Python (programming language)

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Python
Python-logo-notext.svg
Paradigm Multi-paradigm: object-oriented, [1] procedural (imperative), functional, structured, reflective
Designed by Guido van Rossum
Developer Python Software Foundation
First appeared20 February 1991;30 years ago (1991-02-20) [2]
Stable release
3.10.2 [3]   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg / 14 January 2022;6 days ago (14 January 2022)
Preview release
3.11.0a4 [3]   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg / 14 January 2022;6 days ago (14 January 2022)
Typing discipline Duck, dynamic, strong typing; [4] gradual (since 3.5, but ignored in CPython) [5]
OS Windows, Linux/UNIX, macOS and more [6]
License Python Software Foundation License
Filename extensions .py, .pyi, .pyc, .pyd, .pyo (prior to 3.5), [7] .pyw, .pyz (since 3.5) [8]
Website www.python.org
Major implementations
CPython, PyPy, Stackless Python, MicroPython, CircuitPython, IronPython, Jython
Dialects
Cython, RPython, Starlark [9]
Influenced by
ABC, [10] Ada, [11] ALGOL 68, [12] APL, [13] C, [14] C++, [15] CLU, [16] Dylan, [17] Haskell, [18] Icon, [19] Java, [20] Lisp, [21] Modula-3, [15] Perl, Standard ML [13]
Influenced
Apache Groovy, Boo, Cobra, CoffeeScript, [22] D, F#, Genie, [23] Go, JavaScript, [24] [25] Julia, [26] Nim, Ring, [27] Ruby, [28] Swift [29]

Python is an interpreted high-level general-purpose programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its use of significant indentation. Its language constructs as well as its object-oriented approach aim to help programmers write clear, logical code for small and large-scale projects. [30]

Contents

Python is dynamically-typed and garbage-collected. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including structured (particularly, procedural), object-oriented and functional programming. It is often described as a "batteries included" language due to its comprehensive standard library. [31] [32]

Guido van Rossum began working on Python in the late 1980s, as a successor to the ABC programming language, and first released it in 1991 as Python 0.9.0. [33] Python 2.0 was released in 2000 and introduced new features, such as list comprehensions and a cycle-detecting garbage collection system (in addition to reference counting). Python 3.0 was released in 2008 and was a major revision of the language that is not completely backward-compatible. Python 2 was discontinued with version 2.7.18 in 2020. [34]

Python consistently ranks as one of the most popular programming languages. [35] [36] [37] [38]

History

The designer of Python, Guido van Rossum, at OSCON 2006 Guido van Rossum OSCON 2006 cropped.png
The designer of Python, Guido van Rossum, at OSCON 2006

Python was conceived in the late 1980s [39] by Guido van Rossum at Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in the Netherlands as a successor to the ABC programming language, which was inspired by SETL, [40] capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system. [10] Its implementation began in December 1989. [41] Van Rossum shouldered sole responsibility for the project, as the lead developer, until 12 July 2018, when he announced his "permanent vacation" from his responsibilities as Python's "benevolent dictator for life", a title the Python community bestowed upon him to reflect his long-term commitment as the project's chief decision-maker. [42] In January 2019, active Python core developers elected a five-member "Steering Council" to lead the project. [43] [44]

Python 2.0 was released on 16 October 2000, with many major new features, including a cycle-detecting garbage collector (in addition to reference counting) for memory management and support for Unicode. [45]

Python 3.0 was released on 3 December 2008. It was a major revision of the language that is not completely backward-compatible. [46] Many of its major features were backported to Python 2.6.x [47] and 2.7.x version series. Releases of Python 3 include the 2to3 utility, which automates the translation of Python 2 code to Python 3. [48]

Python 2.7's end-of-life date was initially set at 2015 then postponed to 2020 out of concern that a large body of existing code could not easily be forward-ported to Python 3. [49] [50] No more security patches or other improvements will be released for it. [51] [52] With Python 2's end-of-life, only Python 3.6.x [53] and later are supported.

