Sivas

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Sivas

Sebastea
Sivas View.jpg
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Sivas
Coordinates: 39°45′N37°01′E / 39.750°N 37.017°E / 39.750; 37.017 Coordinates: 39°45′N37°01′E / 39.750°N 37.017°E / 39.750; 37.017
CountryTurkey
Province Sivas
Government
  MayorSami Aydın (AKP)
Area
[1]
  District2,768.18 km2 (1,068.80 sq mi)
Elevation
1,285 m (4,216 ft)
Population
(2012) [2]
   Urban
312,587
  District
346,629
  District density130/km2 (320/sq mi)
Website www.sivas.bel.tr

Sivas (Latin and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή; Armenian : Սեբաստիա) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province. According to a 2011 estimate, its urban population is 425,297.[ citation needed ]

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Armenian language Indo-European language

The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by Armenians. It is the official language of Armenia. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Contents

The city, which lies at an elevation of 1,278 metres (4,193 ft) in the broad valley of the Kızılırmak river, is a moderately-sized trade center and industrial city, although the economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Rail repair shops and a thriving manufacturing industry of rugs, bricks, cement, and cotton and woolen textiles form the mainstays of the city's economy. The surrounding region is a cereal-producing area with large deposits of iron ore which are worked at Divriği.

Agriculture Cultivation of plants and animals to provide useful products

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.

Divriği Town in Central Anatolia, Turkey

Divriği, historically known as Tephrike and formerly sometimes called Divrik, is a small town and a district of Sivas Province of Turkey. The town lies on gentle slope on the south bank of the Çaltısuyu river, a tributary of the Karasu river.

Sivas is also a communications hub for the north-south and east-west trade routes to Iraq and Iran, respectively. With the development of railways, the city gained new economic importance as junction of important rail lines linking the cities of Ankara, Kayseri, Samsun, and Erzurum. The city is linked by air to Istanbul. The popular name Sebastian derives from Sebastianòs, Σεβαστιανός, meaning someone from the city. [3] [4]

In telecommunication, a communications system or communication system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole. The components of a communications system serve a common purpose, are technically compatible, use common procedures, respond to controls, and operate in union.

Ankara Metropolitan municipality in Central Anatolia, Turkey

Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015), it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul, having outranked İzmir in the 20th century.

Kayseri Metropolitan municipality in Central Anatolia, Turkey

Kayseri is a large industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is the seat of Kayseri Province. The city of Kayseri, as defined by the boundaries of Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, is structurally composed of five metropolitan districts, the two core districts of Kocasinan and Melikgazi, and since 2004, also Hacılar, İncesu and Talas.

Name

The name of the city is a truncated form of its Byzantine Greek name Sivasteia from the Koine Greek name Sebasteia (Σεβαστεία), which derives from the Greek word σεβαστός ( sebastos ), "venerable", [5] σέβας (sebas), "awe, reverence, dread", [6] and the verb σέβομαι (sebomai), "feel awe, scruple". [7] Sebastos was the Greek translation of the title Augustus , which was used for Roman emperors.

Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries. It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties.

Sebastos was an honorific used by the ancient Greeks to render the Roman imperial title of Augustus. The female form of the title was sebastē (σεβαστή). From the late 11th century on, during the Komnenian period, it and variants derived from it, like sebastokrator, protosebastos, panhypersebastos, and sebastohypertatos, formed the basis of a new system of court titles for the Byzantine Empire.

History

Ancient and medieval

Former Sivas (1927) Sivas 1027.jpg
Former Sivas (1927)
Gok Medrese, built by the Seljuk Turks Gok Medresesi1.jpg
Gök Medrese, built by the Seljuk Turks

Excavations at a mound known as Topraktepe indicate Hittite settlement in the area as early as 2600 BC,[ citation needed ] though little is known of Sivas' history prior to its emergence in the Roman period. In 64 BC as part of his reorganization of Asia Minor after the Third Mithridatic War, Pompey the Great founded a city on the site called "Megalopolis". [8] Numismatic evidence suggests that Megalopolis changed its name in the last years of the 1st century BC to "Sebaste", which is the feminine form of the Greek name corresponding to Augustus. The name "Sivas" is the Turkish version deriving from the name Sebasteia, as the city was known during the late Roman (Byzantine) empire. Sebasteia became the capital of the province of Armenia Minor under the emperor Diocletian, was a town of some importance in the early history of the Christian Church; in the 4th century it was the home of Saint Blaise and Saint Peter of Sebaste, bishops of the town, and of Eustathius, one of the early founders of monasticism in Asia Minor. It was also the place of martyrdom of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, also 4th century. Justinian I had a fortified wall around it rebuilt in the 6th century.

