1492

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1492 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1492
MCDXCII
Ab urbe condita 2245
Armenian calendar 941
ԹՎ ՋԽԱ
Assyrian calendar 6242
Balinese saka calendar 1413–1414
Bengali calendar 899
Berber calendar 2442
English Regnal year 7  Hen. 7   8  Hen. 7
Buddhist calendar 2036
Burmese calendar 854
Byzantine calendar 7000–7001
Chinese calendar 辛亥(Metal  Pig)
4188 or 4128
     to 
壬子年 (Water  Rat)
4189 or 4129
Coptic calendar 1208–1209
Discordian calendar 2658
Ethiopian calendar 1484–1485
Hebrew calendar 5252–5253
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1548–1549
 - Shaka Samvat 1413–1414
 - Kali Yuga 4592–4593
Holocene calendar 11492
Igbo calendar 492–493
Iranian calendar 870–871
Islamic calendar 897–898
Japanese calendar Entoku 4 / Meiō 1
(明応元年)
Javanese calendar 1409–1410
Julian calendar 1492
MCDXCII
Korean calendar 3825
Minguo calendar 420 before ROC
民前420年
Nanakshahi calendar 24
Thai solar calendar 2034–2035
Tibetan calendar 阴金猪年
(female Iron-Pig)
1618 or 1237 or 465
     to 
阳水鼠年
(male Water-Rat)
1619 or 1238 or 466

Year 1492 ( MCDXCII ) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Contents

1492 is considered to be a significant year in the history of the West, Europe, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Spain, and the New World, among others, because of the number of significant events to have taken place during it. Some of the events which propelled the year into Western consciousness, also listed below, include the completion of the Reconquista of Spain, Europe's re-discovery of the New World, and the expulsion of Jews from Spain.

Events

January 2 - Muhammad XII, last Moorish Emir of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella. La Rendicion de Granada - Pradilla.jpg
January 2 Muhammad XII, last Moorish Emir of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella.
October 12 - Columbus reaches the Americas for Spain. Columbus Taking Possession.jpg
October 12 Columbus reaches the Americas for Spain.

Known dates

Unknown dates

Births

Queen Marguerite de Navarre Marguerite d'Angouleme.jpg
Queen Marguerite de Navarre
Duchess Sabina of Bavaria Sabine of Bavaria-Munich.jpg
Duchess Sabina of Bavaria

Deaths

Lorenzo de' Medici Verrocchio Lorenzo de Medici.jpg
Lorenzo de' Medici
King Casimir IV Jagiellon Casimir IV Jagiellon.PNG
King Casimir IV Jagiellon
Pope Innocent VIII Innocent VIII 1492.JPG
Pope Innocent VIII
Saint Beatrice of Silva RostroBeatrizSilva.jpg
Saint Beatrice of Silva

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Catholic Monarchs of Spain Title for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon

The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, whose marriage and joint rule marked the de facto unification of Spain. They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile; on marriage they were given a papal dispensation to deal with consanguinity by Sixtus IV. They married on October 19, 1469, in the city of Valladolid; Isabella was eighteen years old and Ferdinand a year younger. It is generally accepted by most scholars that the unification of Spain can essentially be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. Spain was formed as a dynastic union of two crowns rather than a unitary state, as Castile and Aragon remained separate kingdoms until the Nueva Planta decrees of 1707–1716. The court of Ferdinand and Isabella was constantly on the move, in order to bolster local support for the crown from local feudal lords. The title of "Catholic King and Queen" was officially bestowed on Ferdinand and Isabella by Pope Alexander VI in 1494, in recognition of their defense of the Catholic faith within their realms.

Bartholomew Columbus Italian explorer

Bartholomew Columbus was an Italian explorer from Genoa and the younger brother of Christopher Columbus.

Nasrid dynasty Moorish dynasty

The Nasrid dynasty was the last Moorish Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Twenty-three emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1230 by Muhammad I until 2 January 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered all lands to Queen Isabella I of Castile. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrid dynasty is part of the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule.