Python 3.9.2 and 3.8.8 were expedited [54] as all versions of Python (including 2.7 [55] ) had security issues, leading to possible remote code execution [56] and web cache poisoning. [57]

Design philosophy and features

Python is a multi-paradigm programming language. Object-oriented programming and structured programming are fully supported, and many of its features support functional programming and aspect-oriented programming (including by metaprogramming [58] and metaobjects (magic methods)). [59] Many other paradigms are supported via extensions, including design by contract [60] [61] and logic programming. [62]

Python uses dynamic typing and a combination of reference counting and a cycle-detecting garbage collector for memory management. [63] It also features dynamic name resolution (late binding), which binds method and variable names during program execution.

Python's design offers some support for functional programming in the Lisp tradition. It has filter,mapandreduce functions; list comprehensions, dictionaries, sets, and generator expressions. [64] The standard library has two modules (itertools and functools) that implement functional tools borrowed from Haskell and Standard ML. [65]

The language's core philosophy is summarized in the document The Zen of Python (PEP 20), which includes aphorisms such as: [66]

Rather than having all of its functionality built into its core, Python was designed to be highly extensible (with modules). This compact modularity has made it particularly popular as a means of adding programmable interfaces to existing applications. Van Rossum's vision of a small core language with a large standard library and easily extensible interpreter stemmed from his frustrations with ABC, which espoused the opposite approach. [39]

Python strives for a simpler, less-cluttered syntax and grammar while giving developers a choice in their coding methodology. In contrast to Perl's "there is more than one way to do it" motto, Python embraces a "there should be one— and preferably only one —obvious way to do it" design philosophy. [66] Alex Martelli, a Fellow at the Python Software Foundation and Python book author, writes that "To describe something as 'clever' is not considered a compliment in the Python culture." [67]

Python's developers strive to avoid premature optimization, and reject patches to non-critical parts of the CPython reference implementation that would offer marginal increases in speed at the cost of clarity. [68] When speed is important, a Python programmer can move time-critical functions to extension modules written in languages such as C, or use PyPy, a just-in-time compiler. Cython is also available, which translates a Python script into C and makes direct C-level API calls into the Python interpreter.

Python's developers aim for the language to be fun to use. This is reflected in its name—a tribute to the British comedy group Monty Python [69] —and in occasionally playful approaches to tutorials and reference materials, such as examples that refer to spam and eggs (a reference to a Monty Python sketch) instead of the standard foo and bar. [70] [71]

A common neologism in the Python community is pythonic, which can have a wide range of meanings related to program style. To say that code is pythonic is to say that it uses Python idioms well, that it is natural or shows fluency in the language, that it conforms with Python's minimalist philosophy and emphasis on readability. In contrast, code that is difficult to understand or reads like a rough transcription from another programming language is called unpythonic. [72] [73]

Users and admirers of Python, especially those considered knowledgeable or experienced, are often referred to as Pythonistas. [74] [75]

Syntax and semantics

Python is meant to be an easily readable language. Its formatting is visually uncluttered, and it often uses English keywords where other languages use punctuation. Unlike many other languages, it does not use curly brackets to delimit blocks, and semicolons after statements are allowed but are rarely, if ever, used. It has fewer syntactic exceptions and special cases than C or Pascal. [76]

Indentation

Python uses whitespace indentation, rather than curly brackets or keywords, to delimit blocks. An increase in indentation comes after certain statements; a decrease in indentation signifies the end of the current block. [77] Thus, the program's visual structure accurately represents the program's semantic structure. [78] This feature is sometimes termed the off-side rule, which some other languages share, but in most languages indentation does not have any semantic meaning. The recommended indent size is four spaces. [79]

Statements and control flow

Python's statements include (among others):

The assignment statement (=) operates by binding a name as a reference to a separate, dynamically-allocated object. Variables may subsequently be rebound at any time to any object. In Python, a variable name is a generic reference holder and does not have a fixed data type associated with it. However, at a given time, a variable will refer to some object, which will have a type. This is referred to as dynamic typing and is contrasted with statically-typed programming languages, where each variable may only contain values of a certain type.

