|1849 in topic|
| Archaeology – Architecture – Art |
Literature – Music
|Australia – Belgium – Brazil – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – Venezuela|
|Rail transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Sovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2602|
|Balinese saka calendar||1770–1771|
|British Regnal year||12 Vict. 1 – 13 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 戊申年 (Earth Monkey)|
4545 or 4485
— to —
己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
4546 or 4486
|- Vikram Samvat||1905–1906|
|- Shaka Samvat||1770–1771|
|- Kali Yuga||4949–4950|
|Japanese calendar|| Kaei 2|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||63 before ROC |
|Thai solar calendar||2391–2392|
1975 or 1594 or 822
— to —
1976 or 1595 or 823
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1849 .|
1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1849th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 849th year of the 2nd millennium, the 49th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1849, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1848th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 848th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1848, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
A set of revolutions took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849. Much of the revolutionary activity had a nationalist character: the Empire, ruled from Vienna, included ethnic Germans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians (Ukrainians), Romanians, Croats, Venetians (Italians) and Serbs; all of whom attempted in the course of the revolution to either achieve autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities. The nationalist picture was further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states, which moved toward greater German national unity.
Artúr Görgei de Görgő et Toporc was a Hungarian military leader renowned for being one of the greatest generals of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army.
Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim was a Croatian lieutenant field marshal in a Imperial-Royal Army and politician, the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 April 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia.
The Battle of Segesvár was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 31 July 1849 between the Hungarian revolutionary army supplemented by Polish volunteers under the command of General Józef Bem and the Russian V Corps under General Alexander von Lüders in ally with the Austrian army led by General Eduard Clam-Gallas. The battle was won by the Russian-Austrian army and it is presumed that the Hungarian poet and national hero Sándor Petőfi died in the battlefield, though his body was never found.
Julius Jakob Freiherr von Haynau was an Austrian general who suppressed insurrectionary movements in Italy and Hungary in 1848 and later. While a hugely effective military leader, he also gained renown as an aggressive and ruthless commander. His soldiers called him the "Habsburg Tiger"; those opponents who suffered from his brutality called him the "Hyena of Brescia" and the "Hangman of Arad".
György (Móric) Klapka, also known in German as Georg Klapka was a Hungarian general. He was one of the most important Hungarian generals of the Hungarian War of Independence of 1848-1849, politician, member of the Hungarian Parliament, and deputy War Minister.
The Battle of Temesvár was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 9 August 1849 between the Austrian Empire and Hungarian Revolutionary Army supplemented by Polish volunteers. The Austrians were led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, while the Hungarians were led by Józef Bem who arrived at the eleventh hour from Transylvania. The Austrians were victorious.
The Thirteen Martyrs of Arad were the thirteen Hungarian rebel generals who were executed by the Austrian Empire on 6 October 1849 in the city of Arad, then part of the Kingdom of Hungary, after the Hungarian Revolution (1848–1849). The execution was ordered by the Austrian general Julius Jacob von Haynau.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. Being one of the most determinative events in Hungary's modern history, it is also one of the cornerstones of the Hungarian national identity. The crucial turning point of the events were the April laws which were ratified by King Ferdinand I, however the new young Austrian monarch Franz Joseph I arbitrarily revoked the laws without any legal competence. This unconstitutional act irreversibly escalated the conflict between the Hungarian parliament and Franz Joseph. The new constrained Stadion Constitution of Austria, the revocation of the April laws and the Austrian military campaign against the Kingdom of Hungary resulted in the fall of the pacifist Batthyány government and led to the sudden emergence of Lajos Kossuth's followers in the parliament, who demanded the full independence of Hungary. The Austrian military intervention in the Kingdom of Hungary resulted in strong anti-Habsburg sentiment among Hungarians, thus the events in Hungary grew into a war for total independence from the Habsburg dynasty.
Sir Mór Perczel de Bonyhád, was a Hungarian landholder, general, and one of the leaders of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
The Surrender at Világos, which was the formal end of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, took place on 13 August 1849, at Világos,. The terms were signed by Hungarian General Artúr Görgey on the rebels' side and Count Theodor von Rüdiger of the Russian Imperial Army. Following the capitulation, General Julius Jacob von Haynau was appointed Imperial plenipotentiary in the country and brutally re-subjugated it.
The Hungarian State was a short-lived state that existed for 4 months in the last phase of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848–49.
The Spring Campaign, named also the Glorious Spring Campaign is the military campaign of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army against the forces of the Habsburg Empire in Middle and Western Hungary during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 between 2 April and 21 May 1849, which resulted in the liberation of almost the whole territory of Hungary from the Habsburg forces.
The Battle of Vác, fought on 10 April 1849, was one of two important battles which took place in Vác during the Spring Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian revolutionary army. The battle was the starting point of the second phase of the Spring Campaign, during which the Hungarians planned to relieve the fortress of Komárom from an Austrian siege, and to encircle the Austrian forces headquartered in the Hungarian capitals of Buda and Pest.
