1991

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Clockwise, from top left: A destroyed Serbian T-55 tank during the Croatian War of Independence, the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars; the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the second-most powerful eruption of the 20th century; Lauda Air Flight 004 crashes, killing all 223 on board; Boris Yeltsin waves the new Russian flag after the 1991 Soviet coup d'etat attempt; the United States and soon-to-be dissolved Soviet Union sign the START I treaty; a flooded village in Bangladesh after a cyclone killed 138,866 people; the MV Moby Prince, which collides with an oil tanker in Italy, causing a disastrous fire and 140 deaths; USAF aircraft fly over burned-out Kuwait i oil fields towards the end of the Gulf War. 1991 Events Collage 3.0.jpg
Clockwise, from top left: A destroyed Serbian T-55 tank during the Croatian War of Independence, the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars; the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the second-most powerful eruption of the 20th century; Lauda Air Flight 004 crashes, killing all 223 on board; Boris Yeltsin waves the new Russian flag after the 1991 Soviet coup d'etat attempt; the United States and soon-to-be dissolved Soviet Union sign the START I treaty; a flooded village in Bangladesh after a cyclone killed 138,866 people; the MV Moby Prince, which collides with an oil tanker in Italy, causing a disastrous fire and 140 deaths; USAF aircraft fly over burned-out Kuwait i oil fields towards the end of the Gulf War.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1991 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1991
MCMXCI
Ab urbe condita 2744
Armenian calendar 1440
ԹՎ ՌՆԽ
Assyrian calendar 6741
Baháʼí calendar 147–148
Balinese saka calendar 1912–1913
Bengali calendar 1398
Berber calendar 2941
British Regnal year 39  Eliz. 2   40  Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar 2535
Burmese calendar 1353
Byzantine calendar 7499–7500
Chinese calendar 庚午年 (Metal  Horse)
4688 or 4481
     to 
辛未年 (Metal  Goat)
4689 or 4482
Coptic calendar 1707–1708
Discordian calendar 3157
Ethiopian calendar 1983–1984
Hebrew calendar 5751–5752
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2047–2048
 - Shaka Samvat 1912–1913
 - Kali Yuga 5091–5092
Holocene calendar 11991
Igbo calendar 991–992
Iranian calendar 1369–1370
Islamic calendar 1411–1412
Japanese calendar Heisei 3
(平成3年)
Javanese calendar 1923–1924
Juche calendar 80
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4324
Minguo calendar ROC 80
民國80年
Nanakshahi calendar 523
Thai solar calendar 2534
Tibetan calendar 阳金马年
(male Iron-Horse)
2117 or 1736 or 964
     to 
阴金羊年
(female Iron-Goat)
2118 or 1737 or 965
Unix time 662688000 – 694223999

1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1991st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 991st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1990s decade.

Contents

It was the final year of the Cold War, which had begun in 1947. During the year, the Soviet Union collapsed, leaving fifteen sovereign republics and the CIS in its place. In July 1991, India abandoned its policies of dirigism, license raj and autarky and began extensive liberalisation to its economy. This increased GDP but also increased income inequality over the next two decades. [1] A UN-authorized coalition force from 34 nations fought against Iraq, which had invaded and annexed Kuwait in the previous year, 1990. The conflict would be called the Gulf War and would mark the beginning of a since-constant American military presence in the Middle East. The clash between Serbia and the other Yugoslav republics would lead into the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars, which ran through the rest of the decade.

In the context of the apartheid, the year after the liberation of political prisoner Nelson Mandela, the Parliament of South Africa repeals the Population Registration Act, 1950, overturning the racial classification of the population, a key component of apartheid. [2]

The year 1991 saw the rise of a ten-year-long boost of the US domestic economy with the Dow Jones Industrial Average remarkably closing in April at above 3,000 for the first time. [3] This situation would only be cut short by the Dot-com bubble of 2000–2002.

In August, the World Wide Web, originally conceived during the previous year, was released outside CERN to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and publicly announced in August, also establishing the first website ever, "info.cern.ch". This step was a key factor that lead to the mid-1990s public breakthrough of the internet, which would eventually accelerate the already ongoing globalization around the globe.

In terms of popular culture, during this year alternative rock saw a new height of popularity when some of the earliest music exponents of the virtually unknown grunge sound were released, including the influential Nevermind album by Seattle-based band Nirvana in September 1991. [4] It was also in 1991 that hip-hop music reached an unprecedented mainstream level of success. [5] Electronic music derivative forms were also starting to gain momentum and would define, alone with the previous scenes, the sound for most of the decade.

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

Mount Pinatubo Pinatubo91eruption clark air base.jpg
Mount Pinatubo

July

August

The Warsaw radio mast after its collapse on August 8. Oblomki rukhnuvshei Varshavskoi radiomachty.jpg
The Warsaw radio mast after its collapse on August 8.
August 19: The coup attempt in Moscow. 1991 coup attempt1.jpg
August 19: The coup attempt in Moscow.
Restored flag of Russia. Flag of Russia.svg
Restored flag of Russia.

September

Map of the three Baltic states, in their flag colours. Baltic states flag map.svg
Map of the three Baltic states, in their flag colours.

October

November

Symbol of Vukovar; Croatian War of Independence Vukovar-watertower-after-war.jpg
Symbol of Vukovar; Croatian War of Independence

December

December 8: The signing of the agreement effectively ending the Soviet regime's existence and the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States. RIAN archive 848095 Signing the Agreement to eliminate the USSR and establish the Commonwealth of Independent States.jpg
December 8: The signing of the agreement effectively ending the Soviet regime's existence and the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Births and deaths

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

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