1849

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1849 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1849
MDCCCXLIX
Ab urbe condita 2602
Armenian calendar 1298
ԹՎ ՌՄՂԸ
Assyrian calendar 6599
Bahá'í calendar 5–6
Balinese saka calendar 1770–1771
Bengali calendar 1256
Berber calendar 2799
British Regnal year 12  Vict. 1   13  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2393
Burmese calendar 1211
Byzantine calendar 7357–7358
Chinese calendar 戊申(Earth  Monkey)
4545 or 4485
     to 
己酉年 (Earth  Rooster)
4546 or 4486
Coptic calendar 1565–1566
Discordian calendar 3015
Ethiopian calendar 1841–1842
Hebrew calendar 5609–5610
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1905–1906
 - Shaka Samvat 1770–1771
 - Kali Yuga 4949–4950
Holocene calendar 11849
Igbo calendar 849–850
Iranian calendar 1227–1228
Islamic calendar 1265–1266
Japanese calendar Kaei 2
(嘉永2年)
Javanese calendar 1777–1778
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4182
Minguo calendar 63 before ROC
民前63年
Nanakshahi calendar 381
Thai solar calendar 2391–2392
Tibetan calendar 阳土猴年
(male Earth-Monkey)
1975 or 1594 or 822
     to 
阴土鸡年
(female Earth-Rooster)
1976 or 1595 or 823

1849 ( MDCCCXLIX ) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar , the 1849th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 849th year of the 2nd millennium , the 49th year of the 19th century , and the 10th and last year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1849, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013 and 2019 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.

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Events

January–March

January 1 is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year. This day is known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year. It is also the first day of the first quarter of the year and the first half of the year.

Ceres series (France)

The Ceres series was the first postage stamp series of France, issued in 6 different values from 1849 to 1850 as a representation of the French Republic.

Postage stamp small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage

A postage stamp is a small piece of paper issued by a post office, postal administration, or other authorized vendors to customers who pay postage, who then affix the stamp to the face or address-side of any item of mail—an envelope or other postal cover —that they wish to send. The item is then processed by the postal system, where a postmark or cancellation mark—in modern usage indicating date and point of origin of mailing—is applied to the stamp and its left and right sides to prevent its reuse. The item is then delivered to its addressee.

AprilJune

JulySeptember

OctoberDecember

Date unknown

Births

JanuaryJune

Edmund Barton Edmund Barton crop.PNG
Edmund Barton
Oscar Hertwig Oskar Hertwig.jpg
Oscar Hertwig
Bernhard von Bulow Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2004-0098A, Bernhard von Bulow.jpg
Bernhard von Bülow
Hallie Quinn Brown Hallie Q Brown.jpg
Hallie Quinn Brown

JulyDecember

Date unknown

Deaths

JanuaryJune

Maria Edgeworth Maria Edgeworth by John Downman 1807.jpg
Maria Edgeworth

JulyDecember

Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe daguerreotype crop.png
Edgar Allan Poe
Frederic Chopin Frederic Chopin by Bisson, 1849.png
Frédéric Chopin

Date unknown

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First Battle of Vác (1849)

The Battle of Vác, fought on 10 April 1849, was one of two important battles which took place in Vác during the Spring Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian revolutionary army. This battle was the starting point of the second phase of the Spring Campaign, during which the Hungarians planned to relieve the fortress of Komárom from an Austrian siege, and to encircle the Austrian forces headquartered in the Hungarian capitals of Buda and Pest.

Battle of Nagysalló

The Battle of Nagysalló, fought on 19 April 1849, was one of the battles between the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army during the Spring Campaign in the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848–1849, fought between the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army. Until 1918 Nagysalló was part of the Kingdom of Hungary; nowadays it is a village in Slovakia, its Slovakian name being Tekovské Lužany. This was the second battle in the second phase of the campaign, whose aim was to break the imperial siege of the fortress of Komárom and at the same time encircle the Habsburg imperial forces headquartered in the Hungarian capitals of Buda and Pest. The Hungarians routed the imperial corps led by Lieutenant General Ludwig von Wohlgemuth, which had come from the Habsburg Hereditary Lands, to help the imperial army sent to suppress the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and independence.

First Battle of Komárom (1849)

The First battle of Komárom was one of the most important battles of the Hungarian War of Independence, fought on 26 April 1849, between the Hungarian and the Austrian Imperial main armies, which some consider ended as a Hungarian victory, while others say that actually it was undecided. This battle was part of the Hungarian Spring Campaign. After the revolutionary army attacked and broke the Austrian siege of the fortress, the Imperials, having received reinforcements which made them numerically very superior to their enemies, successfully counterattacked, but after stabilising their situation, they retreated towards Győr,leaving the trenches and much of their siege artillery in Hungarian hands. By this battle the Hungarian revolutionary army relieved the fortress of Komárom from a very long imperial siege, and forced the enemy to retreat to the westernmost margin of the Kingdom of Hungary. After this battle, following a long debate among the Hungarian military and political leaders about whether to continue their advance towards Vienna, the Habsburg capital, or towards the Hungarian capital, Buda, whose fortress was still held by the Austrians, the second option was chosen.

