October 12

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October 12 is the 285th day of the year(286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 80 days remain until the end of the year.

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

Contents

Events

The year 539 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire, it was known as year 215 Ab urbe condita. The denomination 539 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Cyrus the Great King and founder of the Achaemenid Empire

Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Under his successors, the empire eventually stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World. The Nabonidus Chronicle notes the change in his title from simply "King of Anshan", a city, to "King of Persia". Assyriologist François Vallat wrote that "When Astyages marched against Cyrus, Cyrus is called 'King of Anshan', but when Cyrus crosses the Tigris on his way to Lydia, he is 'King of Persia'. The coup therefore took place between these two events."

Babylon Kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC

Babylon was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The name-giving capital city was built on the Euphrates river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Babylon was originally a small Akkadian town dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BCE.

Births

1008 Year

Year 1008 (MVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Emperor Go-Ichijō was the 68th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.

Year 1240 (MCCXL) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Deaths

The denomination 322 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Demosthenes ancient Athenian statesman and orator

Demosthenes was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits.

638 Year

Year 638 (DCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 638 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Holidays and observances

Beatification recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person

Beatification is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name. Beati is the plural form, referring to those who have undergone the process of beatification.

Louis Brisson French Roman Catholic Priest

Blessed Louis Brisson was a French Roman Catholic priest and the founder of both the Oblate Sisters of Saint Francis de Sales and the Oblates of Saint Francis de Sales. He founded the female branch alongside Saint Léonie Aviat and the male branch alongside the Servant of God Thérèse Chappuis. Brisson's founding of the orders stemmed from his desire to improve the working conditions of middle-class girls and to ensure their protection and the promotion of their faith.

Edith Cavell British nurse

Edith Louisa Cavell was a British nurse. She is celebrated for saving the lives of soldiers from both sides without discrimination and in helping some 200 Triple Entente soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium during the First World War, for which she was arrested. She was accused of treason, found guilty by a court-martial and sentenced to death. Despite international pressure for mercy, she was shot by a German firing squad. Her execution received worldwide condemnation and extensive press coverage.

Related Research Articles

August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 152 days remain until the end of the year.

August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 145 days remain until the end of the year.

December 8 is the 342nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 23 days remain until the end of the year.

December 9 is the 343rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 22 days remain until the end of the year.

July 10 is the 191st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 174 days remain until the end of the year.

June 21 is the 172nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 193 days remain until the end of the year.

November 22 is the 326th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 39 days remain until the end of the year.

November 5 is the 309th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 56 days remain until the end of the year.

November 7 is the 311th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 54 days remain until the end of the year.

November 8 is the 312th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 53 days remain until the end of the year.

November 3 is the 307th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 58 days remain until the end of the year.

October 1 is the 274th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 91 days remain until the end of the year.

October 10 is the 283rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 82 days remain until the end of the year.

October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 84 days remain until the end of the year.

October 18 is the 291st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 74 days remain until the end of the year.

October 16 is the 289th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 76 days remain until the end of the year.

September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 100 days remain until the end of the year. It is frequently the day of the autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and the day of the vernal equinox in the Southern Hemisphere.

September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 108 days remain until the end of the year.

September 13 is the 256th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 109 days remain until the end of the year.

September 25 is the 268th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 97 days remain until the end of the year.

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