1219

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1219 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1219
MCCXIX
Ab urbe condita 1972
Armenian calendar 668
ԹՎ ՈԿԸ
Assyrian calendar 5969
Balinese saka calendar 1140–1141
Bengali calendar 626
Berber calendar 2169
English Regnal year 3  Hen. 3   4  Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar 1763
Burmese calendar 581
Byzantine calendar 6727–6728
Chinese calendar 戊寅(Earth  Tiger)
3915 or 3855
     to 
己卯年 (Earth  Rabbit)
3916 or 3856
Coptic calendar 935–936
Discordian calendar 2385
Ethiopian calendar 1211–1212
Hebrew calendar 4979–4980
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1275–1276
 - Shaka Samvat 1140–1141
 - Kali Yuga 4319–4320
Holocene calendar 11219
Igbo calendar 219–220
Iranian calendar 597–598
Islamic calendar 615–616
Japanese calendar Kenpō 7 / Jōkyū 1
(承久元年)
Javanese calendar 1127–1128
Julian calendar 1219
MCCXIX
Korean calendar 3552
Minguo calendar 693 before ROC
民前693年
Nanakshahi calendar −249
Thai solar calendar 1761–1762
Tibetan calendar 阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1345 or 964 or 192
     to 
阴土兔年
(female Earth-Rabbit)
1346 or 965 or 193

Year 1219 ( MCCXIX ) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By area

Africa

November 5 is the 309th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 56 days remaining until the end of the year.

Fifth Crusade Crusade from 1217 to 1221 that attempted to recapture Jerusalem through Egypt

The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.

Damietta City in Egypt

Damietta also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see. It is located at the Damietta branch, an eastern distributary of the Nile, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the Mediterranean Sea, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) north of Cairo.

Asia

Genghis Khan founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire

Genghis Khan was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.

Qiu Chuji Taoist leader

Qiu Chuji, also known by his Taoist name Master Changchun, was a Taoist disciple of Wang Chongyang. He was the most famous among the Seven True Taoists of the North. He was the founder of the Dragon Gate sect of Taoism attracting the largest following in the streams of traditions flowing from the sects of the disciples.

Hōjō clan clan who controlled the Kamakura Shogunate as shikken (regent) in Japan

The Hōjō clan in the history of Japan was a family who controlled the hereditary title of shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate between 1203 and 1333. Despite the title, in practice the family wielded actual governmental power during this period compared to both the Kamakura shōguns, or the Imperial Court in Kyoto, whose authority was largely symbolic. The Hōjō are known for fostering Zen Buddhism and for leading the successful opposition to the Mongol invasions of Japan. Resentment at Hōjō rule eventually culminated in the overthrow of the clan and the establishment of the Ashikaga shogunate.

Europe

June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 199 days remaining until the end of the year.

Livonian Crusade German and Danish conquest of medieval Livonia

The Livonian Crusade was the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes. It ended with the creation of the Terra Mariana and Duchy of Estonia. The lands on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea were the last corners of Europe to be Christianized.

Denmark constitutional monarchy in Europe

Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and is bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2 (16,573 sq mi), land area of 42,394 km2 (16,368 sq mi), and the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2 (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.8 million.

By topic

Technology

Windmill machine that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy

A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Centuries ago, windmills usually were used to mill grain (gristmills), pump water (windpumps), or both. There are windmills that convert the rotational energy directly into heat. The majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or windpumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater. Windmills first appeared in Persia in the 9th century AD, and were later independently invented in Europe.

Yelü Chucai Mongolian khagans influent Khitan

Yelü Chucai was a statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty, who became a vigorous adviser and administrator of the early Mongol Empire in the Confucian tradition. He was the first of Genghis Khan's retainers to formulate policy during the Mongol conquests, and he also introduced many administrative reforms in North China during the reign of Genghis Khan and his successor Ögedei.

Transoxiana ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia

Transoxiana, known in Arabic sources as Mā Warāʾ an-Nahr and in Persian as Farārūd, is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan. Geographically, it is the region between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. The area had been known to the ancient Iranians as Turan, a term used in the Persian national epic Shahnameh, and to the Romans as Transoxania. The Arabic term Mā warāʼ an-Nahr passed into Persian literary usage and stayed on until post-Mongol times.

Births

Christopher I of Denmark King of Denmark

Christopher I was King of Denmark between 1252 and 1259. He was the son of Valdemar II of Denmark by his wife, Infanta Berengária of Portugal. He succeeded his brothers Eric IV Plovpenning and Abel of Denmark on the throne. Christopher was elected King upon the death of his older brother Abel in the summer of 1252. He was crowned at Lund Cathedral on Christmas Day 1252.

1259 Year

Year 1259 (MCCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Guillaume de Gisors (1219–1307) was the son of Hugues III de Gisors and grandson of Jean de Gisors.

Deaths

Related Research Articles

The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs. The crusades took place mostly in the 12th and 13th centuries and resulted in the subjugation and forced baptism of indigenous peoples.

1380 Year

Year 1380 (MCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1204 (MCCIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

The 1380s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1380, and ended on December 31, 1389.

Year 1147 (MCXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1223 (MCCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1227 (MCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1382 (MCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

The 1210s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1210, and ended on December 31, 1219.

Year 1443 (MCDXLIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1315 (MCCCXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1218 (MCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1203 (MCCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. It was also the first year to have all digits different from each other since 1098.

1193 Year

Year 1193 (MCXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1239 (MCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1182 (MCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1242 (MCCXLII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

The Livonian Brothers of the Sword was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga, in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204 for the second time. The membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks" who fought Baltic and Finnic pagans in the area of modern-day Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Alternative names of the Order include Christ Knights, Sword Brethren, and The Militia of Christ of Livonia. The seal reads: +MAGISTRI ETFRM MILICIE CRI (Christi) DE LIVONIA.

Duchy of Estonia (1219–1346) former Danish possession in Balticum

The Duchy of Estonia, also known as Danish Estonia, was a direct dominion of the King of Denmark from 1219 until 1346 when it was sold to the Teutonic Order and became part of the Ordensstaat.

References

  1. Butkevičienė, Birutė; Vytautas Gricius (July 2003). "Mindaugas — Lietuvos karalius". Mokslas ir gyvenimas (in Lithuanian). 7 (547). Archived from the original on May 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
  2. Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1).