Second Battle of Komárom (1849)

The Second Battle of Komárom, sometimes known as the Battle of Ács, took place at 2 July 1849, between the Hungarian army led by General Artúr Görgei and the imperial army of Austria led by Field Marshal Julius von Haynau, which had also an almost 12 000 strong Russian contingent led by Lieutenant General Fyodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin. The imperial army outnumbered the Hungarian troops by 2 to 1, was superior also regarding the multitude of infantry and light as well as heavy (cuirassiers) cavalry unit types, and the quality of the weapons. Except the problems of military kind, problems of other kind also influenced negatively the Hungarian army. Short before the battle, the conflict between the Hungarian commander, Görgei, and the political leadership of Hungary, Lajos Kossuth and the Szemere-Government, escalated abruptly. The government lead by Kossuth, decided to retreat the Hungarian troops from the perfectly defendable Komárom to Southern Hungary, leaving half of the country in the hands of the enemy, without consulting the war minister Görgei, who was the only person with the right to take a military decision. Görgei considered this illegal decision as very wrong, but he accepted to execute it, in order to avoid the confrontation with the political leadership in such a critical military situation, fixing the date of the depart towards southern Hungary to 3 July. But despite of this, on 31 June Kossuth laid off Görgei from the high commandement of the Hungarian army, because he had read two of the latters letters in the wrong order. All these caused uncertainity and conflicts among the Hungarian officers and also soldiers before this very important enemy attack. Kossuth even sent Lieutenant General Lázár Mészáros to Komárom, to take the leadership from Görgei, and send him to Pest. But when Mészáros approached on 2 July, on a steam boat, to Komárom, he heard the gunshots of the battle, and returned to Pest.
The Austrian Supreme Commander Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau's plan was to force the Hungarian troops to retreat in the fortress of Komárom, to lay, with a part of his army, a siege against it from the south, opening in this way the road towards Buda and Pest. After accomplishing this goal the bulk of Haynau's troops had to advance towards East, and occupy the Hungarian capitals, before his allies, the Russian main troops led by Ivan Paskevich, arrived there.
The battle started on the early morning of 2 July with the attack of the I corps led by General Franz Schlik of the imperial troops from the direction of Ács, chasing quickly away the Hungarians from the Ács forrest, then pushing them into the fortifications lying South from Komárom, and even capturing the Monostor-trenches, thus entering in the fortifications, menacing to occupy the whole southern fortification and trench system of the fortress, putting in danger the Hungarian troops from there, to be completely encircled.

The main aim of the third Battle of Komárom was to break through Haynau's blockade. Klapka took over the command of Görgey's army because of Görgey's injury. The Hungarian Government gave an order to the army to advance towards Maros. Görgey didn't follow the command because Haynau's army blocked the way south. The government gave a new order and on 11 July the Hungarian army started to attack the Austrians. New Hungarian troops arrived under the command of Ármin Görgey, and from Bátorkeszi under József Nagysándor.

Battle of Csorna

The Battle of Csorna, fought on 13 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army. The Hungarian army was led by Colonel György Kmety, and the imperial army by Major General Franz Wyss. After liberation of the Hungarian capitals from the siege of Buda, the Hungarian commanders elaborated a plan to continue the Hungarian advance towards the Habsburg capital Vienna, before the arrival of the 200,000-strong army, sent by the Russian Empire to help the 170,000-strong Habsburg troops to crush the Hungarian revolution and freedom. But before the real fighting started between the two main armies, the commander of the 15th division of the VII Hungarian army corps, Colonel György Kmety, attacked the imperial half brigade led by Franz Wyss by surprise, and in heavy fighting forced them to flee. During the retreat the imperial commander also received a fatal wound, dying on the battlefield. At the same time two other Hungarian detachments from the VII corps also won victories against Austrian troops, chasing them away from Öttevény and Kóny.

Battle of Pered

The Battle of Pered, fought on 20–21 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and the Habsburg Empire helped by Russian troops. The Hungarian army was led by General Artúr Görgei, while the imperial army by Lieutenant field marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau. After a several preliminary minor battles of the Hungarian and Austrian troops along the Vág river, in which the attacking Hungarians could not achieve a success, Görgei took the command of his troops, and after receiving reinforcements, at 20 June, put his troops to attack again towards West. Although the II. Hungarian army corps occupied in heavy fights the village of Pered, the other two corps were unsuccessful, and could not advance. The angered Görgei removed the commander of the III. corps, General Károly Knezić because of his inactivity, and Colonel Lajos Asbóth, the commander of the II. corps who, in contrast to Knezić, was the only commander who successfully accomplished his duties. While Knezić's place was taken by Colonel Károly Leiningen-Westerburg, who was a great choice, Asbóth's place was taken by Colonel József Kászonyi, who was an explicitly bad choice. Haynau, who in the first day of the battle was moving the bulk of his troops to cross the Danube in order to start an attack on its southern bank, sent three of his corps, which were still on the northern bank, to repel the Hungarian forces. The two Austrian and one Russian (Panyutin's) corps started their attack at 21 June, and forced the Hungarians to retreat from Pered and Zsigárd, which forced Görgei to order his troops to retreat from the battlefield.

Battle of Győr

The Battle of Győr was a battle in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought on 28 June 1849 between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army led by General Ernő Poletenberg and General Artúr Görgei, and the army of the Austrian Empire led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, supplemented with a Russian division led by Feodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin, in and around the Hungarian city of Győr. After the Battle of Pered Haynau's army, joined by the Habsburg emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, crossed the Danube to the southern bank of the river, without being noticed by the Hungarian troops, and attacked the Hungarian units displaced around Győr, placed to Árpás, Marcaltő and Ihász, cutting György Kmety's division from the main troops and forcing them to retreat towards Southern Hungary. The imperials, now were more than five times numerous than the Hungarian troops when they started the attack against Győr. The Hungarian high commander, Görgei at the start of the battle was not in the city, because at 26th June he had to participate in a ministry council at Pest, and arrived to Győr only towards the end of the battle, and assured, leading the Hungarian cavalry, the safe retreat of the Hungarian troops from the city. After the battle, Görgei's troops retreated to the fortress of Komárom, followed by the imperial troops.

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