Wagon train

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Pioneers Crossing the Plains of Nebraska Pioneers Crossing the Plains of Nebraska by C.C.A. Christensen.png
Pioneers Crossing the Plains of Nebraska
1912 Pioneer Day re-enactment of a wagon train in Utah. WagonTrn.jpg
1912 Pioneer Day re-enactment of a wagon train in Utah.

A wagon train is a group of wagons traveling together. Before the extensive use of military vehicles, baggage trains followed an army with supplies and ammunition.

Contents

In the American West, settlers traveling across the plains and mountain passes in covered wagons banded together for mutual assistance. Although wagon trains are associated with the Old West, the Trekboers of South Africa also traveled in caravans of covered wagons.

Covered wagon

The covered wagon was long the dominant form of transport in pre-industrial America. With roots in the heavy Conestoga wagon developed for the rough, undeveloped roads and paths of the colonial East, the covered wagon spread west with American migration. Heavily relied upon along such travel routes as the Great Wagon Road and the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails, it carried settlers seeking land, gold, and new futures ever further west.

Trekboer nomadic pastoralists

In the history of Southern Africa, the Trekboere were nomadic pastoralists descended from European settlers on the frontiers of the Dutch Cape Colony. The Trekboere began migrating into the interior from the areas surrounding what is now Cape Town, such as Paarl, Stellenbosch, and Franschhoek, during the late 17th century and throughout the 18th century. The Trekboer included mixed-race families of partial Khoikoi descent who had also become established within the economic class of burghers.

In migration

Transit, traces and trails

Wagon trains followed several trails in the American West, with virtually all originating at Independence, Missouri. [1] Perhaps the most famous wagon train trail was the Oregon Trail which had a span of over 2,000 mi (3,200 km). [2] Other paths included the Santa Fe Trail, the Chisholm Trail, the California Trail (which split southwestward from the Oregon Trail), the Mormon Trail, and the Old Spanish Trail.

Independence, Missouri Satellite Town in Missouri, United States

Independence is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri. It lies within Jackson County, of which it is the county seat. Independence is a satellite city of Kansas City, Missouri, and is part of the Kansas City metropolitan area. In 2010, it had a total population of 116,830.

Oregon Trail Historic route to and through the American Old West

The Oregon Trail is a 2,170-mile (3,490 km) historic East–West, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon. The eastern part of the Oregon Trail spanned part of the future state of Kansas, and nearly all of what are now the states of Nebraska and Wyoming. The western half of the trail spanned most of the future states of Idaho and Oregon.

Santa Fe Trail

The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, who departed from the Boonslick region along the Missouri River, the trail served as a vital commercial highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in 1880. Santa Fe was near the end of the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which carried trade from Mexico City.

Although "wagon train" suggests a line of wagons, when terrain permitted, wagons would often fan out and travel abreast to minimize the amount of dust blown onto other wagons. Travel by wagon train occurred primarily between the 1840s1880s, diminishing after completion of the first transcontinental railroad. Some remnants of wagon ruts ‎along the well-travelled trails are still visible today. [1]

Organization

Originally, westward movement began in small groups, but well-funded travelers with a hundred or more wagons could employ professional wagon masters (or trail masters) and ostlers.

A wagon master was the person hired to oversee the transportation of a group of wagons from one place to another. On the American frontier, the term usually applies to the person responsible for assisting groups of immigrants or pioneers from the eastern U.S. to the western U.S. Wagon masters were also hired to oversee shipments of cargo or mail. A group of wagons traveling together were referred to as a "train".

A hostler or ostler is a groom or stableman, who is employed in a stable to take care of horses, usually at an inn. Today the word has acquired additional meanings, particularly in the railroad industry.

Overland emigrants discovered smaller groups of twenty to forty wagons were more manageable than larger ones, especially without professional wagon masters. Many operated under democratic principles, creating bylaws and electing a captain. In reality, a captain had limited authority. His role was largely confined to getting everyone moving in the morning and selecting when and where to camp at night. [3]

Membership in wagon trains was generally fluid and wagons frequently joined or left trains depending on the needs and wishes of their owners. An accident or illness, for instance, might force someone to fall behind and wait for the next train, or an emigrant might "whip up" to overtake a forward train after a quarrel. Some might break away to settle in Colorado Territory or other territories along the way.

At night, wagon trains were often formed into a circle or square for shelter from wind or weather, and to corral the emigrants' animals in the center to prevent them from running away or being stolen by Native Americans. While Native Americans might attempt to raid horses under cover of darkness, they rarely attacked a train. Contrary to popular belief, wagons were seldom circled defensively. [4]

Modern-day treks

Today, covered wagon trains are used to give an authentic experience for those desiring to explore the West as it was in the days of the pioneers and other groups traveling before modern vehicles were invented.

