Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1849 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1849
Ab urbe condita 2602
Armenian calendar 1298
Assyrian calendar 6599
Baháʼí calendar 5–6
Balinese saka calendar 1770–1771
Bengali calendar 1256
Berber calendar 2799
British Regnal year 12  Vict. 1   13  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2393
Burmese calendar 1211
Byzantine calendar 7357–7358
Chinese calendar 戊申年 (Earth  Monkey)
4546 or 4339
己酉年 (Earth  Rooster)
4547 or 4340
Coptic calendar 1565–1566
Discordian calendar 3015
Ethiopian calendar 1841–1842
Hebrew calendar 5609–5610
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1905–1906
 - Shaka Samvat 1770–1771
 - Kali Yuga 4949–4950
Holocene calendar 11849
Igbo calendar 849–850
Iranian calendar 1227–1228
Islamic calendar 1265–1266
Japanese calendar Kaei 2
Javanese calendar 1777–1778
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4182
Minguo calendar 63 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar 381
Thai solar calendar 2391–2392
Tibetan calendar 阳土猴年
(male Earth-Monkey)
1975 or 1594 or 822
(female Earth-Rooster)
1976 or 1595 or 823
March 22: Battle of Novara (1849) Field Marshal Radetzky and his staff at the Battle of Novara on March 23, 1849 (by Albrecht Adam).jpg
March 22: Battle of Novara (1849)

1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1849th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 849th year of the 2nd millennium, the 49th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1849, the Gregorian calendar was 12days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.







Date unknown



Edmund Barton Edmund Barton crop.PNG
Edmund Barton
Aleksander Swietochowski Aleksander Swietochowski by Ignacy Lopienski (cropped).jpg
Aleksander Świętochowski
August Strindberg AugustStrindberg.jpg
August Strindberg
Oscar Hertwig Oskar Hertwig.jpg
Oscar Hertwig
Lord Randolph Churchill Lord Randolph Churchill.jpg
Lord Randolph Churchill
Alfred von Tirpitz Bundesarchiv Bild 134-C1743, Alfred von Tirpitz.jpg
Alfred von Tirpitz
Bernhard von Bulow Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2004-0098A, Bernhard von Bulow.jpg
Bernhard von Bülow
Empress Shoken Empress Shoken2 (cropped).jpg
Empress Shōken


Emma Lazarus Emmalazarusengraving.jpg
Emma Lazarus
Maurice Barrymore Maurice Barrymore 001.jpg
Maurice Barrymore
Sarah Orne Jewett Sarah Orne Jewett 7.jpg
Sarah Orne Jewett
Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov NLM3.jpg
Ivan Pavlov
James Whitcomb Riley James Whitcomb Riley, 1913.jpg
James Whitcomb Riley
Georg Frobenius GeorgFrobenius (cropped).jpg
Georg Frobenius
Frances Hodgson Burnett Frances Burnett.jpg
Frances Hodgson Burnett

Date unknown



Maria Edgeworth Maria Edgeworth by John Downman 1807.jpg
Maria Edgeworth


Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe, circa 1849, restored, squared off.jpg
Edgar Allan Poe
Frederic Chopin Frederic Chopin by Bisson, 1849.png
Frédéric Chopin

Date unknown

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1848</span> Calendar year

1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1848th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 848th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1848, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Artúr Görgei</span> Hungarian military leader

Artúr Görgei de Görgő et Toporc was a Hungarian military leader renowned for being one of the greatest generals of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Josip Jelačić</span> Ban of Croatia between 1848 and 1859

Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim was a Croatian lieutenant field marshal in the Imperial Austrian Army and politician. He was the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 April 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Julius Jacob von Haynau</span> 19th-century Austrian general

Julius Jakob Freiherr von Haynau was an Austrian general who suppressed insurrectionary movements in Italy and Hungary in 1848 and later. While a hugely effective military leader, he also gained renown as an aggressive and ruthless commander. His soldiers called him the "Habsburg Tiger"; those opponents who suffered from his brutality called him the "Hyena of Brescia" and the "Hangman of Arad".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">György Klapka</span> Hungarian soldier (1820–1892)

