1991

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1991 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1991
MCMXCI
Ab urbe condita 2744
Armenian calendar 1440
ԹՎ ՌՆԽ
Assyrian calendar 6741
Bahá'í calendar 147–148
Balinese saka calendar 1912–1913
Bengali calendar 1398
Berber calendar 2941
British Regnal year 39  Eliz. 2   40  Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar 2535
Burmese calendar 1353
Byzantine calendar 7499–7500
Chinese calendar 庚午(Metal  Horse)
4687 or 4627
     to 
辛未年 (Metal  Goat)
4688 or 4628
Coptic calendar 1707–1708
Discordian calendar 3157
Ethiopian calendar 1983–1984
Hebrew calendar 5751–5752
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2047–2048
 - Shaka Samvat 1912–1913
 - Kali Yuga 5091–5092
Holocene calendar 11991
Igbo calendar 991–992
Iranian calendar 1369–1370
Islamic calendar 1411–1412
Japanese calendar Heisei 3
(平成3年)
Javanese calendar 1923–1924
Juche calendar 80
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4324
Minguo calendar ROC 80
民國80年
Nanakshahi calendar 523
Thai solar calendar 2534
Tibetan calendar 阳金马年
(male Iron-Horse)
2117 or 1736 or 964
     to 
阴金羊年
(female Iron-Goat)
2118 or 1737 or 965
Unix time 662688000 – 694223999

1991 ( MCMXCI ) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar , the 1991st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 991st year of the 2nd millennium , the 91st year of the 20th century , and the 2nd year of the 1990s decade.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

Contents

It was the final year of the Cold War that had begun in 1947. During the year, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics fell, leaving fifteen sovereign republics in its place. India also abandoned its policies of socialism and autarky and began extensive neoliberal changes to its economy in July 1991 which would increase the GDP but also economic inequality over the next two decades. [1] A U.N.-authorized coalition force from thirty-four nations fought against Iraq, which had invaded and annexed Kuwait in the previous year, 1990. The conflict would be called the Gulf War and would mark the beginning of a since-constant American military presence in the Middle East. The clash between Serbia and the other Yugoslav republics would lead into the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars, which ran through the rest of the decade.

Cold War Geopolitical tension after World War II between the Eastern and Western Bloc

The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, and the United States with its allies after World War II. The historiography of the conflict began between 1946 and 1947. The Cold War began to de-escalate after the Revolutions of 1989. The collapse of the USSR in 1991 was the end of the Cold War. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences.

1947 Year

1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1947th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 947th year of the 2nd millennium, the 47th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1940s decade.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a Marxist-Leninist sovereign state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

The Japanese asset price bubble burst this year, leading to the Lost Years and a permanently stagnated (though still prosperous) Japanese economy. [2]

Japanese asset price bubble economic bubble in Japan from 1986 to 1991 in which real estate and stock market prices were greatly inflated, collapsing in early 1992

The Japanese asset price bubble was an economic bubble in Japan from 1986 to 1991 in which real estate and stock market prices were greatly inflated. In early 1992, this price bubble burst and Japan's economy stagnated. The bubble was characterized by rapid acceleration of asset prices and overheated economic activity, as well as an uncontrolled money supply and credit expansion. More specifically, over-confidence and speculation regarding asset and stock prices were closely associated with excessive monetary easing policy at the time.

Lost Decade (Japan) period of economic stagnation in Japan following the Japanese asset price bubbles collapse

The Lost Decade or the Lost 10 Years was a period of economic stagnation in Japan following the Japanese asset price bubble's collapse in late 1991 and early 1992. The term originally referred to the years from 1991 to 2000, but recently the decade from 2001 to 2010 is often included so that the whole period is referred to as the Lost Score or the Lost 20 Years. Broadly impacting the entire Japanese economy, over the period of 1995 to 2007, GDP fell from $5.33 trillion to $4.36 trillion in nominal terms, real wages fell around 5%, while the country experienced a stagnant price level. While there is some debate on the extent and measurement of Japan's setbacks, the economic effect of the Lost Decade is well established and Japanese policymakers continue to grapple with its consequences.

Events

January

January 1 is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year. This day is known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year. It is also the first day of the first quarter of the year and the first half of the year.

Czechoslovakia 1918–1992 country in Central Europe, predecessor of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

Stalking is unwanted and/or repeated surveillance by an individual or group toward another person. Stalking behaviors are interrelated to harassment and intimidation and may include following the victim in person or monitoring them. The term stalking is used with some differing definitions in psychiatry and psychology, as well as in some legal jurisdictions as a term for a criminal offense.