Indian teams hauling 60 miles to market the 1100 bushels of wheat raised by the school at Seger Colony, Oklahoma Territory, circa 1900. "Indian teams hauling 60 miles to market the 1100 bushels of wheat raised by the school. It brought four cents more than - NARA - 519190.tif
Indian teams hauling 60 miles to market the 1100 bushels of wheat raised by the school at Seger Colony, Oklahoma Territory, circa 1900.

Baggage trains

The advent of gunpowder warfare meant that an army could no longer rely solely on foraging in the surrounding countryside, and required a regular supply of munitions. [6] In the 18th century, organized commissary and quartermaster departments were developed to centralize delivery of supplies. [6] The delivery took the form of "baggage trains", large groups of wagons that traveled at the rear of the main army.

Westward-bound collective treks are reflected in numerous books, films and television programs about the journeys. Examples include the several Westward Ho! titles, "Wagons West" by Dana Fuller Ross, James Cruze's silent film The Covered Wagon , Audie Murphy's Tumbleweed , and Ward Bond and John McIntire's Wagon Train series on NBC and later ABC.

See also

Sources

Related Research Articles

Mountain man

A mountain man is an explorer who lives in the wilderness. Mountain men were most common in the North American Rocky Mountains from about 1810 through to the 1880s. They were instrumental in opening up the various Emigrant Trails allowing Americans in the east to settle the new territories of the far west by organized wagon trains traveling over roads explored and in many cases, physically improved by the mountain men and the big fur companies originally to serve the mule train based inland fur trade.

California Trail historic migration route in the western United States

The California Trail was an emigrant trail of about 3,000 mi (4,800 km) across the western half of the North American continent from Missouri River towns to what is now the state of California. After it was established, the first half of the California Trail followed the same corridor of networked river valley trails as the Oregon Trail and the Mormon Trail, namely the valleys of the Platte, North Platte and Sweetwater rivers to Wyoming. In the present states of Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah, the California and Oregon trails split into several different trails or cutoffs.

Fort Laramie National Historic Site

Fort Laramie was a significant 19th-century trading post and diplomatic site located at the confluence of the Laramie and the North Platte rivers. They joined in the upper Platte River Valley in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Wyoming. The fort was founded as a private trading post in the 1830s to service the overland fur trade. It was located east of the long climb leading to the best and lowest crossing point of the Rocky Mountains at South Pass and became a popular stopping point for migrants on the Oregon Trail. Along with Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River, the trading post and its supporting industries and businesses were the most significant economic hub of commerce in the region.

Fort Kearny historic fort in Nebraska, USA

Fort Kearny was a historic outpost of the United States Army founded in 1848 in the western U.S. during the middle and late 19th century. The fort was named after Col. and later General Stephen Watts Kearny. The outpost was located along the Oregon Trail near Kearney, Nebraska. The town of Kearney took its name from the fort. The "e" was added to Kearny by postmen who consistently misspelled the town name. A portion of the original site is preserved as Fort Kearny State Historical Park by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission.

Emigrant Gap

Emigrant Gap is a gap in a ridge on the California Trail as it crosses the Sierra Nevada, to the west of what is now known as Donner Pass. Here the cliffs are so steep that, back in the 1840s, the pioneers on their way to California had to lower their wagons on ropes in order to continue.

Applegate Trail emigrant trail in the western United States

The Applegate Trail was an emigrant trail through the present-day U.S. states of Idaho, Nevada, California, and Oregon used in the mid-19th century by emigrants on the American frontier. It was originally intended as a less dangerous alternative to the Oregon Trail by which to reach the Oregon Territory. Much of the route was coterminous with the California Trail.

Cherokee Trail

The Cherokee Trail was a historic overland trail through the present-day U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming that was used from the late 1840s up through the early 1890s. The route was established in 1849 by a wagon train headed to the gold fields in California. Among the members of the expedition were a group of Cherokee. When the train formed in Indian Territory, Lewis Evans of Evansville, Arkansas, was elected Captain. Thus, this expedition is sometimes written as the Evans/Cherokee Train.

Hastings Cutoff

The Hastings Cutoff was an alternative route for westward emigrants to travel to California, as proposed by Lansford Hastings in The Emigrant's Guide to Oregon and California. The ill-fated Donner Party famously took that route.

Meek Cutoff wagon trail of the 19th century

The Meek Cutoff was a covered wagon road that branched off the Oregon Trail in northeastern Oregon and was used as an alternate emigrant route to the Willamette Valley in the mid-19th century. The road was named for frontiersman Stephen Meek, who was hired to lead the first wagon train along it in 1845. The journey was a particularly hard one, and many of the pioneers lost their lives.

The Oregon-California Trails Association is an interdisciplinary organization based at Independence, Missouri, United States. OCTA is dedicated to the preservation and protection of overland emigrant trails and the emigrant experience.

