for the Holy Land. Others, attempt to continue along the southern coast of Anatolia. [10]
  • October 25 Battle of Dorylaeum: The German crusaders under Conrad III are defeated by the Seljuk Turks led by Sultan Mesud I. Conrad is forced to turn back and is during the retreat to Nicaea wounded by arrows. In Seljuk territory the Crusaders are harassed all the way and demoralised by the intensified attacks. Many of the weakest people fall behind and are captured by the Muslims. [11]
  • November The combined forces of Louis VII and Conrad III meet at Lopardium and march along the coastal road via Pergamon and Smyrna to Ephesus – where they celebrate Christmas. Conrad still suffering from his wounds, sails back to Constantinople to be placed under the care of Manuel's own physicians. Meanwhile, the Crusader camp is attacked by Turkish raiders near Ephesus. [12]
  • December 24 Battle of Ephesus: The French crusaders under Louis VII leave Ephesus, and ascend the Meander Valley. Louis is warned by messengers of Manuel, that Seljuk and Danishmendid forces are assembling west of Adalia. Louis ignores the advise and successfully fends off an ambush just outside Ephesus. [13]

Europe

Levant

Africa

By topic

Religion

  • Spring Eugene III leaves Viterbo and travels to France. At the start of April he meets Louis VII at Dijon. It is agreed that Abbot Suger, Louis' adviser, governs France while Louis is away.

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

1135 Calendar year

Year 1135 (MCXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1142 (MCXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

The 1090s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1090, and ended on December 31, 1099.

The 1100s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1100, and ended on December 31, 1109.

The 1140s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1140, and ended on December 31, 1149.

1146 Calendar year

Year 1146 (MCXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1152 Calendar year

Year 1152 (MCLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1187 Calendar year

Year 1187 (MCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

The 1110s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1110, and ended on December 31, 1119.

1176 Calendar year

Year 1176 (MCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1169 Calendar year

Year 1169 (MCLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1137 Calendar year

Year 1137 (MCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

1145 Calendar year

Year 1145 (MCXLV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1148 Calendar year

Year 1148 (MCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1149 Calendar year

Year 1149 (MCXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1105 Calendar year

Year 1105 (MCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Second Crusade 12th-century crusade, the second major crusade

The Second Crusade (1147–1150) was the second major crusade launched from Europe. The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade (1096–1099) by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall.

Siege of Damascus (1148) During the Second Crusade

The Siege of Damascus took place between 24 and 28 July 1148, during the Second Crusade. It ended in a decisive crusader defeat and led to the disintegration of the crusade. The two main Christian forces that marched to the Holy Land in response to Pope Eugene III and Bernard of Clairvaux's call for the Second Crusade were led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. Both faced disastrous marches across Anatolia in the months that followed, with most of their armies being destroyed. The original focus of the crusade was Edessa (Urfa), but in Jerusalem, the preferred target of King Baldwin III and the Knights Templar was Damascus. At the Council of Acre, magnates from France, Germany, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem decided to divert the crusade to Damascus.

Battle of Dorylaeum (1147)

The second Battle of Dorylaeum took place near Dorylaeum in October 1147, during the Second Crusade. It was not a single clash but consisted of a series of encounters over a number of days. The German crusader forces of Conrad III were defeated by the Seljuk Turks led by Sultan Mesud I.

The Battle of Mount Cadmus took place near Laodicea, at Honaz, on January 6, 1148, during the Second Crusade. The French crusader army, led by Louis VII of France, was defeated by the Seljuks of Rum.

References

  1. Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 211–212. ISBN   978-0-241-29876-3.
  2. Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 213–214. ISBN   978-0-241-29876-3.
  3. King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 67.
  4. Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 210. ISBN   978-0-241-29876-3.
  5. Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 109. ISBN   2-7068-1398-9.
  6. Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 217. ISBN   978-0-241-29876-3.
  7. David Nicolle (2009). The Second Crusade 1148: Disaster outside Damascus, p. 42. ISBN   978-1-84603-354-4.
  8. David Nicolle (2009). The Second Crusade 1148: Disaster outside Damascus, p. 46. ISBN   978-1-84603-354-4.
  9. David Nicolle (2009). The Second Crusade 1148: Disaster outside Damascus, p. 37. ISBN   978-1-84603-354-4.
  10. David Nicolle (2009). The Second Crusade 1148: Disaster outside Damascus, p. 46. ISBN   978-1-84603-354-4.
  11. Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 220. ISBN   978-0-241-29876-3.
  12. David Nicolle (2009). The Second Crusade 1148: Disaster outside Damascus, p. 50. ISBN   978-1-84603-354-4.
  13. Christopher Tyerman (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades, p. 326. Penguin Books.
  14. Christiansen, Eric (1997). The Northern Crusades, p. 53. Penguin Books. ISBN   978-0-14-026653-5.
  15. Barraclough, Geoffrey (1984). The Origins of Modern Germany, p. 263. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN   0-393-30153-2.
  16. Rogers, Clifford J. (2010). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology: Vol. 1, p. 36. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0195334036.
  17. David Nicolle (2009). The Second Crusade 1148: Disaster outside Damascus, p. 39. ISBN   978-1-84603-354-4.
  18. Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 195–196. ISBN   978-0-241-29876-3.
  19. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc 2010. pp. 15–16. ISBN   978-1-59339-837-8.
  20. Bresc, Henri (2003). "La Sicile et l'espace libyen au Moyen Age" (PDF). Retrieved January 17, 2012.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)