February

March

April

May

June

Mount Pinatubo Pinatubo91eruption clark air base.jpg
Mount Pinatubo

July

August

The Warsaw radio mast after its collapse on August 8. Oblomki rukhnuvshei Varshavskoi radiomachty.jpg
The Warsaw radio mast after its collapse on August 8.
August 19: The coup attempt in Moscow. 1991 coup attempt1.jpg
August 19: The coup attempt in Moscow.

September

Map of the three Baltic states, in their flag colours. Baltic states flag map.svg
Map of the three Baltic states, in their flag colours.

October

November

Symbol of Vukovar; Croatian War of Independence Vukovar-watertower-after-war.jpg
Symbol of Vukovar; Croatian War of Independence

December

December 8: The signing of the agreement ending the USSR's existence and the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States. RIAN archive 848095 Signing the Agreement to eliminate the USSR and establish the Commonwealth of Independent States.jpg
December 8: The signing of the agreement ending the USSR's existence and the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
December 25: The original flag of Russia is readopted as the flag of the Russian Federation. Flag of Russia.svg
December 25: The original flag of Russia is readopted as the flag of the Russian Federation.

Date unknown

Births

Births
January  · February  · March  · April  · May  · June  · July  · August  · September  · October  · November  · December

January

Pixie Lott Pixie Lott 2014 (cropped).jpg
Pixie Lott
Erin Sanders Erin Sanders Profile Photo 2016.jpg
Erin Sanders

February

Emma Roberts Emma Robert 2016 Comic Con.jpg
Emma Roberts
Ed Sheeran Ed Sheeran 2013.jpg
Ed Sheeran
Malese Jow Malese Jow at WonderCon 2014.jpg
Malese Jow

March

Devon Werkheiser Devon Werkheiser 2019.png
Devon Werkheiser
Luan Santana Luan Santana Citibank Hall (41171200671).jpg
Luan Santana
Antoine Griezmann FRA-ARG (10).jpg
Antoine Griezmann

April

AJ Michalka AJ Michalka by Gage Skidmore.jpg
AJ Michalka
Thiago Alcantara Thiago Training 2017-03 FC Bayern Muenchen-2.jpg
Thiago Alcântara

May

Lena Meyer-Landrut MJK31621 Lena Meyer-Landrut (T2 Trainspotting, Berlinale 2017).jpg
Lena Meyer-Landrut
Alexandre Lacazette 1 Alexandre Lacazette 2018 (cropped).jpg
Alexandre Lacazette

June

Natasha Dupeyron Natasha dupeyron 2009.jpg
Natasha Dupeyrón
Willa Holland Willa Holland 2017.jpg
Willa Holland
Christa Theret Christa Theret Cabourg 2016.jpg
Christa Theret

July

Jason Dolley Jason Dolley 2010.jpg
Jason Dolley
Mitchel Musso Mitchel Musso 2, Walmart Soundcheck 2011.jpg
Mitchel Musso
James Rodriguez James Training 2018-01-28 FC Bayern Muenchen-4 (cropped).jpg
James Rodríguez
Seppe Smits Seppe Smits.jpg
Seppe Smits
Alexandra Shipp Alexandra Shipp by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg
Alexandra Shipp
Sara Sampaio Web Summit 2017 - Centre Stage Day 3 SAM 7762 (38233160166) (cropped).jpg
Sara Sampaio

August

Lakeith Stanfield Keith Stanfield by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Lakeith Stanfield
Young Thug Young Thug 2018.jpg
Young Thug
Dylan O'Brien Dylan O'Brien by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg
Dylan O'Brien

September

Jennifer Veal Jennifer Veal by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Jennifer Veal
Mena Massoud Run This Town cast - Mena Massoud (33463322988).jpg
Mena Massoud

October

Roshon Fegan Roshon Fegan 2011.jpg
Roshon Fegan
Tyler Posey Tyler Posey by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Tyler Posey
Princess Mako of Akishino Princess Mako and Princess Kako at the Tokyo Imperial Palace (cropped).jpg
Princess Mako of Akishino

November

Jiang Yuyuan Jiang Yuyuan.jpg
Jiang Yuyuan
Shailene Woodley Shailene Woodley 2018 (cropped).jpg
Shailene Woodley
Christian Cueva Peru tren (4).jpg
Christian Cueva

December

Jillian Rose Reed Jillian Rose Reed February 2015.jpg
Jillian Rose Reed

Deaths

Deaths
January  · February  · March  · April  · May  · June  · July  · August  · September  · October  · November  · December

January

Steve Clark Steve Clark.jpeg
Steve Clark
Carl David Anderson Carl David Anderson.jpg
Carl David Anderson
Olav V of Norway Olav V of Norway.jpg
Olav V of Norway