Python does not support tail call optimization or first-class continuations, and, according to Guido van Rossum, it never will. [81] [82] However, better support for coroutine-like functionality is provided, by extending Python's generators. [83] Before 2.5, generators were lazy iterators; information was passed unidirectionally out of the generator. From Python 2.5, it is possible to pass information back into a generator function, and from Python 3.3, the information can be passed through multiple stack levels. [84]

Expressions

Some Python expressions are similar to those found in languages such as C and Java, while some are not:

In Python, a distinction between expressions and statements is rigidly enforced, in contrast to languages such as Common Lisp, Scheme, or Ruby. This leads to duplicating some functionality. For example:

Statements cannot be a part of an expression, so list and other comprehensions or lambda expressions, all being expressions, cannot contain statements. A particular case of this is that an assignment statement such as a=1 cannot form part of the conditional expression of a conditional statement. This has the advantage of avoiding a classic C error of mistaking an assignment operator = for an equality operator == in conditions: if(c=1){...} is syntactically valid (but probably unintended) C code but ifc=1:... causes a syntax error in Python.

Methods

Methods on objects are functions attached to the object's class; the syntax instance.method(argument) is, for normal methods and functions, syntactic sugar for Class.method(instance,argument). Python methods have an explicit self parameter to access instance data, in contrast to the implicit self (or this) in some other object-oriented programming languages (e.g., C++, Java, Objective-C, or Ruby). [95] Apart from this, Python also provides methods, often called dunder methods (due to their names beginning and ending with double-underscores), to allow user-defined classes to modify how they are handled by native operations such as length, comparison, in arithmetic operations, type conversion, and many more. [96]

Typing

The standard type hierarchy in Python 3 Python 3. The standard type hierarchy.png
The standard type hierarchy in Python 3

Python uses duck typing and has typed objects but untyped variable names. Type constraints are not checked at compile time; rather, operations on an object may fail, signifying that the given object is not of a suitable type. Despite being dynamically-typed, Python is strongly-typed, forbidding operations that are not well-defined (for example, adding a number to a string) rather than silently attempting to make sense of them.

Python allows programmers to define their own types using classes, which are most often used for object-oriented programming. New instances of classes are constructed by calling the class (for example, SpamClass() or EggsClass()), and the classes are instances of the metaclass type (itself an instance of itself), allowing metaprogramming and reflection.

Before version 3.0, Python had two kinds of classes: old-style and new-style. [97] The syntax of both styles is the same, the difference being whether the class object is inherited from, directly or indirectly (all new-style classes inherit from object and are instances of type). In versions of Python 2 from Python 2.2 onwards, both kinds of classes can be used. Old-style classes were eliminated in Python 3.0.

The long-term plan is to support gradual typing [98] and from Python 3.5, the syntax of the language allows specifying static types but they are not checked in the default implementation, CPython. An experimental optional static type checker named mypy supports compile-time type checking. [99]

Summary of Python 3's built-in types
Type Mutability DescriptionSyntax examples
boolimmutable Boolean value True
False
bytearraymutableSequence of bytes bytearray(b'Some ASCII')
bytearray(b"Some ASCII")
bytearray([119,105,107,105])
bytesimmutableSequence of bytesb'Some ASCII'
b"Some ASCII"
bytes([119,105,107,105])
compleximmutable Complex number with real and imaginary parts3+2.7j
3+2.7j
dictmutable Associative array (or dictionary) of key and value pairs; can contain mixed types (keys and values), keys must be a hashable type{'key1':1.0,3:False}
{}
types.EllipsisTypeimmutableAn ellipsis placeholder to be used as an index in NumPy arrays...
Ellipsis
floatimmutable Double-precision floating-point number. The precision is machine-dependent but in practice is generally implemented as a 64-bit IEEE 754 number with 53 bits of precision. [100]