György (Móric) Klapka was a Hungarian general. He was one of the most important Hungarian generals of the Hungarian War of Independence of 1848–1849, politician, member of the Hungarian Parliament, and deputy War Minister.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Temesvár</span> 1849 battle during the Hungarian Revolution

The Battle of Temesvár was a key battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 9 August 1849 between the Austrian Empire, led by Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau, and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army, led by Lieutenant General Józef Bem. Hungarian forces under Bem, together with siege corps led by Major General Károly Vécsey, totalled 55,000 soldiers. Austrian forces under Haynau totalled 38,000 soldiers, although their numerical disadvantage was mitigated by superior artillery. The battle resulted in an Austrian victory and was the decisive engagement of the war, which ended in defeat for the Hungarians.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hungarian Revolution of 1848</span>

The Hungarian Revolution of 1848, also known in Hungary as Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of 1848–1849 was one of many European Revolutions of 1848 and was closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. Although the revolution failed, it is one of the most significant events in Hungary's modern history, forming the cornerstone of modern Hungarian national identity - the anniversary of the Revolution's outbreak, 15 March, is one of Hungary's three national holidays.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Szőreg</span>

The Battle of Szőreg was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 5 August 1849 at Szőreg, Hungary, fought between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army led by Lieutenant General Henryk Dembiński and the main army of the Habsburg Empire led by Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau. The Austrian army was pressing on Szeged, a well fortified city from Southern Hungary. Dembiński decided to leave the fortifications and retreat to Szőreg near the Tisza river, where he placed many artillery batteries in the place named Kamaratöltés, preventing the frontal attack of Haynau's troops. The Austrian commander's response was sending his cavalry to cross the Tisza and flank the Hungarian troops. The cavalry managed to cross the river between Törökkanizsa and Makó, then engaged with the Hungarian cavalry in a huge battle around and in Szőreg, in which Dembiński himself was wounded, and the Hungarians safely retreated.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Franz Schlik</span>

Franz Joseph von Schlik of Bassano and Weisskirchen was a count and general in the Austrian Empire. He was one of the most successful Austrian generals during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Surrender at Világos</span> Battle during the Hungarian Revolution

The Surrender at Világos, which was the formal end of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, took place on 13 August 1849, at Világos,. The terms were signed by General Artúr Görgey of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army on the rebels' side and Count Theodor von Rüdiger of the Imperial Russian Army. Following the capitulation, General Julius Jacob von Haynau was appointed Imperial plenipotentiary in the country and brutally re-subjugated it.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hungarian State</span> 1849 unrecognised state in Central Europe

The Hungarian State was a short-lived unrecognised state that existed for 4 months in the last phase of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848–49.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spring Campaign</span> Hungarian military campaign

The Spring Campaign, named also the Glorious Spring Campaign is the military campaign of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army against the forces of the Habsburg Empire in Middle and Western Hungary during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 between 2 April and 21 May 1849, which resulted in the liberation of almost the whole territory of Hungary from the Habsburg forces.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Second Battle of Komárom (1849)</span> Battle of the Hungarian War of Independence

The Second Battle of Komárom, also known as the Battle of Ács, took place on 2 July 1849 between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Austrian Army of the Austrian Empire ; a contingent of almost 12,000 Russian Empire troops was led by Lieutenant General Fyodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin. The Austrian army outnumbered the Hungarian troops two to one, and had a multitude of infantry, light infantry, heavy cavalry (cuirassiers), and better weapons. The Hungarians, except for the Landwehr and the hussars, had few types of military units. Other problems also negatively impacted the Hungarian army. The Lajos Kossuth government decided to withdraw the Hungarian troops from Komárom to southern Hungary without consulting Görgei, the war minister, the only one authorised to make a military decision. Görgei grudgingly agreed to the decision, fixing the date of departure for southern Hungary to 3 July. Uncertainty and conflicts existed among the Hungarian officers and soldiers before the attack. Kossuth sent Lieutenant General Lázár Mészáros to Komárom to relieve Görgei of leadership and send him to Pest. When Mészáros approached Komárom by steamboat on 2 July, however, he heard gunfire from the battle and returned to Pest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Third Battle of Komárom (1849)</span>

