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|1344 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1344 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2097|
|Balinese saka calendar||1265–1266|
|English Regnal year||17 Edw. 3 – 18 Edw. 3|
|Chinese calendar|| 癸未年 (Water Goat)|
4040 or 3980
— to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4041 or 3981
|- Vikram Samvat||1400–1401|
|- Shaka Samvat||1265–1266|
|- Kali Yuga||4444–4445|
|Japanese calendar|| Kōei 3|
|Minguo calendar||568 before ROC |
|Thai solar calendar||1886–1887|
1470 or 1089 or 317
— to —
1471 or 1090 or 318
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1344 .|
Year 1344 ( MCCCXLIV ) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Roman numerals are a numeric system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:
A leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days that begins on Thursday 1 January, and ends on Friday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are DC, such as the years 1880, 1920, 1948, 1976, 2004, 2032, 2060, and 2088, in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 1988, 2016, and 2044 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Monday, Wednesday or Thursday has two Friday the 13ths. This leap year contains two Friday the 13ths in February and August.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.
March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 280 days remain until the end of the year.
The Reconquista was the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest, and the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.
The Siege of Algeciras (1342–44) was undertaken during the Reconquest of Spain by the Castillian forces of Alfonso XI assisted by the fleets of the Kingdom of Aragon and the Republic of Genoa. The objective was to capture the Muslim city of Al-Jazeera Al-Khadra, called Algeciras by Christians. The city was the capital and the main port of the European territory of the Marinid Empire.
Edward III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of 50 years was the second longest in medieval England and saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237. It was later a member of the Livonian Confederation, from 1435 to 1561.
Estonians are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.
Year 1314 (MCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Azzo X d'Este (1344–1415) was an Italian condottiero, a member of the House of Este.
Year 1415 (MCDXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 325 days remain until the end of the year.
Year 1363 (MCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
September 18 is the 261st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 104 days remain until the end of the year.
January 4 is the fourth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 361 days remain until the end of the year.
Robert de Lisle, 1st Baron Lisle was an English peer. He saw military service in Scotland, and fought at the Battle of Boroughbridge. After his wife's death, he joined the Franciscan order. He was the owner of the Lisle Psalter.
Year 1288 (MCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
The 1340s were a Julian calendar decade in the 14th century, in the midst of a period in world history often referred to as the Late Middle Ages in the Old World and the pre-Columbian era in the New World.
Year 1490 (MCDXC) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1343 (MCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1340 (MCCCXL) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1409 (MCDIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1417 (MCDXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1449 (MCDXLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1327 (MCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1213 (MCCXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1201 (MCCI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1148 (MCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1096 (MXCVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1278 (MCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Peter III of Aragon, known as Peter the Great, was King of Aragon, King of Valencia, and Count of Barcelona from 1276 to his death; this union of kingdoms was called the Crown of Aragon. At the invitation of some rebels, he conquered the Kingdom of Sicily and became King of Sicily in 1282, pressing the claim of his wife, Constance, uniting the kingdom to the crown. He was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese monarchs.
Peter IV, called the Ceremonious, was from 1336 until his death the King of Aragon and also King of Sardinia and Corsica, King of Valencia, and Count of Barcelona. In 1344, he deposed James III of Majorca and made himself King of Majorca.
James II, called the Just, was the King of Aragon and Valencia and Count of Barcelona from 1291 to 1327. He was also the King of Sicily from 1285 to 1295 and the King of Majorca from 1291 to 1298. From 1297 he was nominally the King of Sardinia and Corsica, but he only acquired the island of Sardinia by conquest in 1324. His full title for the last three decades of his reign was "James, by the grace of God, king of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica, and count of Barcelona".
The Kingdom of Majorca was founded by James I of Aragon, also known as James The Conqueror. After the death of his firstborn son Alfonso, a will was written in 1262 and created the kingdom to cede it to his son James. The disposition was maintained during successive versions of his will and so when James I died in 1276, the Crown of Aragon passed to his eldest son Peter, known as Peter III of Aragon or Peter the Great. The Kingdom of Majorca passed to James, who reigned under the name of James II of Majorca. After 1279, Peter III of Aragon established that the king of Majorca was a vassal to the king of Aragon. The title continued to be employed by the Aragonese and Spanish monarchs until its dissolution by the 1715 Nueva Planta decrees.
The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragon, a part of the larger War of the Sicilian Vespers, was declared by Pope Martin IV against the King of Aragon, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. Because of the recent conquest of Sicily by Peter, the Pope declared a crusade against him and officially deposed him as king, on the grounds that Aragon was a papal fief: Peter's grandfather and namesake, Peter II, had surrendered the kingdom as a fief to the Holy See. Martin bestowed Aragon on Charles, Count of Valois, son of the French king, Philip III, and nephew of Peter III.
Joan of Savoy, was Duchess consort of Brittany, wife of John III, Duke of Brittany. Joan was also a claimant to the County of Savoy upon the death of her father. She was a member of the House of Savoy and married into the House of Dreux. Joan was born in 1310, she was the only child of Edward, Count of Savoy, and his wife, Blanche of Burgundy.