1849

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1849 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1849
MDCCCXLIX
Ab urbe condita 2602
Armenian calendar 1298
ԹՎ ՌՄՂԸ
Assyrian calendar 6599
Bahá'í calendar 5–6
Balinese saka calendar 1770–1771
Bengali calendar 1256
Berber calendar 2799
British Regnal year 12  Vict. 1   13  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2393
Burmese calendar 1211
Byzantine calendar 7357–7358
Chinese calendar 戊申(Earth  Monkey)
4545 or 4485
     to 
己酉年 (Earth  Rooster)
4546 or 4486
Coptic calendar 1565–1566
Discordian calendar 3015
Ethiopian calendar 1841–1842
Hebrew calendar 5609–5610
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1905–1906
 - Shaka Samvat 1770–1771
 - Kali Yuga 4949–4950
Holocene calendar 11849
Igbo calendar 849–850
Iranian calendar 1227–1228
Islamic calendar 1265–1266
Japanese calendar Kaei 2
(嘉永2年)
Javanese calendar 1777–1778
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4182
Minguo calendar 63 before ROC
民前63年
Nanakshahi calendar 381
Thai solar calendar 2391–2392
Tibetan calendar 阳土猴年
(male Earth-Monkey)
1975 or 1594 or 822
     to 
阴土鸡年
(female Earth-Rooster)
1976 or 1595 or 823

1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1849th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 849th year of the 2nd millennium, the 49th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1849, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–June

Edmund Barton Edmund Barton crop.PNG
Edmund Barton
Oscar Hertwig Oskar Hertwig.jpg
Oscar Hertwig
Bernhard von Bulow Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2004-0098A, Bernhard von Bulow.jpg
Bernhard von Bülow
Hallie Quinn Brown Hallie Q Brown.jpg
Hallie Quinn Brown

July–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

Maria Edgeworth Maria Edgeworth by John Downman 1807.jpg
Maria Edgeworth

July–December

Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe, circa 1849, restored, squared off.jpg
Edgar Allan Poe
Frederic Chopin Frederic Chopin by Bisson, 1849.png
Frédéric Chopin

Date unknown

Related Research Articles

1848 Calendar year

1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1848th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 848th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1848, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Artúr Görgei Hungarian military leader

Artúr Görgei de Görgő et Toporc was a Hungarian military leader renowned for being one of the greatest generals of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army.

Josip Jelačić Ban of Croatia between 1848 and 1859

Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim was a Croatian lieutenant field marshal in a Imperial-Royal Army and politician, the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 April 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia.

Józef Bem

Józef Zachariasz Bem was a Polish engineer and general, an Ottoman pasha and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined with other European patriotic movements. Like Tadeusz Kościuszko and Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, Bem fought outside Poland's borders anywhere his leadership and military skills were needed.

Battle of Segesvár

The Battle of Segesvár was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 31 July 1849 between the Hungarian revolutionary army supplemented by Polish volunteers under the command of General Józef Bem and the Russian V Corps under General Alexander von Lüders in ally with the Austrian army led by General Eduard Clam-Gallas. The battle was won by the Russian-Austrian army and it is presumed that the Hungarian poet and national hero Sándor Petőfi died in the battlefield, though his body was never found.

Julius Jacob von Haynau

Julius Jakob Freiherr von Haynau was an Austrian general who suppressed insurrectionary movements in Italy and Hungary in 1848 and later. While a hugely effective military leader, he also gained renown as an aggressive and ruthless commander. His soldiers called him the "Habsburg Tiger"; those opponents who suffered from his brutality called him the "Hyena of Brescia" and the "Hangman of Arad".

György Klapka Hungarian soldier

György (Móric) Klapka, also known in German as Georg Klapka was a Hungarian general. He was one of the most important Hungarian generals of the Hungarian War of Independence of 1848–1849, politician, member of the Hungarian Parliament, and deputy War Minister.

