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The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 (MCDI) to 1500 (MD). The term is often used to refer to the 1400s, the century between January 1, 1400 and December 31, 1499.
In Europe, the 15th century includes parts of the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. The architectural perspective, and the modern fields which are known today as banking and accounting were founded in Italy.
Constantinople, known as the Capital of the World and the Capital of the Byzantine Empire (today's Turkey), falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.This led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the printing press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance. The Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus) became dissolved through the Christian Reconquista, followed by the forced conversions and the Muslim rebellion, ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule and returning Spain, Portugal and Southern France back to Christian rulers.
The search for the wealth and prosperity of India's Bengal Sultanateled to the colonization of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the Portuguese voyages by Vasco da Gama, which linked Europe with the Indian subcontinent, ushering the period of Iberian empires.
The Hundred Years' War ended with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.
In Asia , the Timurid Empire collapsed, and the Afghan Pashtun Lodi dynasty is founded under the Delhi Sultanate. Under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle.
In Africa , the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire.
In the Americas , both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence, but the European colonization of the Americas changed the course of modern history.
See links above for Italian Renaissance painting and Renaissance sculpture.
List of 15th century inventions
The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 (MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (MDC). The term is often used to refer to the 1500s, the century between January 1, 1500 and December 31, 1599.
The 1490s decade ran from January 1, 1490, to December 31, 1499.
The 1520s decade ran from January 1, 1520, to December 31, 1529.
The 1460s decade ran from January 1, 1460, to December 31, 1469.
The 1470s decade ran from January 1, 1470, to December 31, 1479.
The 1480s decade ran from January 1, 1480, to December 31, 1489.
The 1450s decade ran from January 1, 1450, to December 31, 1459.
The 1510s decade ran from January 1, 1510, to December 31, 1519.
Year 1480 (MCDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
The 1440s decade ran from January 1, 1440, to December 31, 1449.
The 1410s decade ran from January 1, 1410, to December 31, 1419.
Year 1475 (MCDLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
The decade of the 1490s in art involved some significant events.
The decade of the 1470s in art involved some significant events.
The decade of the 1410s in art involved some significant events.
The decade of the 1440s in art involved some significant events.
Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature.
It is the end of the Middle Ages
Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.