638

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Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
638 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 638
DCXXXVIII
Ab urbe condita 1391
Armenian calendar 87
ԹՎ ՁԷ
Assyrian calendar 5388
Balinese saka calendar 559–560
Bengali calendar 45
Berber calendar 1588
Buddhist calendar 1182
Burmese calendar 0
Byzantine calendar 6146–6147
Chinese calendar 丁酉(Fire  Rooster)
3334 or 3274
     to 
戊戌年 (Earth  Dog)
3335 or 3275
Coptic calendar 354–355
Discordian calendar 1804
Ethiopian calendar 630–631
Hebrew calendar 4398–4399
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 694–695
 - Shaka Samvat 559–560
 - Kali Yuga 3738–3739
Holocene calendar 10638
Iranian calendar 16–17
Islamic calendar 16–17
Japanese calendar N/A
Javanese calendar 528–529
Julian calendar 638
DCXXXVIII
Korean calendar 2971
Minguo calendar 1274 before ROC
民前1274年
Nanakshahi calendar −830
Seleucid era 949/950 AG
Thai solar calendar 1180–1181
Tibetan calendar 阴火鸡年
(female Fire-Rooster)
764 or 383 or −389
     to 
阳土狗年
(male Earth-Dog)
765 or 384 or −388
The Muslim invasion of Anatolia and Armenia Mohammad adil rais-Invasion of Anatolia and Armenia.PNG
The Muslim invasion of Anatolia and Armenia

Year 638 ( DCXXXVIII ) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 638 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

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622 Calendar year

Year 622 (DCXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 622nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 622nd year of the 1st millennium, the 22nd year of the 7th century, and the 3rd year of the 620s decade. The denomination 622 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

The 620s decade ran from January 1, 620, to December 31, 629.

The 630s decade ran from January 1, 630, to December 31, 639.

640s Decade

The 640s decade ran from January 1, 640, to December 31, 649.

The 650s decade ran from January 1, 650, to December 31, 659.

634 Calendar year

Year 634 (DCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 634 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Year 636 (DCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 636 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

637 Calendar year

Year 637 (DCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 637 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

639 Calendar year

Year 639 (DCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 639 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Year 640 (DCXL) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 640 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

619 Calendar year

Year 619 (DCXIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 619 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Battle of the Yarmuk Battle of the Arab–Byzantine wars

The Battle of the Yarmuk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim forces of the Rashidun Caliphate. The battle consisted of a series of engagements that lasted for six days in August 636, near the Yarmouk River, along what are now the borders of Syria–Jordan and Syria–Israel, southeast of the Sea of Galilee. The result of the battle was a complete Muslim victory that ended Byzantine rule in Syria. The Battle of the Yarmuk is regarded as one of the most decisive battles in military history, and it marked the first great wave of early Muslim conquests after the death of Prophet Muhammad, heralding the rapid advance of Islam into the then-Christian Levant.

Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Companion of Muhammad and Military leader

Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ, was one of the Companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Mostly known for being one of the "Ten Promised Paradise". He remained commander of a large section of the Rashidun Army during the time of the Rashid Caliph Umar and was on the list of Umar's appointed successors to the Caliphate.

The Battle of Hazir or Ma'arakah al-Haadhir took place between the Byzantine army and the Rashidun army's elite cavalry, the Mobile guard. It took place in June 637, three miles east of Qinnasrin at Al-Hadher in present-day Syria.

Muslim conquest of the Levant Conquest in the 7th century

The Muslim conquest of the Levant, also known as the Arab conquest of the Levant, occurred in the first half of the 7th century. This was the conquest of the region known as the Levant or Shaam, later to become the Islamic Province of Bilad al-Sham, as part of the Islamic conquests. Arab Muslim forces had appeared on the southern borders even before the death of Muhammad in 632, resulting in the Battle of Mu'tah in 629, but the real conquest began in 634 under his successors, the Rashidun Caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar ibn Khattab, with Khalid ibn al-Walid as their most important military leader.

Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan was a leading Arab general at the time of the Islamic conquest of Syria, and the elder brother of Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan.

Siege of Damascus (634) Battle in the Middle East

The siege of Damascus (634) lasted from 21 August to 19 September 634 before the city fell to the Rashidun Caliphate. Damascus was the first major city of the Eastern Roman Empire to fall in the Muslim conquest of Syria.

Siege of Jerusalem (636–637) Muslim conquest of Jerusalem (c. 637)

The siege of Jerusalem (636–637) was part of the Muslim conquest of the Levant and the result of the military efforts of the Rashidun Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire in the year 636–637/38. It began when the Rashidun army, under the command of Abu Ubaidah, besieged Jerusalem beginning in November 636. After six months, the Patriarch Sophronius agreed to surrender, on condition that he submit only to the Caliph. According to tradition, in 637 or 638, Caliph Umar traveled to Jerusalem in person to receive the submission of the city. The Patriarch thus surrendered to him.

The siege of Germanicia or Marash was led by Muslim forces of the Rashidun Caliphate during their campaigns in Anatolia in 638. The city surrendered without much bloodshed. This expedition is important because it marks the end of the military career of the legendary Arab Muslim general Khalid ibn Walid, who was dismissed from the army a few months after his return from the expedition.

Dhiraar ibn al-Azwar also spelled as Dirar or Dhirar, was a warrior participating in the early Islamic conquests and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Dhiraar was widely known as a skilled warrior and horseman since before the time of Islam. Dhiraar was a successful military figure during the Rashidun conquest of Syria operating under the famous general Khalid ibn al-Walid, during which he was given the nickname The Naked Warrior or The Naked Champion for his tendency to fight without armor or upper garments. Dhiraar was a member of the elite Mubarizun unit of the Rashidun Army. Dhiraar accompanied Khalid in most, if not all, of his notable campaigns including the Ridda wars, Battle of Yarmouk and the Battle of Ajnadayn. Dhiraar is the brother of the renowned female warrior Khawla bint al-Azwar.

References

Sources

  • Nicolle, David (2009). The Great Islamic Conquests AD 632–750. p. 52. ISBN   978-1-84603-273-8.