Battle of Temesvár

The Battle of Temesvár was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 9 August 1849 between the Austrian Empire and Hungarian Revolutionary Army supplemented by Polish volunteers and was the last battle of the war. The Austrians were led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, while the Hungarians were led by Józef Bem who arrived at the eleventh hour from Transylvania. The Austrians were victorious.

Hungarian Revolution of 1848 European Revolution of 1848

The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 or fully Hungarian Civic Revolution and War of Independence of 1848–1849 was one of many European Revolutions of 1848 and was closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. Although the revolution failed, it is one of the most significant events in Hungary's modern history, forming a cornerstone of modern Hungarian national identity.

Mór Perczel

Sir Mór Perczel de Bonyhád, was a Hungarian landholder, general, and one of the leaders of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

Surrender at Világos

The Surrender at Világos, which was the formal end of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, took place on 13 August 1849, at Világos,. The terms were signed by Hungarian General Artúr Görgey on the rebels' side and Count Theodor von Rüdiger of the Russian Imperial Army. Following the capitulation, General Julius Jacob von Haynau was appointed Imperial plenipotentiary in the country and brutally re-subjugated it.

Hungarian State

The Hungarian State was a short-lived state that existed for 4 months in the last phase of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848–49.

Spring Campaign

The Spring Campaign, named also the Glorious Spring Campaign is the military campaign of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army against the forces of the Habsburg Empire in Middle and Western Hungary during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 between 2 April and 21 May 1849, which resulted in the liberation of almost the whole territory of Hungary from the Habsburg forces.

First Battle of Vác (1849)

The Battle of Vác, fought on 10 April 1849, was one of two important battles which took place in Vác during the Spring Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian revolutionary army. The battle was the starting point of the second phase of the Spring Campaign, during which the Hungarians planned to relieve the fortress of Komárom from an Austrian siege, and to encircle the Austrian forces headquartered in the Hungarian capitals of Buda and Pest.

Second Battle of Komárom (1849)

The Second Battle of Komárom, also known as the Battle of Ács, took place on July 2, 1849, between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Austrian Army of the Austrian Empire ; a contingent of almost 12,000 Russian Empire troops was led by Lieutenant General Fyodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin. The Austrian army outnumbered the Hungarian troops two to one, and had a multitude of infantry, light infantry, heavy cavalry (cuirassiers), and better weapons. The Hungarians, except for the Landwehr and the hussars, had few types of military units. Other problems also negatively impacted the Hungarian army. The Lajos Kossuth government decided to withdraw the Hungarian troops from Komárom to southern Hungary without consulting Görgei, the war minister, the only one authorised to make a military decision. Görgei grudgingly agreed to the decision, fixing the date of departure for southern Hungary to 3 July. Uncertainty and conflicts existed among the Hungarian officers and soldiers before the attack. Kossuth sent Lieutenant General Lázár Mészáros to Komárom to relieve Görgei of leadership and send him to Pest. When Mészáros approached Komárom by steamboat on 2 July, however, he heard gunfire from the battle and returned to Pest.

The main aim of the third Battle of Komárom was to break through Haynau's blockade. Klapka took over the command of Görgey's army because of Görgey's injury. The Hungarian Government gave an order to the army to advance towards the Maros river. Görgey didn't follow the command because Haynau's army blocked the way south. The government gave a new order and on 11 July the Hungarian army started to attack the Austrians. New Hungarian troops arrived under the command of Ármin Görgey, and from Bátorkeszi under József Nagysándor.