1.33333

frozensetimmutableUnordered set, contains no duplicates; can contain mixed types, if hashablefrozenset([4.0,'string',True])
intimmutable Integer of unlimited magnitude [101] 42
listmutable List, can contain mixed types[4.0,'string',True]
[]
types.NoneTypeimmutableAn object representing the absence of a value, often called null in other languagesNone
types.NotImplementedTypeimmutableA placeholder that can be returned from overloaded operators to indicate unsupported operand types.NotImplemented
rangeimmutableA Sequence of numbers commonly used for looping specific number of times in for loops [102] range(-1,10)
range(10,-5,-2)
setmutableUnordered set, contains no duplicates; can contain mixed types, if hashable{4.0,'string',True}
set()
strimmutableA character string: sequence of Unicode codepoints'Wikipedia'
"Wikipedia"
"""Spanningmultiplelines"""
tupleimmutableCan contain mixed types(4.0,'string',True)
('single element',)
()

Arithmetic operations

Python has the usual symbols for arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /), the floor division operator // and the modulo operation % (where the remainder can be negative, e.g. 4 % -3 == -2). It also has ** for exponentiation, e.g. 5**3 == 125 and 9**0.5 == 3.0, and a matrix‑multiplication operator @ . [103] These operators work like in traditional math; with the same precedence rules, the operators infix (+ and - can also be unary to represent positive and negative numbers respectively).

The division between integers produces floating-point results. The behavior of division has changed significantly over time: [104]

In Python terms, / is true division (or simply division), and // is floor division./ before version 3.0 is classic division. [104]

Rounding towards negative infinity, though different from most languages, adds consistency. For instance, it means that the equation (a+b)//b==a//b+1 is always true. It also means that the equation b*(a//b)+a%b==a is valid for both positive and negative values of a. However, maintaining the validity of this equation means that while the result of a%b is, as expected, in the half-open interval [0, b), where b is a positive integer, it has to lie in the interval (b, 0] when b is negative. [105]

Python provides a round function for rounding a float to the nearest integer. For tie-breaking, Python 3 uses round to even: round(1.5) and round(2.5) both produce 2. [106] Versions before 3 used round-away-from-zero: round(0.5) is 1.0, round(-0.5) is −1.0. [107]

Python allows boolean expressions with multiple equality relations in a manner that is consistent with general use in mathematics. For example, the expression a < b < c tests whether a is less than b and b is less than c. [108] C-derived languages interpret this expression differently: in C, the expression would first evaluate a < b, resulting in 0 or 1, and that result would then be compared with c. [109]

Python uses arbitrary-precision arithmetic for all integer operations. The Decimal type/class in the decimal module provides decimal floating-point numbers to a pre-defined arbitrary precision and several rounding modes. [110] The Fraction class in the fractions module provides arbitrary precision for rational numbers. [111]

Due to Python's extensive mathematics library, and the third-party library NumPy that further extends the native capabilities, it is frequently used as a scientific scripting language to aid in problems such as numerical data processing and manipulation. [112] [113]

Programming examples

Hello world program:

print('Hello, world!')

Program to calculate the factorial of a positive integer:

n=int(input('Type a number, and its factorial will be printed: '))ifn<0:raiseValueError('You must enter a non-negative integer')factorial=1foriinrange(2,n+1):factorial*=iprint(factorial)

Libraries

Python's large standard library, commonly cited as one of its greatest strengths, [114] provides tools suited to many tasks. For Internet-facing applications, many standard formats and protocols such as MIME and HTTP are supported. It includes modules for creating graphical user interfaces, connecting to relational databases, generating pseudorandom numbers, arithmetic with arbitrary-precision decimals, [115] manipulating regular expressions, and unit testing.

