15th century

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Ottoman's Mehmed II, the Islamic conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Various historians describe it as the end of the Middle Ages. Zonaro GatesofConst.jpg
Ottoman's Mehmed II, the Islamic conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Various historians describe it as the end of the Middle Ages.
The Capitulation of Granada by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz, 1882: Muhammad XII surrenders to Ferdinand and Isabella La Rendicion de Granada - Pradilla.jpg
The Capitulation of Granada by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz, 1882: Muhammad XII surrenders to Ferdinand and Isabella
Gergio Deluci, Christopher Columbus arrives in America in 1492, 1893 painting. Columbus Taking Possession.jpg
Gergio Deluci, Christopher Columbus arrives in America in 1492, 1893 painting.

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.

Contents

In Europe , the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. The architectural perspective and the field which is known today as accounting were founded in Italy.

Constantinople, known as the Capital of the World and the Capital of the Byzantine Empire (today's Turkey), falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages. [1] This led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the printing press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance. [2] [3] The Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus) became dissolved through the Christian Reconquista, followed by the forced conversions and the Muslim rebellion, [4] ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule and returning Spain, Portugal and Southern France back to Christian rulers.

The search for the wealth and prosperity of India's Bengal Sultanate [5] led to the colonization of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the Portuguese voyages by Vasco da Gama, which linked Europe with the Indian subcontinent, ushering the period of Iberian empires.

The Hundred Years' War ended with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.

In Asia , the Timurid Empire collapsed, and the Afghan Pashtun Lodi dynasty is founded under the Delhi Sultanate. Under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle.

In Africa , the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire.

In the Americas , both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence, but the European colonization of the Americas changed the course of modern history.

Filippo Brunelleschi, regarded as one of the greatest engineers and architects of all time. Masaccio, cappella brancacci, san pietro in cattedra. ritratto di filippo brunelleschi.jpg
Filippo Brunelleschi, regarded as one of the greatest engineers and architects of all time.
Portrait of the founder of accounting, Luca Pacioli, by Jacopo de' Barbari (Museo di Capodimonte). Pacioli.jpg
Portrait of the founder of accounting, Luca Pacioli , by Jacopo de' Barbari (Museo di Capodimonte).

Events

Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years' War. Joan of Arc miniature graded.jpg
Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years' War.

1400s

1410s

1420s

The renaissance king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. His mercenary standing army (the Black Army) had the strongest military potential of its era. Matthias Corvinus.jpg
The renaissance king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. His mercenary standing army (the Black Army) had the strongest military potential of its era.

1430s

1440s

1450s

Modern painting of Mehmed II marching on Constantinople in 1453 Conquest of Constantinople, Zonaro.jpg
Modern painting of Mehmed II marching on Constantinople in 1453
Detail of The Emperor's Approach showing the Xuande Emperor's royal carriage. Ming Dynasty of China. Detail of The Emperor's Approach, Xuande period.jpg
Detail of The Emperor's Approach showing the Xuande Emperor's royal carriage. Ming Dynasty of China.
Richard III of England King Richard III from NPG.jpg
Richard III of England
King Henry VII, (1457-1509), the founder of the royal house of Tudor Henry Seven England.jpg
King Henry VII, (1457–1509), the founder of the royal house of Tudor

1460s

The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatan after The League of Mayapan in 1461. Cacicazgos mayas - es.svg
The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatán after The League of Mayapan in 1461.
The Siege of Rhodes (1480). Ships of the Hospitaliers in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background. SiegeOfRhodes1480.jpg
The Siege of Rhodes (1480). Ships of the Hospitaliers in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background.

1470s

Charles the Bold Charles the Bold 1460.jpg
Charles the Bold

1480s

Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow. Ivan III of Russia.jpg
Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow.

1490s

Significant people

Lorenzo de' Medici Lorenzo de' Medici-ritratto.jpg
Lorenzo de' Medici
Portrait of Gentleman (Cesare Borgia) Cesareborgia.jpg
Portrait of Gentleman (Cesare Borgia)
Maximilian I Albrecht Durer - Portrait of Maximilian I - Google Art Project.jpg
Maximilian I
Isabella I of Castile IsabellaofCastile03.jpg
Isabella I of Castile

Visual artists, architects, sculptors, printmakers, illustrators

Jan van Eyck Portrait of a Man by Jan van Eyck-small.jpg
Jan van Eyck

See links above for Italian Renaissance painting and Renaissance sculpture.

