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The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.
In Europe , the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. The architectural perspective and the field which is known today as accounting were founded in Italy.
Constantinople, known as the Capital of the World and the Capital of the Byzantine Empire (today's Turkey), falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.This led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the printing press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance. The Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus) became dissolved through the Christian Reconquista, followed by the forced conversions and the Muslim rebellion, ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule and returning Spain, Portugal and Southern France back to Christian rulers.
The search for the wealth and prosperity of India's Bengal Sultanateled to the colonization of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the Portuguese voyages by Vasco da Gama, which linked Europe with the Indian subcontinent, ushering the period of Iberian empires.
The Hundred Years' War ended with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.
In Asia , the Timurid Empire collapsed, and the Afghan Pashtun Lodi dynasty is founded under the Delhi Sultanate. Under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle.
In Africa , the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire.
In the Americas , both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence, but the European colonization of the Americas changed the course of modern history.
See links above for Italian Renaissance painting and Renaissance sculpture.
List of 15th century inventions
The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600.
Year 1521 (MDXXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1521st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 521st year of the 2nd millennium, the 21st year of the 16th century, and the 2nd year of the 1520s decade.
Year 1495 (MCDXCV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar).
Year 1480 (MCDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1525 (MDXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1517 (MDXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1516 (MDXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1494 (MCDXCIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1475 (MCDLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1444 (MCDXLIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000 + + + = 1444.
Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of the period of European history, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music, science and technology. Renaissance art, perceived as the noblest of ancient traditions, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by absorbing recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by applying contemporary scientific knowledge. Renaissance art, with Renaissance humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new artistic sensibilities. Renaissance art marks the transition of Europe from the medieval period to the Early Modern age.
In art history, "Old Master" refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An "old master print" is an original print made by an artist in the same period. The term "old master drawing" is used in the same way.
The decade of the 1490s in art involved some significant events.
The decade of the 1470s in art involved some significant events.
The decade of the 1410s in art involved some significant events.
The decade of the 1440s in art involved some significant events.
The year 1525 in art involved some significant events and new works.
It is the end of the Middle Ages
Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.