|President of the|
Republic of Albania
Presidenti i Republikës së Shqipërisë
|Style|| President |
|Term length||Five years|
|Formation||30 April 1991|
|First holder||Ramiz Alia|
The President of Albania (Albanian : Presidenti i Shqipërisë), officially styled the President of the Republic of Albania (Albanian : Presidenti i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Albanian people.
Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. It comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.
A style of office, honorific or manner/form of address, is an official or legally recognized form of address, and may often be used in conjunction with a title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are also almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures also have styles.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
The President has the power to set the date of the elections for the Parliament as well as referendum, grants pardons and awards and other state awards. In case of incapability to discharge duties of office, the Chairperson of the Parliament assumes the office of acting President until the President resumes duty, or until election of a new president.
The Parliament of Albania or Kuvendi is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Albania; it is Albania's legislature. The Parliament is composed of not less than 140 members elected to a four-year term on the basis of direct, universal, periodic and equal suffrage by secret ballot. The Parliament is presided over by a Speaker of the Parliament, who is assisted by at least one deputy speaker. The electoral system is based on party-list proportional representation. There are 12 multi-seat constituencies, corresponding to the country's administrative divisions.
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law. In some countries, it is synonymous with a plebiscite or a vote on a ballot question.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred. The pardon may be granted before or after conviction for the crime, depending on the laws of the jurisdiction.
The Office of the President of Albania consists of the immediate staff of the president of the country, as well as support staff reporting to the president. The office is seated in the Presidential Office in the capital city Tirana. The Constitution of Albania defines the appearance and use of the presidential standard, flown on buildings of the Office of the President, the residence of the president, the transportation vehicles when in use by the president, and in other ceremonial occasions. The Spouse of the President is recognized as the First Lady of Albania, but holds no official role in the presidency. She often plays a protocol role at the Presidential Palace and during official visits.
The Presidential Office houses the Office of the President of Albania and is the principal workplace of the President. It consists of the immediate staff of the president, as well as support staff reporting to the president. It is located in the capital city of Tirana.
Tirana is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania.
It is the fundamental law of the Republic of Albania. The present Constitution of Albania was adopted by the Parliament on 28 November 1998. It is split up over many different acts. The document succeeded the 1976 Constitution, originally adopted at the creation of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania on 28 December 1976 and heavily amended on 29 April 1991.
The President is elected through a secret vote and without debate by the Parliament of Albania by a majority of three-fifths of all its members and is in every case elected for 5 years.However, the Constitution of Albania sets a limit to a maximum of two terms in office. The president-elect is required to take an oath of office before the members of the Parliament of Albania. The 7th and current officeholder is Ilir Meta of the Socialist Movement for Integration who was elected on 28 April 2017 and took office on July 24, 2017.
An oath of office is an oath or affirmation a person takes before undertaking the duties of an office, usually a position in government or within a religious body, although such oaths are sometimes required of officers of other organizations. Such oaths are often required by the laws of the state, religious body, or other organization before the person may actually exercise the powers of the office or any religious body. It may be administered at an inauguration, coronation, enthronement, or other ceremony connected with the taking up of office itself, or it may be administered privately. In some cases it may be administered privately and then repeated during a public ceremony.
Ilir Meta is an Albanian diplomat and politician who has been serving as President of Albania since 24 July 2017. Previously he served as Prime Minister from 1999 to 2002, and at age 30 he is to date the youngest person to have been Prime Minister in Albanian history. Meta also served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2002 to 2003 and again from 2009 to 2010. He was Chairman of the Parliament of Albania from 2013 to 2017. Meta also held positions as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy, Trade, and Energy. Prior to that, he held the Chairmanship of the Parliamentary Commission of European Integration. Meta founded the Socialist Movement for Integration (LSI) in 2004.
The Socialist Movement for Integration is a social-democratic political party in Albania. The LSI was formed on 6 September 2004 when Ilir Meta, former Prime Minister of Albania, broke from the Socialist Party of Albania (PS). Through the use of the term "movement", LSI attempts to give the message that it is open and inclusive. The other reason for using this term is its intention to differentiate itself from the other parties. LSI employed the one member, one vote system in March 2005 to elect its leader, Ilir Meta.
