1403

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1403 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1403
MCDIII
Ab urbe condita 2156
Armenian calendar 852
ԹՎ ՊԾԲ
Assyrian calendar 6153
Balinese saka calendar 1324–1325
Bengali calendar 810
Berber calendar 2353
English Regnal year 4  Hen. 4   5  Hen. 4
Buddhist calendar 1947
Burmese calendar 765
Byzantine calendar 6911–6912
Chinese calendar 壬午(Water  Horse)
4099 or 4039
     to 
癸未年 (Water  Goat)
4100 or 4040
Coptic calendar 1119–1120
Discordian calendar 2569
Ethiopian calendar 1395–1396
Hebrew calendar 5163–5164
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1459–1460
 - Shaka Samvat 1324–1325
 - Kali Yuga 4503–4504
Holocene calendar 11403
Igbo calendar 403–404
Iranian calendar 781–782
Islamic calendar 805–806
Japanese calendar Ōei 10
(応永10年)
Javanese calendar 1317–1318
Julian calendar 1403
MCDIII
Korean calendar 3736
Minguo calendar 509 before ROC
民前509年
Nanakshahi calendar −65
Thai solar calendar 1945–1946
Tibetan calendar 阳水马年
(male Water-Horse)
1529 or 1148 or 376
     to 
阴水羊年
(female Water-Goat)
1530 or 1149 or 377

Year 1403 ( MCDIII ) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013 and 2019 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

JanuaryDecember

The Treaty of Gallipoli, concluded in January or early February 1403, was a peace treaty between Süleyman Çelebi, ruler of the Ottoman territories in the Balkans, and the main Christian regional powers: the Byzantine Empire, the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Knights Hospitaller, and the Duchy of Naxos. Concluded in the aftermath of the Battle of Ankara, while Süleyman tried to strengthen his own position in the succession struggle with his brothers, the treaty brought major concessions to the Christian states, especially the Byzantines, who regained lost territories and achieved a position of nominal superiority over the Ottoman ruler. Its provisions were honoured by Süleyman as well as by Mehmed I, the victor of the Ottoman succession struggle, but collapsed after Mehmed's death in 1421.

Süleyman Çelebi Ottoman prince

Süleyman Çelebi was an Ottoman prince and a co-ruler of the empire for several years during the Ottoman Interregnum. The name Çelebi is an honorific title meaning gentleman; see pre-1934 Turkish naming conventions.

Byzantine Empire Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire, or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".

Date unknown

Jan Hus Czech linguist, religion writer, theologist, university educator and science writer

Jan Hus, sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss, was a Czech theologian, philosopher, master, dean, and rector of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation.

Kingdom of Bohemia Monarchy in Central Europe, predecessor of modern Czech Republic

The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom, was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Bohemian king was a prince-elector of the empire. The kings of Bohemia, besides Bohemia, also ruled the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia, and parts of Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bavaria.

China Country in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Births

January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 363 days remaining until the end of the year.

Basilios Bessarion byzantine priest and theologian

BasiliosBessarion, a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century. He was educated by Gemistus Pletho in Neoplatonic philosophy. Later, he became a Roman Catholic cardinal, and was twice considered for the papacy. He has been mistakenly known also as Johannes Bessarion or Giovanni Bessarione due to an erroneous interpretation of Gregory III Mammas.

Year 1472 (MCDLXXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Deaths

Related Research Articles

Year 1402 (MCDII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1421 (MCDXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1400 (MCD) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1408 (MCDVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1411 (MCDXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Henry Percy (Hotspur) 14th-century English noble

Sir Henry Percy KG, commonly known as Sir Harry Hotspur, or simply Hotspur, was a late-medieval English nobleman. He was a significant captain during the Anglo-Scottish wars. He later led successive rebellions against Henry IV of England and was slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 at the height of his career.

Battle of Shrewsbury battle

The Battle of Shrewsbury was a battle fought on 21 July 1403, waged between an army led by the Lancastrian King Henry IV and a rebel army led by Henry "Harry Hotspur" Percy from Northumberland. The battle, the first in which English archers fought each other on English soil, reaffirmed the effectiveness of the longbow and ended the Percy challenge to King Henry IV of England.

<i>Henry IV, Part 1</i> play by Shakespeare

Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1 depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403. From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.

The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerage of England and of Great Britain, succeeding the title Earl of Northumbria. Its most famous holders were the House of Percy, who were the most powerful noble family in Northern England for much of the Middle Ages. The heirs of the Percys, via a female line, were ultimately made Duke of Northumberland in 1766.

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 14th-century English noble

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, titular King of Mann, KG, Lord Marshal was the son of Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and a descendant of Henry III of England. His mother was Mary of Lancaster, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, son of Edmund, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, who was the son of Henry III.

Uí Maine was the name of a kingdom situated in south Connacht, consisting of all of County Galway east of Athenry, all of southern and central County Roscommon.

Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas Scottish Nobleman and General

Archibald Douglas, Duke of Touraine, Earl of Douglas, Earl of Wigtown, Lord of Annandale, Lord of Galloway, Lord of Bothwell, and 13th Lord of Douglas, was a Scottish nobleman and warlord. He is sometimes given the epithet "Tyneman", but this may be a reference to his great-uncle Sir Archibald Douglas.

Events from the 1400s in England.

The 1400s ran from January 1, 1400, to December 31, 1409.

Elizabeth Mortimer 14th-century English noble

Elizabeth Mortimer, Baroness Camoys was an English noblewoman, the granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and great-granddaughter of King Edward III. Her first husband was Sir Henry Percy, known to history as 'Hotspur'. She married secondly Thomas de Camoys, 1st Baron Camoys. She is represented as 'Kate, Lady Percy,' in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1, and briefly again as 'Widow Percy' in Henry IV, Part 2.

Timurid relations with Europe

Timurid relations with Europe developed in the early 15th century, as the Turco-Mongol ruler Timur (Tamerlane) and European monarchs attempted to operate a rapprochement against the expansionist Ottoman Empire. Although the Timurid Mongols had been Muslim since the early 14th century, a strong hostility remained between them and the Ottoman Turks as well as the Egyptian Mamluks.

Edmund Mortimer (rebel) 14th/15th-century English nobleman

Sir Edmund Mortimer IV was an English nobleman, landowner and rebel who played a part in the rebellions of the Welsh leader Owain Glyndŵr and of the Percy family against King Henry IV, at the beginning of the 15th century. He perished at the siege of Harlech as part of these conflicts. He was related to many members of the English royal family through his mother, Philippa, Countess of Ulster, who was a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Battlefield Heritage Park

Battlefield Heritage Park is a country park situated north of Shrewsbury in Shropshire, in the area known as Battlefield. It marks the supposed site of the 1403 Battle of Shrewsbury fought between King Henry IV and English rebel nobleman Henry Percy.

References

  1. Rogers, Clifford J., ed. (2010). "Modon, Battle of". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Oxford University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN   978-0-195334036.