Some parts of the standard library are covered by specifications (for example, the Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI) implementation wsgiref follows PEP 333 [116] ), but most modules are not. They are specified by their code, internal documentation, and test suites. However, because most of the standard library is cross-platform Python code, only a few modules need altering or rewriting for variant implementations.

As of September 2021, the Python Package Index (PyPI), the official repository for third-party Python software, contains over 329,000 [117] packages with a wide range of functionality, including:

Development environments

Most Python implementations (including CPython) include a read–eval–print loop (REPL), permitting them to function as a command line interpreter for which the user enters statements sequentially and receives results immediately.

Python comes with a Integrated development environment (IDE) called IDLE, which is more beginner based.

Other shells, including IDLE and IPython, add further abilities such as improved auto-completion, session state retention and syntax highlighting.

As well as standard desktop integrated development environments, there are Web browser-based IDEs; SageMath (intended for developing science and math-related Python programs); PythonAnywhere, a browser-based IDE and hosting environment; and Canopy IDE, a commercial Python IDE emphasizing scientific computing. [118]

Implementations

Reference implementation

CPython is the reference implementation of Python. It is written in C, meeting the C89 standard with several select C99 features (with later C versions out, it's considered outdated; [119] [120] CPython includes its own C extensions, but third-party extensions are not limited to older C versions, can e.g. be implemented with C11 or C++ [121] ). [122] It compiles Python programs into an intermediate bytecode [123] which is then executed by its virtual machine. [124] CPython is distributed with a large standard library written in a mixture of C and native Python. It is available for many platforms, including Windows (starting with Python 3.9, the Python installer deliberately fails to install on Windows 7 and 8; [125] [126] Windows XP was supported until Python 3.5) and most modern Unix-like systems, including macOS (and Apple M1 Macs, since Python 3.9.1, with experimental installer) and unofficial support for e.g. VMS. [127] Platform portability was one of its earliest priorities, [128] during the Python 1 and Python 2 time-frame, even OS/2 and Solaris were supported; [129] support has since been dropped for a lot of platforms.

Other implementations

Unsupported implementations

Other just-in-time Python compilers have been developed, but are now unsupported:

Cross-compilers to other languages

There are several compilers to high-level object languages, with either unrestricted Python, a restricted subset of Python, or a language similar to Python as the source language:

Performance

A performance comparison of various Python implementations on a non-numerical (combinatorial) workload was presented at EuroSciPy '13. [152] Python's performance compared to other programming languages is also benchmarked by The Computer Language Benchmarks Game. [153]

Development

Python's development is conducted largely through the Python Enhancement Proposal (PEP) process, the primary mechanism for proposing major new features, collecting community input on issues and documenting Python design decisions. [154] Python coding style is covered in PEP 8. [155] Outstanding PEPs are reviewed and commented on by the Python community and the steering council. [154]

Enhancement of the language corresponds with development of the CPython reference implementation. The mailing list python-dev is the primary forum for the language's development. Specific issues are discussed in the Roundup bug tracker hosted at bugs.python.org. [156] Development originally took place on a self-hosted source-code repository running Mercurial, until Python moved to GitHub in January 2017. [157]

CPython's public releases come in three types, distinguished by which part of the version number is incremented:

Many alpha, beta, and release-candidates are also released as previews and for testing before final releases. Although there is a rough schedule for each release, they are often delayed if the code is not ready. Python's development team monitors the state of the code by running the large unit test suite during development. [162]

The major academic conference on Python is PyCon. There are also special Python mentoring programmes, such as Pyladies.