Albania has experienced different models of governance, including an international protectorate, a monarchy, a state-party regime and the parliamentary republic as well. Throughout all this period the function of the President of Albania and head of state has been exercised in various forms.
The first government after the independence was headed by Ismail Qemali, who also enjoyed the competences of the head of state. On 6 February 1914, Prince Wilhelm Wied was appointed as head of state by the Ambassadors Conference. From September 1914 until January 1920, Albania was transformed into a battle field and experienced the change of a number of governments, where the post of the head of state was played by different governments regencies. On 8 January 1920 the Congress of Lushnjë elected the 'High Council' composed by four members, one of whom would exercise the functions of the head of state by introducing and bringing back the parliamentarian way of governance. In 1924, Fan Noli was elected as head of government while exercising at the same time the functions of the head of State. After the frequent changes in governance, the Parliament of Albania approved and passed the republican form of regime on 25 January 1925 and elected Zog I of Albania as the President of Albania. The nation was proclaimed a monarchy and Ahmet Zogu was crowned the King of Albanians on 28 September 1928. After Albania was occupied by Italy in April 1939 and the unification of the two countries, Victor Emmanuel III became the King of Albania. From 1943 to 1944 the regencies governance was introduced once again under the German occupation.
The Provisional Government of Albania was the first government of Albania, created by the Assembly of Vlorë on 4 December 1912. It was a paternal government, led by Ismail Qemali, until his resignation on 22 January 1914 followed by Fejzi Alizoti until the proclamation of the Principality of Albania.
Ismail Qemali was an Albanian politician and publicist who served as the 1st President and Prime Minister as well as Foreign Minister of Albania from 1912 to 1914. He is considered to be the Founding Father of Modern Albania and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence.
Prince William of Wied, reigned briefly as sovereign of the Principality of Albania as Vidi I from 7 March to 3 September 1914, when he left for exile. His reign officially came to an end on 31 January 1925, when the country was declared an Albanian Republic.
The end of the second World War and the liberation of Albania that took place in 1944 were followed by the holding of the first parliamentary elections in December 1945 and also by the transformation of the head of state’s function into a collegial body, the Presidium of the Parliament of Albania. During the communism from 11 January 1946 until 12 December 1990, the functions of the head of state were carried out by Omer Nishani from 10 January 1946 to 1 August 1953, by Haxhi Lleshi from 1 August 1953 to 22 November 1982 and by Ramiz Alia from 22 November 1982 to 22 February 1991. The 'Presidential Council', headed by Ramiz Alia was founded on 22 February 1991 and it lasted until 30 April 1991.
The election of the first President of the parliamentary Republic of Albania on 30 April 1991 by a multi political parties Assembly, marked the foundation of the constitutional institution of the President of Albania.
Following the disintegration of the communist regime, the first multi-party elections in Albania were held in 1991, simultaneously with the 1991 parliamentary elections.The result was a victory for Ramiz Alia of the Socialist Party of Albania (PS), who received 56.2% of the vote in the third round of the elections, ahead of 3 other candidates. Sali Berisha, the Democratic Party of Albania (PD) candidate and runner-up in the election, received almost 38.7% of the vote. After the collapse of a coalition government in December 1991 and the Democratic Party of Albania's (PD) landslide victory in the spring 1992 general election, Ramiz Alia resigned as the President on 3 April 1992. One year later, the second presidential elections were held on 22 March 1992. The result was a victory for Sali Berisha of the Democratic Party of Albania (PD), who received 57.3% of the vote in the second round of the elections, ahead of 5 other candidates. The fifth presidential elections were held on 24 June 2002. The result was a victory for Alfred Moisiu of the Democratic Party of Albania (PD), who was elected by the Parliament of Albania through a vote of 97 to 19.