The Second Battle of Komárom, sometimes known as the Battle of Ács, took place at 2 July 1849, between the Hungarian army led by General Artúr Görgei and the imperial army of Austria led by Field Marshal Julius von Haynau, which had also an almost 12 000 strong Russian contingent led by Lieutenant General Fyodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin. The imperial army outnumbered the Hungarian troops by 2 to 1, was superior also regarding the multitude of infantry and light as well as heavy (cuirassiers) cavalry unit types, and the quality of the weapons. Except the problems of military kind, problems of other kind also influenced negatively the Hungarian army. Short before the battle, the conflict between the Hungarian commander, Görgei, and the political leadership of Hungary, Lajos Kossuth and the Szemere-Government, escalated abruptly. The government lead by Kossuth, decided to retreat the Hungarian troops from the perfectly defensible Komárom to Southern Hungary, leaving half of the country in the hands of the enemy, without consulting the war minister Görgei, who was the only person with the right to take a military decision. Görgei considered this illegal decision as very wrong, but he accepted to execute it, in order to avoid the confrontation with the political leadership in such a critical military situation, fixing the date of the depart towards southern Hungary to 3 July. But despite of this, on 31 June Kossuth laid off Görgei from the high command of the Hungarian army, because he had read two of the latters letters in the wrong order. All these caused uncertainty and conflicts among the Hungarian officers and also soldiers before this very important enemy attack. Kossuth even sent Lieutenant General Lázár Mészáros to Komárom, to take the leadership from Görgei, and send him to Pest. But when Mészáros approached on 2 July, on a steam boat, to Komárom, he heard the gunshots of the battle, and returned to Pest.
The Austrian Supreme Commander Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau's plan was to force the Hungarian troops to retreat in the fortress of Komárom, to lay, with a part of his army, a siege against it from the south, opening in this way the road towards Buda and Pest. After accomplishing this goal the bulk of Haynau's troops had to advance towards East, and occupy the Hungarian capitals, before his allies, the Russian main troops led by Ivan Paskevich, arrived there.
The battle started on the early morning of 2 July with the attack of the I corps led by General Franz Schlik of the imperial troops from the direction of Ács, chasing quickly away the Hungarians from the Ács forest, then pushing them into the fortifications lying South from Komárom, and even capturing the Monostor-trenches, thus entering in the fortifications, menacing to occupy the whole southern fortification and trench system of the fortress, putting in danger the Hungarian troops from there, to be completely encircled.
The main aim of the third Battle of Komárom was to break through Haynau's blockade. Klapka took over the command of Görgey's army because of Görgey's injury. The Hungarian Government gave an order to the army to advance towards Maros. Görgey didn't follow the command because Haynau's army blocked the way south. The government gave a new order and on 11 July the Hungarian army started to attack the Austrians. New Hungarian troops arrived under the command of Ármin Görgey, and from Bátorkeszi under József Nagysándor.
The Battle of Csorna, fought on 13 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army. The Hungarian army was led by Colonel György Kmety, and the imperial army by Major General Franz Wyss. After liberation of the Hungarian capitals from the siege of Buda, the Hungarian commanders elaborated a plan to continue the Hungarian advance towards the Habsburg capital Vienna, before the arrival of the 200,000-strong army, sent by the Russian Empire to help the 170,000-strong Habsburg troops to crush the Hungarian revolution and freedom. But before the real fighting started between the two main armies, the commander of the 15th division of the VII Hungarian army corps, Colonel György Kmety, attacked the imperial half brigade led by Franz Wyss by surprise, and in heavy fighting forced them to flee. During the retreat the imperial commander also received a fatal wound, dying on the battlefield. At the same time two other Hungarian detachments from the VII corps also won victories against Austrian troops, chasing them away from Öttevény and Kóny.
The Battle of Pered, fought on 20–21 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and the Habsburg Empire helped by Russian troops. The Hungarian army was led by General Artúr Görgei, while the imperial army by Lieutenant field marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau. After several preliminary minor battles of the Hungarian and Austrian troops along the Vág river, in which the attacking Hungarians could not achieve a success, Görgei took the command of his troops, and after receiving reinforcements, at 20 June, put his troops to attack again towards West. Although the II. Hungarian army corps occupied in heavy fights the village of Pered, the other two corps were unsuccessful, and could not advance. The angered Görgei removed the commander of the III. corps, General Károly Knezić because of his inactivity, and Colonel Lajos Asbóth, the commander of the II. corps who, in contrast to Knezić, was the only commander who successfully accomplished his duties. While Knezić's place was taken by Colonel Károly Leiningen-Westerburg, who was a great choice, Asbóth's place was taken by Colonel József Kászonyi, who was an explicitly bad choice. Haynau, who in the first day of the battle was moving the bulk of his troops to cross the Danube in order to start an attack on its southern bank, sent three of his corps, which were still on the northern bank, to repel the Hungarian forces. The two Austrian and one Russian (Panyutin's) corps started their attack at 21 June, and forced the Hungarians to retreat from Pered and Zsigárd, which forced Görgei to order his troops to retreat from the battlefield.
The Battle of Győr was a battle in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought on 28 June 1849 between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army led by General Ernő Poletenberg and General Artúr Görgei, and the army of the Austrian Empire led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, supplemented with a Russian division led by Feodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin, in and around the Hungarian city of Győr. After the Battle of Pered Haynau's army, joined by the Habsburg emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, crossed the Danube to the southern bank of the river, without being noticed by the Hungarian troops, and attacked the Hungarian units displaced around Győr, placed to Árpás, Marcaltő and Ihász, cutting György Kmety's division from the main troops and forcing them to retreat towards Southern Hungary. The imperials, now were more than five times numerous than the Hungarian troops when they started the attack against Győr. The Hungarian high commander, Görgei at the start of the battle was not in the city, because at 26 June he had to participate in a ministry council at Pest, and arrived to Győr only towards the end of the battle, and assured, leading the Hungarian cavalry, the safe retreat of the Hungarian troops from the city. After the battle, Görgei's troops retreated to the fortress of Komárom, followed by the imperial troops.