Literature

Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti.jpg
Leon Battista Alberti
Pico della Mirandola Pico1.jpg
Pico della Mirandola

Musicians and composers

Gilles Binchois (right) with Guillaume Dufay DufayBinchois.jpg
Gilles Binchois (right) with Guillaume Dufay
Johannes Ockeghem Johannes+Ockeghem.png
Johannes Ockeghem

Exploration

Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama - 1838.png
Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus Ridolfo Ghirlandaio Columbus.jpg
Christopher Columbus
Nicolaus Copernicus Nikolaus Kopernikus.jpg
Nicolaus Copernicus

Science, invention and philosophy

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Johannes Gutenberg Anonymous portrait of Johannes Gutenberg dated 1440, Gutenberg Museum.JPG
Johannes Gutenberg

List of 15th century inventions

Related Research Articles

16th century Century

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600.

1521 Calendar year

Year 1521 (MDXXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1521st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 521st year of the 2nd millennium, the 21st year of the 16th century, and the 2nd year of the 1520s decade.

Year 1495 (MCDXCV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar).

Year 1480 (MCDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1525 Calendar year

Year 1525 (MDXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

1517 Calendar year

Year 1517 (MDXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1516 Calendar year

Year 1516 (MDXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1494 (MCDXCIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1475 (MCDLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1444 (MCDXLIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000 + + + = 1444.

Renaissance art painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that period of European history known as the Renaissance

Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of the period of European history, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music, science and technology. Renaissance art, perceived as the noblest of ancient traditions, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by absorbing recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by applying contemporary scientific knowledge. Renaissance art, with Renaissance humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new artistic sensibilities. Renaissance art marks the transition of Europe from the medieval period to the Early Modern age.

Old Master skilled painter

In art history, "Old Master" refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An "old master print" is an original print made by an artist in the same period. The term "old master drawing" is used in the same way.

The decade of the 1490s in art involved some significant events.

The decade of the 1470s in art involved some significant events.

The decade of the 1410s in art involved some significant events.

The decade of the 1440s in art involved some significant events.

The year 1525 in art involved some significant events and new works.

References

  1. Crowley, Roger (2006). Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453. Faber. ISBN   0-571-22185-8. (reviewed by Foster, Charles (22 September 2006). "The Conquestof Constantinople and the end of empire". Contemporary Review. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. It is the end of the Middle Ages
  2. Encyclopædia Britannica, Renaissance, 2008, O.Ed.
  3. McLuhan 1962; Eisenstein 1980; Febvre & Martin 1997; Man 2002
  4. Harvey 2005, p. 14.
  5. Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN   978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  6. Winstedt, R. O. (1948). "The Malay Founder of Medieval Malacca". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies. 12 (3/4): 726–729. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00083312. JSTOR   608731.
  7. "An introduction to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644)". Khan Academy . Asian Art Museum . Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  8. Modern interpretation of the place names recorded by Chinese chronicles can be found e.g. in Some Southeast Asian Polities Mentioned in the MSL Archived 12 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine by Geoffrey Wade
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ricklefs (1991), page 18.
  10. Leinbach, Thomas R. (20 February 2019). "Religions". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  11. Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. p. 437.
  12. Mueller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Durers, Walter de Gruyter. ISBN   3-11-012815-2.
  13. Also sometimes in contemporary documents Barthélemy de Cler, der Clers, Deick d'Ecle, d'Eilz – Harthan, John, The Book of Hours, p. 93, 1977, Thomas Y Crowell Company, New York, ISBN   0-690-01654-9
  14. Unterkircher, Franz (1980). King René's Book of Love (Le Cueur d'Amours Espris) . New York: G. Braziller. ISBN   0-8076-0989-7.
  15. Tolley 2001, p. [ page needed ].
  16. Brigstocke, 2001, p. 338
  17. "Hans Holbein". Catholic Encyclopedia . Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2007.

Sources