The sixth presidential elections were held on 20 June 2007 with almost four rounds. In the first round on 20 June 2007 and 27 June 2007, no candidate was presented. The Government of Albania and the opposition presented their proposed candidate lists on 5 July 2007, but did not accept either list. Afterwards, on 14 July 2007 the third round were held. At least in the fourth round on 20 July, Bamir Topi won the election. The seventh presidential elections were held on 30 May 2012 with four rounds until 11 June 2012. The first through third rounds of voting were inconclusive. In the fourth round, the result was a victory for Bujar Nishani of the Democratic Party of Albania (PD). The most recent and eighth presidential elections were held on 19, 20, 27 and 28 April 2017. In the fourth round the incumbent Chairman of the Parliament of Albania, Ilir Meta was elected as seventh President of Albania with 87 votes.
As of Article 89 of the Albanian Constitution sets the following qualifications for holding the presidency, to be a natural-born citizen of the Albanian Republic, to be at least forty years old and to be a resident in the Republic of Albania for at least ten years.
The President of Albania, officially styled the President of the Republic of Albania represents the unity of the Albanian people in the country and abroad as the head of state. The President begins his duties officially after he takes the oath before the Parliament, but not before the mandate of the President who is leaving has been completed. The President of Albania is the supreme commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Albania and appoints and relieves military commanders of duty, conforming to applicable legislation. Furthermore, the Chief of the General Staff is appointed as well by the President.
The Constitution, states that the President addresses messages to the Parliament, exercises the right of pardon according to the law, grants Albanian citizenship and permits it to be given up according to the law, gives decorations and titles of honor according to the law, accords the highest military rank according to the law, on the proposal of the Prime Minister, he appoints and withdraws plenipotentiary representatives of the Republic of Albania to other states and international organizations, accepts letters of credentials and the withdrawal of diplomatic representatives of other states and international organization accredited to him, signs international agreements according to the law, upon proposal of the Prime Minister, he appoints the Director of the National Security Department, nominates rectors of universities upon proposal of their council's representatives, sets the date of the elections for the Parliament, for the organs of local power and for the conduct of a referendum and requests opinions and information in writing from the directors of state institutions for issues that have to do with their duties.
Before assuming presidential duty, the president-elect is required to take an oath of office before the Parliament, swearing loyalty to the Constitution. The text of the oath in its Albanian form is sensitive to gender and all nouns always retain a neutral form. The president-elect takes the following oath of office, specified by the Constitution:
|“|| Albanian: Betohem se do t’i bindem Kushtetutës dhe ligjeve të vendit, do të respektoj të drejtat dhe liritë e shtetasve, do të mbroj pavarësinë e Republikës së Shqipërisë dhe do t’i shërbej interesit të përgjithshëm dhe përparimit të Popullit Shqiptar. Zoti më ndihmoftë! |
English: I swear that I will obey to the Constitution and laws of the country, that I will respect the rights and freedoms of citizens, protect the independence of the Republic of Albania, and I will serve the general interest and the progress of the Albanian people. So help me God!
The Presidential Office (Albanian : Presidenca) is the official workplace of the president. It consists of the immediate staff of the president, as well as support staff reporting to the president. Since the collapse of communism, the building was used as the Office of the president, having been used for this purpose uninterrupted up to this day. The building consists three floors where two entrance gates lead an oval driveway from the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard.
The Presidential Palace (Albanian : Pallati presidencial), popularly known as the Palace of Brigades (Albanian : Pallati i Brigadave), is the official residence of the President of Albania. The Palace was commissioned by King Zog I of Albania to serve as his main official residence. After the second World War it has been used by the Government of Albania for holding official ceremonies and state receptions. Due to its location near the Grand Park of Tirana, its gardens are quite extensive. It is surrounded by trees for nearly 200 metres and decorated in patterns and shapes of various designs. In addition the Palace was designed by Italian well-known architect Gherardo Bosio.