Battle of Csorna

The Battle of Csorna, fought on 13 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army. The Hungarian army was led by Colonel György Kmety, and the imperial army by Major General Franz Wyss. After liberation of the Hungarian capitals from the siege of Buda, the Hungarian commanders elaborated a plan to continue the Hungarian advance towards the Habsburg capital Vienna, before the arrival of the 200,000-strong army, sent by the Russian Empire to help the 170,000-strong Habsburg troops to crush the Hungarian revolution and freedom. But before the real fighting started between the two main armies, the commander of the 15th division of the VII Hungarian army corps, Colonel György Kmety, attacked the imperial half brigade led by Franz Wyss by surprise, and in heavy fighting forced them to flee. During the retreat the imperial commander also received a fatal wound, dying on the battlefield. At the same time two other Hungarian detachments from the VII corps also won victories against Austrian troops, chasing them away from Öttevény and Kóny.

Battle of Pered

The Battle of Pered, fought on 20–21 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and the Habsburg Empire helped by Russian troops. The Hungarian army was led by General Artúr Görgei, while the imperial army by Lieutenant field marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau. After several preliminary minor battles of the Hungarian and Austrian troops along the Vág river, in which the attacking Hungarians could not achieve a success, Görgei took the command of his troops, and after receiving reinforcements, at 20 June, put his troops to attack again towards West. Although the II. Hungarian army corps occupied in heavy fights the village of Pered, the other two corps were unsuccessful, and could not advance. The angered Görgei removed the commander of the III. corps, General Károly Knezić because of his inactivity, and Colonel Lajos Asbóth, the commander of the II. corps who, in contrast to Knezić, was the only commander who successfully accomplished his duties. While Knezić's place was taken by Colonel Károly Leiningen-Westerburg, who was a great choice, Asbóth's place was taken by Colonel József Kászonyi, who was an explicitly bad choice. Haynau, who in the first day of the battle was moving the bulk of his troops to cross the Danube in order to start an attack on its southern bank, sent three of his corps, which were still on the northern bank, to repel the Hungarian forces. The two Austrian and one Russian (Panyutin's) corps started their attack at 21 June, and forced the Hungarians to retreat from Pered and Zsigárd, which forced Görgei to order his troops to retreat from the battlefield.

Battle of Győr

The Battle of Győr took place during the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence. It was fought from 1848 to 1849 in the Hungarian city of Győr. The Hungarian Revolutionary Army was led by General Ernő Poletenberg and General Artúr Görgei. The Austrian Empire was led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, with assistance from a Russian division led by Feodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin.

Nikolai Fyodorovich Engelhardt was a Russian lieutenant general who helped to suppress the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

References

  1. Hungarian History: January 8, 1849 And the Genocide of the Hungarians of Nagyenyed
  2. "Plank Roads Chartered in North Carolina". North Carolina Business History. 2006. Archived from the original on March 29, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  3. Egy évszázados per. A Görgey-kérdés tegnap és ma: The Görgey-Question Yesterday and Today Archived May 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  4. Történelmi Szemle: Szász Zoltán A nemzetiségek és az 1848-as magyar forradalom
  5. Muñoz Sougarret, Jorge (2010). "El naufragio del bergantín Joven Daniel, 1849. El indígena en el imaginario histórico de Chile". Tiempo Histórico (in Spanish) (1): 133–148.
  6. J. W. Gregory, The Great Rift Valley: Being the Narrative of a Journey to Mount Kenya and Lake Baringo with Some Account of the Geology, Natural History, Anthropology and Future Prospects of British East Africa (Frank Cass and Company, 1896) (reprinted 1968) p182
  7. James F. Harris, The People Speak!: Anti-Semitism and Emancipation in Nineteenth-century Bavaria (University of Michigan Press, 1994) p159
  8. Helmut Walser Smith, The Continuities of German History: Nation, Religion, and Race across the Long Nineteenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 2008) p133
  9. Holman Hamilton, Prologue to Conflict: The Crisis and Compromise of 1850 (University Press of Kentucky, 2015) p42
  10. "Railroads — prior to the Civil War". North Carolina Business History. 2006. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  11. Lubbock, Basil (1933). The Opium Clippers. Boston, MA: Charles E. Lauriat Co. p. 310.
  12. "Anne Brontë | British author". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 17, 2019.