Voyages of Christopher Columbus 1492-1502 voyages to the Americas; beginning of the Columbian exchange

In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Italian explorer Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, continents which were virtually unknown in Europe, Asia and Africa and were outside the Old World political and economic system. The four voyages of Columbus began the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Luis de Santángel Spanish finance minister

Luis de Santángel was a third generation converso in Spain during the late fifteenth century. Santángel worked as escribano de racion to King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I of Spain which left him in charge of the Royal finance. Santángel played an instrumental role in Christopher Columbus's voyage in 1492, for he managed to convince the Catholic monarchs to fund Columbus's expedition and provided a large sum of the money himself.

<i>Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando</i>

Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando or simply Tanto monta, monta tanto was the alleged motto of a prenuptial agreement made by the Spanish Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. During their joint reign they did in fact support each other effectively in accordance with their motto of equality. Still, the wording "Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando" is actually a popular saying invented many centuries later, not the real motto. Besides, and contrary to popular belief, Tanto monta was only the motto of King Ferdinand of Aragon, and never used by Isabella.

Ferdinand II of Aragon 15th and 16th-century King of Aragon, Sicily, Naples, and Valencia

Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. In 1469, he married Infanta Isabella, the future queen of Castile, which was regarded as the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy". As a consequence of the marriage, in 1474 he became de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V, when Isabella held the crown of Castile, until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and Isabella‘s last will and testament, and Ferdinand lost his monarchical status in Castile. Joanna's husband Philip became de jure uxoris King of Castile, but died in 1506, and Joanna ruled in her own right. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1506, as part of a treaty with a France, Ferdinand married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth. In 1508, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile, following Joanna's alleged mental illness, until his own death in 1516. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest.

Emirate of Granada Historic Iberian state

The Emirate of Granada, also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar. After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad Caliphate leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. The Nasrid emirs were responsible for building part of the Alhambra palace complex. By 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims. It roughly corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Almería, and Málaga. Andalusian Arabic was the mother tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity.

Isabella I of Castile 15th and 16th-century Castilian queen

Isabella I reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death. Her marriage to Ferdinand II in 1469 became the basis for the de facto unification of Spain. After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects, and for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World and to the establishment of Spain as a major power in Europe and much of the world for more than a century. Isabella, granted together with her husband the title "the Catholic" by Pope Alexander VI, was recognized as a Servant of God by Catholic Church in 1974.

<i>Dudum siquidem</i> papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI

Dudum siquidem is a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on 26 September 1493, one of the Bulls of Donation addressed to the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon which supplemented the bull Inter caetera and purported to grant to them "all islands and mainlands whatsoever, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, that are or may be or may seem to be in the route of navigation or travel towards the west or south, whether they be in western parts, or in the regions of the south and east and of India".

Christopher Columbuss journal literary work

Christopher Columbus's journal (Diario) is a diary and logbook written by Christopher Columbus about his first voyage. The journal covers events from 3 August 1492, when Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera, to 15 March 1493 and includes a prologue addressing the sovereigns. Several contemporary references confirm Columbus kept a journal of his voyage as a daily record of events and as evidence for the Catholic Monarchs. Upon his return to Spain in the spring of 1493, Columbus presented the journal to Isabella I of Castile. She had it copied, retained the original, and gave the copy to Columbus before his second voyage. The whereabouts of the original Spanish text have been unknown since 1504.

References

  1. "La conquista de Granada por los Reyes Católicos". National Geographic . November 16, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  2. Brekelmans, Christianus; Saebo, Magne; Sæbø, Magne; Haran, Menahem; Fishbane, Michael A.; Ska, Jean Louis; Machinist, Peter (1996). Hebrew Bible / Old Testament: The History of Its Interpretation: II: From the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 283. ISBN   9783525539828.
  3. "Turkey Virtual Jewish History Tour". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org.
  4. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 135–138. ISBN   0-7126-5616-2.
  5. Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 189–192. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  6. Fryde, E. B (July 1, 1984). "Humanism and Renaissance Historiography". A&C Black. p. 122. ISBN   9780826427502.