15th century

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Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, victorious at the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Various historians describe it as the end of the Middle Ages. Zonaro GatesofConst.jpg
Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, victorious at the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Various historians describe it as the end of the Middle Ages.
The Capitulation of Granada by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz, 1882: Muhammad XII surrenders to Ferdinand and Isabella La Rendicion de Granada - Pradilla.jpg
The Capitulation of Granada by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz, 1882: Muhammad XII surrenders to Ferdinand and Isabella

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian dates from 1 January 1401 (MCDI) to 31 December 1500 (MD).

Contents

In Europe, the 15th century includes parts of the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. The architectural perspective, and the modern fields which are known today as banking and accounting were founded in Italy.

The Hundred Years' War ended with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict resulted in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts ended with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.

Constantinople, known as the capital of the world and the capital of the Byzantine Empire (today's Turkey), fell to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages. [1] This led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of a mechanical movable type began the printing press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance. [2] [3] The Roman papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century.

Islamic Spain became dissolved through the Christian Reconquista, followed by the forced conversions and the Muslim rebellion, [4] ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule and returning southern Spain to Christian rulers.

The search for the wealth and prosperity of India's Bengal Sultanate [5] led to the colonization of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the Portuguese voyages by Vasco da Gama, which linked Europe with the Indian subcontinent, ushering the period of Iberian empires.

In Asia, the Timurid Empire collapsed and the Afghan Pashtun Lodi dynasty took control of the Delhi Sultanate. Under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle.

In Africa, the spread of Islam led to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century, leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teetered on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire.

In the Americas, both the Aztec Empire and the Inca Empire reached the peak of their influence, but the European colonization of the Americas changed the course of modern history.

Events

1401–1409

Portrait of the founder of accounting, Luca Pacioli, by Jacopo de' Barbari (Museo di Capodimonte). Pacioli.jpg
Portrait of the founder of accounting, Luca Pacioli , by Jacopo de' Barbari (Museo di Capodimonte).

1410s

1420s

Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years' War. Joan of Arc miniature graded.jpg
Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years' War.

1430s

1440s

Detail of The Emperor's Approach showing the Xuande Emperor's royal carriage. Ming Dynasty of China. Detail of The Emperor's Approach, Xuande period.jpg
Detail of The Emperor's Approach showing the Xuande Emperor's royal carriage. Ming Dynasty of China.

1450s

Modern painting of Mehmed II marching on Constantinople in 1453 Conquest of Constantinople, Zonaro.jpg
Modern painting of Mehmed II marching on Constantinople in 1453

1460s

The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatan after The League of Mayapan in 1461. Cacicazgos mayas - es.svg
The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatán after The League of Mayapan in 1461.

1470s

1480s

The Siege of Rhodes (1480). Ships of the Hospitaliers in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background. SiegeOfRhodes1480.jpg
The Siege of Rhodes (1480). Ships of the Hospitaliers in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background.

1490–1500

Gergio Deluci, Christopher Columbus arrives in America in 1492, 1893 painting. Columbus Taking Possession.jpg
Gergio Deluci, Christopher Columbus arrives in America in 1492, 1893 painting.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emperor</span> Type of monarch

An emperor is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right and name. Emperors are generally recognized to be of the highest monarchic honor and rank, surpassing kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moctezuma I</span> Fifth Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan

Moctezuma I, also known as Moteuczomatzin Ilhuicamina, Huehuemoteuczoma or Montezuma I, was the second Aztec emperor and fifth king of Tenochtitlan. During his reign, the Aztec Empire was consolidated, major expansion was undertaken, and Tenochtitlan started becoming the dominant partner of the Aztec Triple Alliance. Often mistaken for his popular descendant, Moctezuma II, Moctezuma I greatly contributed to the famed Aztec Empire that thrived until Spanish arrival, and he ruled over a period of peace from 1440 to 1453. Moctezuma brought social, economical, and political reform to strengthen Aztec rule, and Tenochititlan benefited from relations with other cities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">16th century</span> Century

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 (MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (MDC).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">17th century</span> Century

The 17th century lasted from January 1, 1601 (MDCI), to December 31, 1700 (MDCC). It falls into the early modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">14th century</span> Century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from 1 January 1301 (MCCCI), to 31 December 1400 (MCD). It is estimated that the century witnessed the death of more than 45 million lives from political and natural disasters in both Europe and the Mongol Empire. West Africa experienced economic growth and prosperity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">13th century</span> Century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar.

Year 1402 (MCDII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1520</span> Calendar year

Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

The 1350s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1350, and ended on December 31, 1359.

The 1440s decade ran from January 1, 1440, to December 31, 1449.

The 1420s decade ran from January 1, 1420, to December 31, 1429.

The 1410s decade ran from January 1, 1410, to December 31, 1419.

The 1390s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1390, and ended on December 31, 1399.

The 1370s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1370, and ended on December 31, 1379.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1427</span> Calendar year

Year 1427 (MCDXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Tlatoani is the Classical Nahuatl term for the ruler of an āltepētl, a pre-Hispanic state. It is the noun form of the verb "tlahtoa" meaning "speak, command, rule." As a result, it has been variously translated in English as "king," "ruler," or "speaker" in the political sense. Above a tlahtoani is the Weyi Tlahtoani, sometimes translated as "Great Speaker," though more usually as "Emperor". A siwātlahtoāni is a female ruler, or queen regnant.

A puppet monarch is a majority figurehead who is installed or patronized by an imperial power to provide the appearance of local authority but to allow political and economic control to remain among the dominating nation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aztec Empire</span> Imperial alliance of city states located in central Mexico during the 15th and 16th centuries

The Aztec Empire or the Triple Alliance was an alliance of three Nahua city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan. These three city-states ruled that area in and around the Valley of Mexico from 1428 until the combined forces of the Spanish conquistadores and their native allies who ruled under Hernán Cortés defeated them in 1521.

The 1400s ran from January 1, 1400, to December 31, 1409.

References

  1. Crowley, Roger (2006). Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453. Faber. ISBN   0-571-22185-8. (reviewed by Foster, Charles (22 September 2006). "The Conquestof Constantinople and the end of empire". Contemporary Review. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. It is the end of the Middle Ages
  2. Encyclopædia Britannica, Renaissance, 2008, O.Ed.
  3. McLuhan 1962; Eisenstein 1980; Febvre & Martin 1997; Man 2002
  4. Harvey 2005, p. 14.
  5. Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN   978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  6. Winstedt, R. O. (1948). "The Malay Founder of Medieval Malacca". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies. 12 (3/4): 726–729. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00083312. JSTOR   608731.
  7. "An introduction to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644)". Khan Academy . Asian Art Museum . Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  8. Modern interpretation of the place names recorded by Chinese chronicles can be found e.g. in Some Southeast Asian Polities Mentioned in the MSL Archived 12 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine by Geoffrey Wade
  9. "Thousands in China are descendants of an ancient Filipino king. Here's how it happened". Filipiknow.
  10. "New Sulu King research book by Chinese author debuts in Philippines". Xinhuanet. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ricklefs (1991), page 18.
  12. Leinbach, Thomas R. (20 February 2019). "Religions". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  13. Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. p. 437.

Sources