Joseph R. Walker American explorer

Joseph R. Walker was a mountain man and experienced scout. He established the segment of the California Trail, the primary route for the emigrants to the gold fields during the California gold rush, from Fort Hall, Idaho to the Truckee River. The Walker River and Walker Lake in Nevada were named for him by John C. Frémont.

Elliott Cutoff

The Elliott Cutoff was a covered wagon road that branched off the Oregon Trail at the Malheur River where present-day Vale, Oregon, United States is today. The first portion of the road was originally known as the Meek Cutoff after Stephen Meek, a former trapper who led over 1,000 emigrants into the Harney Basin in 1845. There were considerable difficulties for the 1845 train, and after reaching a hill known as Wagontire, the people left Meek and split into groups. They turned north at the Deschutes River and finally returned to the traditional Oregon Trail near The Dalles.

Sager orphans seven American orphans

The Sager orphans were the children of Henry and Naomi Sager. In April 1844 the Sager family took part in the great westward migration and started their journey along the Oregon Trail. During it, both Henry and Naomi died and left their seven children orphaned. Later adopted by Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, missionaries in what is now Washington, they were orphaned a second time, when both their new parents, as well as brothers John and Francis Sager, were killed during the Whitman massacre in November 1847. About 1860 Catherine, the oldest girl, wrote a first-hand account of their journey across the plains and their life with the Whitmans. Today it is regarded as one of the most authentic accounts of the American westward migration.

In 1841, the Bartleson–Bidwell Party, led by Captain John Bartleson and John Bidwell, became the first American emigrants to attempt a wagon crossing from Missouri to California.

Great Platte River Road

The Great Platte River Road was a major overland travel corridor approximately following the course of the Platte River in present-day Nebraska and Wyoming that was shared by several popular emigrant trails during the 19th century, including the Trapper's Trail, the Oregon Trail, the Mormon Trail, the California Trail, the Pony Express route, and the military road connecting Fort Leavenworth and Fort Laramie. The road, which extended nearly 800 miles (1,300 km) from the Second Fort Kearny to Fort Laramie, was utilized primarily from 1841 to 1866. In modern times it is often regarded as a sort of superhighway of its era, and has been referred to as "the grand corridor of America's westward expansion".

The Salt Lake Cutoff is one of the many shortcuts that branched from the California, Mormon and Oregon Trails in the United States. It led northwest out of Salt Lake City, Utah and north of the Great Salt Lake for about 180 miles (290 km) before rejoining the California trail near the City of Rocks, Idaho. From there Oregon Trail travelers could easily travel down the Raft River valley portion of the California Trail to return to the Oregon Trail. It provided a way to stop in Salt Lake City for repairs, fresh supplies, fresh livestock etc.. In later years it was used by tens of thousands of pioneers and miners going east and west on their way to or from the future states of California, Oregon, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Nevada or Washington.

In the American Old West overland trails were popular means of travel used by pioneers and immigrants throughout the 19th century and especially between 1830 and 1870 as an alternative to sea and railroad transport. These immigrants began to settle various of North America west of the Great Plains as part of the mass overland migrations of the mid-19th century. Settlers emigrating from the eastern United States were spurred by various motives, among them religious persecution, economic incentives, some people say that the interior to destinations in the far west, including the Oregon Trail, California Trail, and Mormon Trail. After the end of the Mexican–American War in 1849, vast new American conquests again enticed mass immigration. Legislation like the Donation Land Claim Act and significant events like the California Gold Rush further lured people to travel overland to the west.

The Oregon Trail is a historic 2,000-mile (3,264-km) trail used by American pioneers living in the Great Plains in the 19th century. The emigrants traveled by wagon in search of fertile land in Oregon's Willamette Valley.

References

  1. 1 2 Billock, Jennifer (October 3, 2016). "Nine Places Where You Can Still See Wheel Tracks from the Oregon Trail". Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
  2. Brown, Dee Alexander, and Martin Ferdinand Schmitt. The American West. New York: Scribner, 1994. Print.
  3. "Life and Death on the Oregon Trail, "Provisions for births and lethal circumstances", OCTA." Oregon-California Trails Association (OCTA) - Oregon Trail History. Oregon-California Trails Association, n.d. Web. 4 Oct. 2013. <http://www.octa-trails.org/learn/people_places/articles_life_death.php>.
  4. Gregory, Leland (Jun 15, 2009). "Stupid History: Tales of Stupidity, Strangeness, and Mythconceptions Through the Ages". Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 209. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  5. Oklahoma Historical Society’s Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture:Washita County
  6. 1 2 Huston, James A. (1991). Logistics of Liberty: American Services of Supply in the Revolutionary War and After. Newark: University of Delaware Press. pp. 15–18. ISBN   0-87413-381-5.

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