The main aim of the third Battle of Komárom was to push back the Austrian army, easing the task of the Hungarian army to retreat towards South-East. The Hungarian Government agreed on a Hungarian attack against the Austrian troops led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, which was stationing to East and South-East from the fortress of Komárom. On 11 July the Hungarian army started to attack the Austrians. Although General Artúr Görgei was the commander of the Hungarian Army of the Upper Danube, General György Klapka took over the command of Görgey's army because of Görgey's injury in the Second Battle of Komárom from 2 July 1849. New Hungarian troops arrived under the command of Ármin Görgey, and from Bátorkeszi under József Nagysándor, decreasing the Hungarian numerical disadvantage in relation to the Austrian army led by Julius Jacob von Haynau.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Csorna</span>

The Battle of Csorna, fought on 13 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army. The Hungarian army was led by Colonel György Kmety, and the imperial army by Major General Franz Wyss. After liberation of the Hungarian capitals from the siege of Buda, the Hungarian commanders elaborated a plan to continue the Hungarian advance towards the Habsburg capital Vienna, before the arrival of the 200,000-strong army, sent by the Russian Empire to help the 170,000-strong Habsburg troops to crush the Hungarian revolution and freedom. But before the real fighting started between the two main armies, the commander of the 15th division of the VII Hungarian army corps, Colonel György Kmety, attacked the imperial half brigade led by Franz Wyss by surprise, and in heavy fighting forced them to flee. During the retreat the imperial commander also received a fatal wound, dying on the battlefield. At the same time two other Hungarian detachments from the VII corps also won victories against Austrian troops, chasing them away from Öttevény and Kóny.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Pered</span> 1849 battle in the Hungarian War of Independence

The Battle of Pered, fought on 20–21 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and the Habsburg Empire helped by Russian troops. The Hungarian army was led by General Artúr Görgei, while the imperial army by Lieutenant field marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau. After several preliminary minor battles of the Hungarian and Austrian troops along the Vág river, in which the attacking Hungarians could not achieve success, Görgei took the command of his troops, and after receiving reinforcements, on 20 June, put his troops to attack again towards West. Although the II. Hungarian army corps occupied in heavy fights the village of Pered, the other two corps were unsuccessful, and could not advance. The angered Görgei removed the commander of the III. corps, General Károly Knezić because of his inactivity, and Colonel Lajos Asbóth, the commander of the II. corps who, in contrast to Knezić, was the only commander who accomplished his duties. While Knezić's place was taken by Colonel Károly Leiningen-Westerburg, who was a great choice, Asbóth's place was taken by Colonel József Kászonyi, who was an explicitly bad choice. Haynau, who on the first day of the battle was moving the bulk of his troops to cross the Danube to start an attack on its southern bank, sent three of his corps, which were still on the northern bank, to repel the Hungarian forces. The two Austrian and one Russian corps started their attack on 21 June and forced the Hungarians to retreat from Pered and Zsigárd, which forced Görgei to order his troops to retreat from the battlefield.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Győr (1849)</span> Battle of the Hungarian War of Independence of 1848–1849

The Battle of Raab took place during the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence. It was fought on 28 June 1849 in the city of Raab, Hungary. The Hungarian Revolutionary Army was led by General Ernő Poeltenberg and General Artúr Görgei. The Austrian Empire was led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, with assistance from a Russian division led by Feodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Second Battle of Vác (1849)</span> Battle between Hungarians and Russians in 1849