February

Salvador Luria Salvador E. Luria ca.1969.jpg
Salvador Luria
Danny Thomas Danny Thomas 1957.JPG
Danny Thomas
Margot Fonteyn Margot Fonteyn - 1960s.jpg
Margot Fonteyn
John Charles Daly John Daly 1952 It's News to Me.JPG
John Charles Daly

March

Serge Gainsbourg Serge Gainsbourg par Claude Truong-Ngoc 1981.jpg
Serge Gainsbourg
Ragnar Granit Ragnar Granit.jpg
Ragnar Granit
John Kerr John Kerr 1965.jpg
John Kerr

April

Forrest Towns Churchman cigarette card of Forrest Towns.jpg
Forrest Towns
David Lean DavidLean1965.jpg
David Lean
Steve Marriott Steve Marriott (Humble Pie).jpg
Steve Marriott
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal Berlin, VIII.jpg
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal

May

Mohammed Abdel Wahab Abdel wahab.jpg
Mohammed Abdel Wahab
Shintaro Abe Shintaro Abe cropped.jpg
Shintaro Abe
Rajiv Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi at 7 Race course road 1988 (cropped).jpg
Rajiv Gandhi
Coral Browne Coral Browne (1989 Academy Awards).jpg
Coral Browne

June

Bertice Reading Bertice Reading Allan Warren.jpg
Bertice Reading
Happy Chandler Happy Chandler - Harris and Ewing Crop.jpg
Happy Chandler
Jean Arthur Jean Arthur - Smith.JPG
Jean Arthur
Henri Lefebvre Henri Lefebvre 1971.jpg
Henri Lefebvre

July

Michael Landon Michael Landon 1990.jpg
Michael Landon
Lee Remick Lee Ann Remick, London, 1974.jpg
Lee Remick
Maria Antinea Maria Antinea.jpg
María Antinea

August

Ali Sabri Ali Sabri 1966.jpg
Ali Sabri
Mildred Trotter Mildred Trotter (1899-1991).jpg
Mildred Trotter
James Irwin Jim Irwin Apollo 15 LMP.jpg
James Irwin

September

Alfonso Garcia Robles Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpg
Alfonso García Robles
Frank Capra Frank Capra.JPG
Frank Capra
Dr. Seuss Ted Geisel NYWTS 2 crop.jpg
Dr. Seuss
Miles Davis Miles Davis by Palumbo.jpg
Miles Davis

October

Redd Foxx Redd Foxx 1966.JPG
Redd Foxx
Gene Roddenberry Gene Roddenberry crop.jpg
Gene Roddenberry
Mario Scelba Mario Scelba Official.jpeg
Mario Scelba

November

Gene Tierney Studio publicity Gene Tierney.jpg
Gene Tierney
Gustav Husak Gustav Husak - oriznuto.JPG
Gustáv Husák
Freddie Mercury Freddie Mercury performing in New Haven, CT, November 1977.jpg
Freddie Mercury

December

Richard Speck Richard Speck cropped.jpg
Richard Speck
Franco Maria Malfatti Franco Maria Malfatti.jpg
Franco Maria Malfatti

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

Related Research Articles

1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1993rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 993rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1990s decade.

1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1951st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 951st year of the 2nd millennium, the 51st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1950s decade.

1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1980th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 980th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1980s decade.

1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1995th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 995th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1990s decade. This was the first year that the Internet was entirely privatized, with the United States government no longer providing public funding. America Online and Prodigy offered access to the World Wide Web system for the first time this year, releasing browsers that made it easily accessible to the general public.

1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1992nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 992nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1990s decade.

1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1988th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 988th year of the 2nd millennium, the 88th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1980s decade.

1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1972nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 972nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 72nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1970s decade.

1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1966th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 966th year of the 2nd millennium, the 66th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1960s decade.

1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1970th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 970th year of the 2nd millennium, the 70th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1970s decade.

1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1965th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 965th year of the 2nd millennium, the 65th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1960s decade.

1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1983rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 983rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 83rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1980s decade.

1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1982nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 982nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1980s decade.

1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1987th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 987th year of the 2nd millennium, the 87th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1980s decade.

1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1986th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 986th year of the 2nd millennium, the 86th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1980s decade. The year 1986 was designated as the International Year of Peace by the United Nations.

1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1981st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 981st year of the 2nd millennium, the 81st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1980s decade.

1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1985th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 985th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1980s decade. The year 1985 was designated as the International Youth Year by the United Nations.

1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1989th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 989th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1980s decade.

1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1953rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 953rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 53rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1950s decade.

2014 (MMXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium, the 14th year of the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

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