Python 3.10 deprecated wstr (to be removed in Python 3.12; meaning Python extensions [163] need to be modified by then), [164] and added pattern matching to the language. [165]

API documentation generators

Tools that can generate documentation for Python API include pydoc (available as part of standard library), Sphinx, Pdoc and its forks, Doxygen and Graphviz, among others. [166]

Naming

Python's name is derived from the British comedy group Monty Python, whom Python creator Guido van Rossum enjoyed while developing the language. Monty Python references appear frequently in Python code and culture; [167] for example, the metasyntactic variables often used in Python literature are spam and eggs instead of the traditional foo and bar. [167] [168] The official Python documentation also contains various references to Monty Python routines. [169] [170]

The prefix Py- is used to show that something is related to Python. Examples of the use of this prefix in names of Python applications or libraries include Pygame, a binding of SDL to Python (commonly used to create games); PyQt and PyGTK, which bind Qt and GTK to Python respectively; and PyPy, a Python implementation originally written in Python.

Popularity

Since 2003, Python has consistently ranked in the top ten most popular programming languages in the TIOBE Programming Community Index where, as of October 2021, it is the most popular language (ahead of Java, and C). [171] It was selected Programming Language of the Year (for "the highest rise in ratings in a year") in 2007, 2010, 2018, and 2020 (the only language to do so four times [172] ). [173]

An empirical study found that scripting languages, such as Python, are more productive than conventional languages, such as C and Java, for programming problems involving string manipulation and search in a dictionary, and determined that memory consumption was often "better than Java and not much worse than C or C++". [174]

Large organizations that use Python include Wikipedia, Google, [175] Yahoo!, [176] CERN, [177] NASA, [178] Facebook, [179] Amazon, Instagram, [180] Spotify [181] and some smaller entities like ILM [182] and ITA. [183] The social news networking site Reddit was written mostly in Python. [184]

Uses

Python Powered Python Powered.png
Python Powered

Python can serve as a scripting language for web applications, e.g., via mod_wsgi for the Apache web server. [185] With Web Server Gateway Interface, a standard API has evolved to facilitate these applications. Web frameworks like Django, Pylons, Pyramid, TurboGears, web2py, Tornado, Flask, Bottle and Zope support developers in the design and maintenance of complex applications. Pyjs and IronPython can be used to develop the client-side of Ajax-based applications. SQLAlchemy can be used as a data mapper to a relational database. Twisted is a framework to program communications between computers, and is used (for example) by Dropbox.

Libraries such as NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib allow the effective use of Python in scientific computing, [186] [187] with specialized libraries such as Biopython and Astropy providing domain-specific functionality. SageMath is a computer algebra system with a notebook interface programmable in Python: its library covers many aspects of mathematics, including algebra, combinatorics, numerical mathematics, number theory, and calculus. [188] OpenCV has Python bindings with a rich set of features for computer vision and image processing. [189]

Python is commonly used in artificial intelligence projects and machine learning projects with the help of libraries like TensorFlow, Keras, Pytorch and Scikit-learn. [190] [191] [192] [193] As a scripting language with modular architecture, simple syntax and rich text processing tools, Python is often used for natural language processing. [194]

Python can also be used to create games, with libraries such as Pygame, which can make 2D games.

Python has been successfully embedded in many software products as a scripting language, including in finite element method software such as Abaqus, 3D parametric modeler like FreeCAD, 3D animation packages such as 3ds Max, Blender, Cinema 4D, Lightwave, Houdini, Maya, modo, MotionBuilder, Softimage, the visual effects compositor Nuke, 2D imaging programs like GIMP, [195] Inkscape, Scribus and Paint Shop Pro, [196] and musical notation programs like scorewriter and capella. GNU Debugger uses Python as a pretty printer to show complex structures such as C++ containers. Esri promotes Python as the best choice for writing scripts in ArcGIS. [197] It has also been used in several video games, [198] [199] and has been adopted as first of the three available programming languages in Google App Engine, the other two being Java and Go. [200]

Many operating systems include Python as a standard component. It ships with most Linux distributions, [201] AmigaOS 4 (using Python 2.7), FreeBSD (as a package), NetBSD, OpenBSD (as a package) and macOS and can be used from the command line (terminal). Many Linux distributions use installers written in Python: Ubuntu uses the Ubiquity installer, while Red Hat Linux and Fedora Linux use the Anaconda installer. Gentoo Linux uses Python in its package management system, Portage.

