Long-term support

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Long-term support (LTS) is a product lifecycle management policy in which a stable release of computer software is maintained for a longer period of time than the standard edition. The term is typically reserved for open-source software, where it describes a software edition that is supported for months or years longer than the software's standard edition.

Contents

Short term support (STS) is a term that distinguishes the support policy for the software's standard edition. STS software has a comparatively short life cycle, and may be afforded new features that are omitted from the LTS edition to avoid potentially compromising the stability or compatibility of the LTS release. [1]

Characteristics

LTS applies the tenets of reliability engineering to the software development process and software release life cycle. Long-term support extends the period of software maintenance; it also alters the type and frequency of software updates (patches) to reduce the risk, expense, and disruption of software deployment, while promoting the dependability of the software. It does not necessarily imply technical support.

At the beginning of a long-term support period, the software developers impose a feature freeze: They make patches to correct software bugs and vulnerabilities, but do not introduce new features that may cause regression. The software maintainer either distributes patches individually, or packages them in maintenance releases, point releases, or service packs. At the conclusion of the support period, the product either reaches end-of-life, or receives a reduced level of support for a period of time (e.g., high-priority security patches only). [2]

Rationale

Before upgrading software, a decision-maker might consider the risk and cost of the upgrade. [3]

As software developers add new features and fix software bugs, they can accidentally introduce new bugs or break old functionality. [4] When such a flaw occurs in software, it is called a regression . [4] Two ways that a software publisher or maintainer can reduce the risk of regression are to release major updates less frequently, and to allow users to test an alternate, updated version of the software. [3] [5] LTS software applies these two risk-reduction strategies. The LTS edition of the software is published in parallel with the STS (short-term support) edition. Since major updates to the STS edition are published more frequently, it offers LTS users a preview of changes that might be incorporated into the LTS edition when those changes are judged to be of sufficient quality.

While using older versions of software may avoid the risks associated with upgrading, it may introduce the risk of losing support for the old software. [6] Long-term support addresses this by assuring users and administrators that the software will be maintained for a specific period of time, and that updates selected for publication will carry a significantly reduced risk of regression. [2] The maintainers of LTS software only publish updates that either have low IT risk or that reduce IT risk (such as security patches). Patches for LTS software are published with the understanding that installing them is less risky than not installing them.

Software with separate LTS versions

This table only lists those have a specific LTS version in addition to a normal release cycle. Many projects, such as CentOS, provide a long period of support for every release.

SoftwareSoftware typeDate of first LTS releaseLTS periodSTS periodNotes
Blender Computer graphics 3 June 2020
(v2.83)
2 years [7]
Collabora Online Office Suite 2 June 2016 [8] 1 yearVariesThis is the online enterprise-ready edition of LibreOffice, its STS is typically a month. [9] Collabora Office applications for Windows, macOS and Linux receive LTS for 3 years as standard, and up to 5 years LTS years if required, Collabora Office applications for Android, iOS and Chrome OS have no LTS and receive rolling updates, their STS is a bit longer than Collabora Online. [10]
Django Application framework 23 March 2012
(v1.4)
3 years [11] 16 months
Debian GNU/Linux Linux distribution 1 June 2014 [12] 2 years3 yearsA total support period is (at least) 5 years. [13]
Firefox Web browser 31 January 2012
(v10.0)
1 year6 weeksMozilla's LTS term is "Extended Support Release" (ESR) (see Firefox#Extended Support Release).
Joomla! CMS January 2008
(v1.5)
2 years, 3 months [14] 7 monthsSince Joomla! is a web application, long-term support also implies support for legacy web browsers.
Laravel Application framework 9 June 2015
(v5.1) [15]
3 years [16] 1 yearFor LTS releases, bug fixes are provided for 2 years and security fixes are provided for 3 years. For general releases, bug fixes are provided for 6 months and security fixes are provided for 1 year. [17]
Linux kernel Kernel 11 October 2008
(v2.6.27)
Varies, 6, 10+ years [18] [19] [20] VariesLinux kernel v2.6.16 and v2.6.27, were unofficially supported in LTS fashion [21] before a 2011 working group in the Linux Foundation started a formal Long Term Support Initiative. [22] [23] The LTS support period was upped to 6 years; Linux kernel 4.4 will have 6 years of support before being taken over by the "Civil Infrastructure Platform" (CIP) project that plans to maintain it for a minimum of 10 years under "SLTS (Super Long Term Support)" (the CIP has only, for now, decided to maintain for 64-bit x86-64 and 32-bit ARM; while 64-bit ARM hardware support is also planned [24] ). "The use cases CIP project is targeting have a life cycle of between 25 and 50 years." and the CIP envisiones 15+ years of support. [25]

[26] [27]