The Battle of Vác, fought between 15 and 17 July 1849, was one of two important battles which took place in Vác during the Hungarian War of Independence. This battle, fought between the Russian Empire's intervention forces led by Field Marshal Ivan Paskevichand and the Hungarian Army of the Upper Danube led by General Artúr Görgei, was part of the Summer Campaign. After the lost battle of Komárom from 11 July 1849, Görgei tried to lead his army to the planned concentration point of the Hungarian troops around Szeged, but the Russians cut his road at Vác. In the battle, the still convalescent Görgei managed to capture Vác from the Russians, repulse the Russian attacks, then to retreat towards North-East, as much superior Russian forces arrived. Fearing that Görgei will cut their supply lines, after the battle, the four times bigger Russian army, instead of marching towards Szeged in order to unite with the Austrian main army of Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau, and to crush the much weaker Hungarian forces which were gathering there, followed Görgei's retreating troops, enabling them to arrive to the Hungarian concentration point with several days in front of them, creating the condition to unite with the Southern Hungarian troops, and crush the Austrian army of Haynau before the Russians arrived. Considering the fact that the actual plan of Görgei was to arrive to the concentration point before the Russians, and, as a result of the battle of Vác from 15 to 17 July, he managed to achieve this, this battle is considered a strategic victory for the Hungarians.

The Battle of Ihász took place during the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence. It was fought on 27 June 1849 around and in Ihász, a formerly existing village, today part of Marcaltő. In this battle, the Hungarian division led by General György Kmety fought against the Austrian Gerstner brigade led by Lieutenant General Adolf Schütte Edler von Warensberg. During the preparations for the Battle of Győr, the Gerstner brigade wanted to cut the Hungarians from the south, by attacking Marcaltő, but the Kmety division attacked them and halted their advance for 2 hours with its artillery, but the attack of the Austrian cavalry forced the Hungarians to retreat towards Pápa. A result of this battle was that the Kmety division was forced to retreat in Southern Hungary, so it could not support the Hungarian main army led by General Artúr Görgei in the very important battles for Győr and Komárom.

The Battle of Hetény, fought on 5 September 1849, between Hungarian Hussars led by General György Klapka and a Russian detachment of Cossacks was one of the last battles of the Hungarian War of Independence. After the surrender of the Hungarian army led by General Artúr Görgei at Szőlős, one of the last strongholds of the Hungarian independence was the fortress of Komárom, which now was being surrounded by Austrian and Russian troops. The small reconnaissance unit of Hungarian hussars which tried to acquire knowledge about the enemy's strength, was attacked by a platoon of Russian cossacks, but the Hungarians defeated them, using the tactic of feigned retreat. These kind of small scaled battles and skirmishes between Hungarian troops with the Austrian and Russian besieging units continued until the surrender of the fortress of Komárom on 2 October 1849.


  1. Hungarian History: January 8, 1849 And the Genocide of the Hungarians of Nagyenyed
  2. "Plank Roads Chartered in North Carolina". North Carolina Business History. 2006. Archived from the original on March 29, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  3. "Railroads — prior to the Civil War". North Carolina Business History. 2006. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  4. Egy évszázados per. A Görgey-kérdés tegnap és ma: The Görgey-Question Yesterday and Today Archived May 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  5. Történelmi Szemle: Szász Zoltán A nemzetiségek és az 1848-as magyar forradalom
  6. Muñoz Sougarret, Jorge (2010). "El naufragio del bergantín Joven Daniel, 1849. El indígena en el imaginario histórico de Chile". Tiempo Histórico (in Spanish) (1): 133–148.
  7. J. W. Gregory, The Great Rift Valley: Being the Narrative of a Journey to Mount Kenya and Lake Baringo with Some Account of the Geology, Natural History, Anthropology and Future Prospects of British East Africa (Frank Cass and Company, 1896) (reprinted 1968) p182
  8. James F. Harris, The People Speak!: Anti-Semitism and Emancipation in Nineteenth-century Bavaria (University of Michigan Press, 1994) p159
  9. Helmut Walser Smith, The Continuities of German History: Nation, Religion, and Race across the Long Nineteenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 2008) p133
  10. Holman Hamilton, Prologue to Conflict: The Crisis and Compromise of 1850 (University Press of Kentucky, 2015) p42
  11. Lubbock, Basil (1933). The Opium Clippers. Boston, MA: Charles E. Lauriat Co. p. 310.
  12. "Anne Brontë | British author". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  13. Randel, Don Michael (October 30, 2002). The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Harvard University Press. p. 866. ISBN   978-0-674-25572-2.