Python is used extensively in the information security industry, including in exploit development. [202] [203]

Most of the Sugar software for the One Laptop per Child XO, now developed at Sugar Labs, is written in Python. [204] The Raspberry Pi single-board computer project has adopted Python as its main user-programming language.

LibreOffice includes Python, and intends to replace Java with Python. Its Python Scripting Provider is a core feature [205] since Version 4.0 from 7 February 2013.

Languages influenced by Python

Python's design and philosophy have influenced many other programming languages:

Python's development practices have also been emulated by other languages. For example, the practice of requiring a document describing the rationale for, and issues surrounding, a change to the language (in Python, a PEP) is also used in Tcl, [215] Erlang, [216] and Swift. [217]

See also

Related Research Articles

Guido van Rossum Dutch programmer and creator of Python

Guido van Rossum is a Dutch programmer best known as the creator of the Python programming language, for which he was the "benevolent dictator for life" (BDFL) until he stepped down from the position in July 2018. He remained a member of the Python Steering Council through 2019, and withdrew from nominations for the 2020 election.

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Cython Programming language

Cython is a programming language that aims to be a superset of the Python programming language, designed to give C-like performance with code that is written mostly in Python with optional additional C-inspired syntax. Cython is a NumFOCUS affiliated project.

The programming language Python was conceived in the late 1980s, and its implementation was started in December 1989 by Guido van Rossum at CWI in the Netherlands as a successor to ABC capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system. Van Rossum is Python's principal author, and his continuing central role in deciding the direction of Python is reflected in the title given to him by the Python community, Benevolent Dictator for Life (BDFL).. Python was named after the BBC TV show Monty Python's Flying Circus.

Python Package Index Software repository

The Python Package Index, abbreviated as PyPI and also known as the Cheese Shop, is the official third-party software repository for Python. It is analogous to the CPAN repository for Perl and to the CRAN repository for R. PyPI is run by the Python Software Foundation, a charity. Some package managers, including pip, use PyPI as the default source for packages and their dependencies.

In the software development process, a reference implementation is a program that implements all requirements from a corresponding specification. The reference implementation often accompanies a technical standard, and demonstrates what should be considered the "correct" behavior of any other implementation of it.

Spyder (software)

Spyder is an open-source cross-platform integrated development environment (IDE) for scientific programming in the Python language. Spyder integrates with a number of prominent packages in the scientific Python stack, including NumPy, SciPy, Matplotlib, pandas, IPython, SymPy and Cython, as well as other open-source software. It is released under the MIT license.

Python Conference

The Python Conference is the largest annual convention for the discussion and promotion of the Python programming language. It originated in the United States but is also held in more than 40 other countries. It was one of the first computer programming conferences to develop and adhere to a code of conduct. The conference hosts tutorials, demonstrations and training sessions.

Nuitka is a source-to-source compiler which compiles Python code to C source code, applying some compile-time optimizations in the process such as constant folding and propagation, built-in call prediction, type inference, and conditional statement execution. Nuitka initially was designed to produce C++ code, but current versions produce C source code using only those features of C11 that are shared by C++03, enabling further compilation to a binary executable format by modern C and C++ compilers including gcc, clang, MinGW, or Microsoft Visual C++. It accepts Python code compatible with several different Python versions and optionally allows for the creation of standalone programs that do not require Python to be installed on the target computer.

Tim Peters is an American software developer who is known for creating the Timsort hybrid sorting algorithm and for his major contributions to the Python programming language and its original CPython implementation. A pre-1.0 CPython user, he was among the group of early adopters who contributed to the detailed design of the language in its early stages.

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Sources

Further reading