Hittites ancient Anatolian people who established an empire

The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.

Roman Empire Period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–395 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. An Iron Age civilization, it had a government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome. The Roman Empire was then divided between a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople, and it was ruled by multiple emperors.

Sebasteia was the first important city to be plundered by Turkish tribes in 1059. [9] In August of that year the troops of various emirs gathered before the unwalled city. Initially they hesitated to sack it, mistaking that the domes of the several Christian churches were tents of military camps. As soon as they realized that the city was defenceless they burned it for eight days, slaughtered a large part of its population and took many prisoners. [10] The city came under the domain of Turkmen Danishmend dynasty (1071–1174) after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After the death of Danişmend Gazi, Sivas passed to Nizamettin Yağıbasan who won it after a struggle with Danişmend Gazi's successors. In 1174, the city was captured by Seljuk ruler Kilij Arslan II and periodically served as capital of the Seljuk empire along with Konya. Under Seljuk rule, Sivas was an important center of trade along the silk road and site of a citadel, along with mosques and madrasahs (Islamic educational institutions), four of which survive today and one of which houses the Sivas Museum. Then it passed to the Ilkhanids, Eretna and Kadı Burhanettin.

Battle of Manzikert battle between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks of 1071

The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on 26 August 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia. The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia, and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia. Many of the Turks, who had been, during the 11th century, travelling westward, saw the victory at Manzikert as an entrance to Asia Minor.

Yağıbasan was a bey of Danishmends in the 12th century.

Kilij Arslan II Sultan of Rum

Kilij Arslan II or ʿIzz ad-Dīn Qilij Arslān bin Masʿūd was a Seljuk Sultan of Rûm from 1156 until his death in 1192.

Pasa-Mosque at Ataturk-boulevard Pasa-mosque Sivas.jpg
Paşa-Mosque at Atatürk-boulevard

The city was acquired by Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I (1389–1402). In 1398, Tamerlane swept into the area and his forces destroyed the city in 1400, after which it was recaptured by the Ottomans in 1408. [11] Under the Ottomans, Sivas served as the administrative center of the province of Rum until about the late 19th century. The Armenian Apostolic Church maintained six Armenian churches in Sivas, being the Meryemana, Surp Sarkis, Surp Minas, Surp Prgitsh, Surp Hagop, Surp Kevork, four monasteries Surp Nschan, Surp Hreshdagabed, Surp Anabad, Surp Hntragadar, an Armenian Apostolic orphanage and several schools. The Armenian Catholic Church and the Latins also had one church and a metropolitan of Sebastea, as did the Greek Orthodox Church. [12] Two Protestant churches and eight, mostly German- and American-staffed, schools. During the genocide against Armenians as well as against Greek Christians from July 5, 1915 onwards, the Christian community of Sivas was exterminated by deportations and mass executions. [13]

The Sivas Congress (Heyet-i Temiliye) was held in this city 4–11 September 1919. [14] With the arrival of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–1938), the founder of the Turkish Republic, from Amasya, the Congress of Sivas is considered a turning point in the formation of the Turkish Republic. It was at this congress that Atatürk's position as chair of the executive committee of the national resistance was confirmed (see Turkish War of Independence ). Sivas was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 500 lira banknote of 1927-1939. [15]

On 2 July 1993, 37 participants in an Alevi cultural and literary festival were killed when a mob of demonstrators set fire to the Madimak hotel in Sivas during a violent protest by some 15,000 members of various radical Islamist groups against the presence of Aziz Nesin. The deaths resulted in the Turkish government taking a harder stance against religious fanaticism, militant Islam, and antisecularism. In late 2006, there was a campaign by the Pir Sultan Abdal Cultural Institute to convert the former hotel into a museum to commemorate the tragedy, now known as the Sivas massacre.

Climate

Sivas has a dry-summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsb), with warm and dry summers and cold and snowy winters. The driest months are July and August and the wettest are April and May.