Linux Mint Linux distribution 8 June 20085 years [28] 6 monthsAs of version 13 the LTS period increased from three years to five, since Linux Mint derives from Ubuntu. Version 16 was the last non-LTS version.
Java Virtual machine and runtime environment 25 September 2018
(v11)
4 years6 monthsAll versions prior to Java 9 were supported for long periods of time (4 years or more). [29]
Moodle Application framework 12 May 2014 (v2.7) [30] 3 years [30] 18 months [30]
Matomo Web analytics 3 February 2016
(v2.16) [31] [32]
≥12 months [31] ~4 weeks [33]
Node.js Runtime system 12 October 2015
(v4.2.0) [34]
18 months12 months
Symfony Application framework June 20133 years8 months
Tiki-wiki Wiki/CMS May 2009 (Tiki3)5 years6 monthsEvery third version is a Long Term Support (LTS) version.
Trisquel 7.0 [35] Linux distribution 2014-11-045 years1 year Linux Kernel-libre 3.13, GNOME fallback 3.12 and Abrowser or GNU IceCat
TYPO3 CMS January 2011
(v4.5 LTS) [36]
3 years (min.)VariesTYPO3 is a web application stewarded by the TYPO3 Association.
Ubuntu Linux distribution 1 June 2006
(Ubuntu version history#0606 Ubuntu 6.06 LTS) [37]
5 years, [38] 10 years with ESM [39] 9 months 1 A new LTS version is released every two years. From 2006 through 2011, LTS support for the desktop was for approximately two years, and for servers five, but LTS versions are now supported for five years for both. [37] [38] Extended Security Maintenance (ESM) is available for an additional 5 years on Ubuntu 18.04 and subsequent LTS releases. [40]
Windows 10 Operating system 29 July 2015
(v10.0.10240) [41]
10 years [42] 18 months (previously 8-12 months) [42] The Long-Term Servicing Channel (LTSC) (previously Long-Term Servicing Branch) releases of Windows 10 are supported for 10 years for mission critical machines. The LTSC release gets monthly security updates; the updates to the LTSC release bring little to no feature changes. Every 2-3 years, a new major LTSC release is published, but businesses may opt to stay on their current LTSC version until its end-of-life. The LTSC release is available only for businesses running the Windows 10 Enterprise edition. Regular consumers on the Semi-Annual Channel (SAC) get new versions of the operating system approximately every six months (previously every four months) while business customers get upgraded to new versions of SAC approximately four months after Microsoft released the SAC release for regular consumers (previously a separate release is done approximately every eight months). [42]
1. ^ The support period for Ubuntu's parent distribution, Debian, is one year after the release of the next stable version. [43] [44] Since Debian 6.0 "Squeeze", LTS support (bug fixes and security patches) was added to all version releases. [45] The total LTS support time is generally around 5 years for every version. [46] [47] Due to the irregular release cycle of Debian, support times might vary from that average [47] and the LTS support is done not by the Debian team but by a separate group of volunteers. [48]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Ubuntu Linux distribution based on Debian

Ubuntu is a Linux distribution based on Debian and composed mostly of free and open-source software. Ubuntu is officially released in three editions: Desktop, Server, and Core for Internet of things devices and robots. All the editions can run on the computer alone, or in a virtual machine. Ubuntu is a popular operating system for cloud computing, with support for OpenStack. Ubuntu's default desktop has been GNOME, since version 17.10.

Technical variations of Linux distributions include support for different hardware devices and systems or software package configurations. Organisational differences may be motivated by historical reasons. Other criteria include security, including how quickly security upgrades are available; ease of package management; and number of packages available.

Kubuntu Derivative of the Ubuntu operating system

Kubuntu is an official flavour of the Ubuntu operating system that uses the KDE Plasma Desktop instead of the GNOME desktop environment. As part of the Ubuntu project, Kubuntu uses the same underlying systems. Every package in Kubuntu shares the same repositories as Ubuntu, and it is released regularly on the same schedule as Ubuntu.

Xubuntu Linux distribution based on Ubuntu, utilizing the Xfce desktop environment

Xubuntu is a Canonical Ltd.–recognized, community-maintained derivative of the Ubuntu operating system. The name Xubuntu is a portmanteau of Xfce and Ubuntu, as it uses the Xfce desktop environment, instead of Ubuntu's GNOME desktop.

Nexenta OS

Nexenta OS, officially known as the Nexenta Core Platform, is a discontinued computer operating system based on OpenSolaris and Ubuntu that runs on IA-32- and x86-64-based systems. It emerged in fall 2005, after Sun Microsystems started the OpenSolaris project in June of that year. Nexenta Systems, Inc. initiated the project and sponsored its development. Nexenta OS version 1.0 was released in February 2008.

Free60 is the successor to the Xbox Linux Project that aims to put Linux, BSD, or Darwin on the Microsoft Xbox 360 using a software or hardware based "hack". The Xbox 360 uses hardware encryption and will not run unsigned code out of the box.

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Linux Mint Desktop-focused Ubuntu-based Linux distribution

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Ubuntu version history Wikimedia list article

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Linux Mint version history

Up to 2014 there had been two Linux Mint releases per year, about one month after the Ubuntu releases they were based on. Each release was given a new version number and a code name, using a female first name starting with the letter whose alphabetical index corresponds to the version number and ending with the letter "a". There is also an OEM version for ease of installation for hardware manufacturers.

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Debian version history

Debian releases do not follow a fixed schedule. Recent releases have been made roughly biennially by the Debian Project.

KDE neon

KDE neon is a Linux distribution developed by KDE based on the most recent Ubuntu long-term support (LTS) release, bundled with a set of additional software repositories containing the latest 64-bit versions of the Plasma 5 desktop environment/framework, Qt 5 toolkit and other compatible KDE software. First announced in June 2016 by Kubuntu founder Jonathan Riddell following his departure from Canonical, it has been adopted by a steadily growing number of Linux users, regularly appearing in the Top 20 on DistroWatch.com's popularity tables. It targets the same user demographic as Ubuntu's official KDE Plasma-focused distribution, Kubuntu, differing primarily in the much shorter time-frame for users to receive updated Qt and KDE software. It is offered in four release channels: User, Testing, Unstable and Developer Editions.

The Linux kernel is a free and open-source, monolithic, Unix-like operating system kernel. It was conceived and created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds.

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Further reading