|No.||Portrait||Name||Term in office||Nominated by|
|1|| Ahmet Zogu |
|1 February 1925||1 September 1928||Conservative Party|
|3 years and 7 months|
|2|| Ramiz Alia |
|30 April 1991||3 April 1992||Party of Labour|
|11 months and 4 days|
|3|| Sali Berisha |
|9 April 1992||24 July 1997||Democratic Party|
|5 years, 3 months and 15 days|
|4|| Rexhep Meidani |
|24 July 1997||24 July 2002||Socialist Party|
|5|| Alfred Moisiu |
|24 July 2002||24 July 2007||Consensual|
|6|| Bamir Topi |
|24 July 2007||24 July 2012||Democratic Party|
|7|| Bujar Nishani |
|24 July 2012||24 July 2017||Democratic Party|
|8|| Ilir Meta |
|24 July 2017||Incumbent||Socialist Movement for Integration|
|1 year, 7 months and 21 days|
The title of the First Lady of Albania is a unofficial title, it is not an elected one, carries no official duties, and receives no salary. Nonetheless, first ladies have held a highly visible position in Albanian society. The role has evolved over the years, but she is, first and foremost, the spouse of the President. However, she accompanies the President in state and official visits abroad the borders of Albania. She generally oversee the administration of Presidential Palace, the mansion that serves as the official residence, while the Presidenca serving as the official office. They also organize events and civic programs, and typically get involved in different charities and social causes.
|Name||Relation to the President|
|Geraldine of Albania*||future wife of President Ahmet Zogu|
|Semiramis Alia*||wife of future President Ramiz Alia|
|Liri Berisha||wife of President Sali Berisha|
|Lidra Meidani||wife of President Rexhep Meidani|
|Milica Moisiu*||wife of future President Alfred Moisiu|
|Teuta Topi||wife of President Bamir Topi|
|Odeta Nishani||wife of President Bujar Nishani|
|Monika Kryemadhi*||wife of President Ilir Meta|
*Queen Geraldine married Ahmet Zogu a decade later.* Because Semiramis Alia predeceased her husband, Ramiz Alia while he was still the communist-era President.
* Because Milica Moisiu was deceased when Alfred Moisiu became President of the Republic, his youngest daughter Mirela Moisiu carried the First Lady duties.
* Because Monika Kryemadhi is a Member of Parliament and the leader of the second largest opposition party LSI, she refused to take on the duties of the First Lady therefor, the couple's eldest child and daughter Bora Meta is carrying on as First Lady.
Albania is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, where the President of Albania is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Albania the head of government in a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised by the Government and the Prime Minister with its Cabinet. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Albania. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system of Albania is laid out in the 1998 constitution. The Parliament adopted the current constitution on 28 November 1998. Due to political instability, the country has had many constitutions during its history. Albania was initially constituted as a monarchy in 1913, briefly a republic in 1925, then it returned to a democratic monarchy in 1928. It later became a socialist republic until the restoration of capitalism and democracy in 1992.
The Prime Minister of Albania, officially styled the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania, is the head of government of the Republic of Albania and as well the most powerful and influential person in Albanian politics. The Prime Minister holds the executive power of the nation and represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings.
The President of Croatia, officially styled the President of the Republic, is the head of state, commander in-chief of the military and chief representative of the Republic of Croatia both within the country and abroad. The President is the holder of the highest office within the Croatia's order of precedence, however, the president is not the head of the executive branch as Croatia has a parliamentary system in which the holder of the post of Prime Minister is the most powerful person within the country's constitutional framework and within everyday's politics.
The Socialist Party of Albania, is a social-democratic political party in Albania; it gained power following the 2013 parliamentary election. The party seated 66 MPs in the 2009 Albanian parliament. It achieved power in 1997 following a political crisis and governmental realignment. At the 2001 parliamentary election the party secured 73 seats, which enabled it to form a government. At the general election of 3 July 2005, the Socialist Party lost its majority and the Democratic Party of Albania (PD) formed the new government, having secured, with its allies, a majority of 81 seats.
Aleksandër Moisiu University of Durrës, also Aleksandër Moisiu University or University of Durrës, is the newest public academic institution of the Republic of Albania. The University is located in the ancient city of Durrës. The university was founded on 20 December 2005 by the Albanian Government. It was inaugurated in 2006 and is using the American system of education, unlike the rest of the public universities in the country. More than 1,300 students started classes as of October 2, 2006. University of Durrës took its name from Austrian-Italian actor Aleksandër Moisiu, who was of Albanian descent. The rector is Kseanela Sotirofski.