Climate data for Sivas
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)14.6
(58.3)
17.5
(63.5)
25.0
(77.0)
29.0
(84.2)
32.0
(89.6)
35.2
(95.4)
40.0
(104.0)
39.4
(102.9)
34.6
(94.3)
30.3
(86.5)
22.8
(73.0)
19.4
(66.9)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F)0.8
(33.4)
2.4
(36.3)
8.2
(46.8)
15.2
(59.4)
20.0
(68.0)
24.0
(75.2)
27.9
(82.2)
28.4
(83.1)
24.6
(76.3)
18.4
(65.1)
10.5
(50.9)
3.8
(38.8)
15.4
(59.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.3
(26.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
3.0
(37.4)
9.1
(48.4)
13.6
(56.5)
17.2
(63.0)
20.2
(68.4)
20.1
(68.2)
16.2
(61.2)
10.9
(51.6)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.4
(31.3)
9.1
(48.4)
Average low °C (°F)−7.1
(19.2)
−6.3
(20.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
3.5
(38.3)
7.3
(45.1)
10.1
(50.2)
12.3
(54.1)
12.0
(53.6)
8.4
(47.1)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
−3.9
(25.0)
3.3
(37.9)
Record low °C (°F)−34.6
(−30.3)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−10.9
(12.4)
−2.0
(28.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
3.6
(38.5)
3.2
(37.8)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.8
(21.6)
−21.0
(−5.8)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−34.6
(−30.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)40.1
(1.58)
38.3
(1.51)
46.0
(1.81)
65.7
(2.59)
60.3
(2.37)
33.9
(1.33)
11.2
(0.44)
7.6
(0.30)
18.3
(0.72)
37.8
(1.49)
41.6
(1.64)
43.9
(1.73)
444.7
(17.51)
Average rainy days12.311.913.314.714.38.73.23.04.78.39.712.3116.4
Average snowy days99710000003736
Average relative humidity (%)77777264615753525462727665
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.595.2151.9186257.3318372359.6291198.412071.32,498.2
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [16]
Source #2: Climate and Temperature [17] Weather2 [18]

Economy

Historically, Sivas was known for producing cereal. As of 1913, Sivas produced 79,000 tons of cereal, making it a major, and successful, industry. [19] Sivas also had orchards, exporting produce to Constantinople. [20] Alfalfa and copper was also produced in the area. [21] [22] Sericulture was seen in Sivas before 1914. [23]

Sights

Leaning minaret, Ulu Camii (Grand Mosque) Ulu-Camii-Mosque-Sivas.jpg
Leaning minaret, Ulu Camii (Grand Mosque)

A cultural hub as well as an industrial one, Sivas contains many examples of 13th-century Seljuk architecture. The Mavi Medrese from 1271, the Şifaiye Medresesi from 1218 and the Çifte Minare Medresesi from 1271, with its intricately carved façade and minarets, are among the most noteworthy monuments. The city is also famous for its Medreses (Islamic seminaries). Gök Medresesi (the Celestial Madrasa; depicted on the obverse of the Turkish 500 lira banknote of 1927-1939 [15] ) and Mavi Medrese, Sifaiye Medresesi, on the other hand, was completed earlier, on the eve of the second wave of Turkic immigration to Anatolia, in 1218 and with its intricately carved façade and minarets are among the most noteworthy edifices carries on the traditional Seljuk Medrese plan.

The city also contains some fine examples of the Ottoman architectural style. Kurşunlu Hamamı (Leaden Bath) which was completed in 1576, is the largest Turkish bath in the city and it contains many details from the classical Ottoman bath building. Behrampaşa Hanı (Caravansaray), was completed in 1573 and it is famous for the lion motifs around its windows.

Atatürk Congress and Ethnography Museum (Atatürk Kongre ve Etnografya Müzesi) is a museum with two sections. One is a dedicated to the Ottoman heritage of Sivas. The other is to the Sivas Congress, one of the pivotal moments in the Turkish national movement.

Street leading up to Hukumet Meydani Sivas Sokak.jpg
Street leading up to Hükümet Meydanı

The modern heart of the city is Hükümet Square (Hükümet Meydanı, also called Konak Meydanı) located just next to the Governor's mansion. This area is also home to many of the city's high end hotels and restaurants. The city's shoppers usually head to Atatürk Avenue.

Sivas is also famous for its thermal springs which have a respectable percentage in the city's income. People believe that the water of these thermal springs can cure many illnesses. The most famous thermal areas are, Sıcak Çermik, Soğuk Çermik and Kangal Balıklı Kaplıca.

Sports

Sivas 4 Eylul Stadium Panoramio - V&A Dudush - Stadion.jpg
Sivas 4 Eylül Stadium

Football is the most popular sport: in the older districts above the city center children often kick balls around in the evenings in the smallest streets. The city's football club is Sivasspor, which plays its games at the Sivas 4 Eylül Stadium. The club played in Süper Lig between 2005 and 2016.

Museums

Main Square of Sivas and Mayor's Mansion Sivas Hukumet Konagi.jpg
Main Square of Sivas and Mayor's Mansion

Madrasahs

Cuisine

Specialties of Sivas are tarhana (a soup made using sour yogurt), kelecos (a sour potato soup made with yoghurt) and katmer, a kind of flatbread. One distinct feature of Sivas cooking is the use of madimak, which is a local herb used similarly to spinach. Sivas kebabı is a variety of kebab originating from Sivas.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Sivas is twinned with: [25]

See also

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