Indirect presidential elections were held in Albania on 20 and 27 June, 8, 11, 14, and 20 July, the sixth such elections since the collapse of the communist regime in 1991.
Indirect presidential elections were held in Albania on 24 June 2002, the fifth such elections since the collapse of the communist regime in 1991. Under pressure from international organization, Alfred Moisiu was chosen by Sali Berisha and Fatos Nano as a consensus candidate for the presidency after the end of Rexhep Meidani's term. Moisiu was found fitting for that post since he was a researcher, was politically neutral, was known as an effective mediator and had a decisive pro-Western and NATO orientation.
The Deputy Prime Ministers of Albania, officially styled the Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania, is the deputy head of government of Albania. In the absence of the Prime Minister of Albania the Deputy Prime Minister takes over his functions, such as chairing the Cabinet of Albania and the Council of Ministers of Albania. The Office is the second senior minister of the cabinet in the executive branch of the government in the parliamentary system in the Republic of Albania.
Civil awards and decorations of Albania are awards and decorations that have been bestowed in Albania since its declaration of independence in 1912.
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Albania is the final authority for the interpretation of the Constitution (Kushtetuta) and the compliance of laws in accordance with the constitution. As of article 168, the ourt guarantees respect for the Constitution and makes final interpretations of it.
Indirect presidential elections were held in Albania on 30 May, 4, 8 and 11 June 2012. the seventh such elections since the collapse of the communist regime in 1991. The first through third rounds of voting were inconclusive. The fourth round resulted in the incumbent party's member Bujar Nishani being elected as President.
The First Lady of Albania is the unofficial title of the spouse of the sitting President of Albania.
The Chief of the General Staff is the chief of the General Staff and Albanian Armed Forces. The chief of staff is appointed by the President of Albania, who is the commander-in-chief. The position dates back to the Provisional Government of Albania. The current Chief of the General Staff is Major General Jeronim Bazo.
Xhafer Spahiu was a former Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh). He was the only Kosovar Albanian of the higher ranks of the Communist Albania leadership after 1948.
Indirect presidential elections were held in Albania on 19, 20, 27 and 28 April 2017, the eighth such elections since the collapse of the communist regime in 1991. In the first through third round, no candidates were proposed and no vote took place in the Parliament of Albania. In the fourth round, the incumbent Chairperson and then-Prime Minister of Albania, Ilir Meta was elected as the eighth President of Albania with almost 87 votes.
Part One is a compilation of laws pertaining to the Constitution of Albania, that consists of fourteen articles. This part of the Constitution is the first of eighteen parts.
Indirect presidential elections are due to take place in Albania in 2022, with a second, third, fourth or fifth round if necessary. The constitution states that a presidential election must be held no more than 60 days and no less than 30 days before the expiration of the incumbent president's term. They will be the ninth presidential elections since 1991 and the collapse of the communist regime.
The Speaker of the Parliament of Albania is the head of the Parliament of Albania. The speaker's term coincides with the term of the Parliament and the chairperson is elected by a vote during the opening session. If the President is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising his or her powers, the chairperson takes over the functions of the office, as specified by the Constitution.
When the President of the Republic is temporarily unable to exercise his functions or his place is vacant, the Speaker of the Assembly takes his place and exercises his powers.
The President of the Republic is elected by the Assembly by secret ballot and without debate by a majority of three-fifths of all its members.
The 1991 general elections were the first free and multiparty ones in Albania since World War II.
Ilir Metës si president i Republikës
Only an Albanian citizen by birth who has resided in Albania for not less than the past 10 years and who has reached the age of 40 may be elected President.
Betohem se do t'i bindem Kushtetutes dhe ligjeve te vendit, do te respektoj te drejtat dhe lirite e shtetasve, do te mbroj pavaresine e Republikes se Shqiperise dhe do t'i sherbej interesit te pergjithshem dhe perparimit te Popullit Shqiptar". Presidenti mund te shtoje edhe: "zoti me ndihmofte