|1849 in topic|
| Archaeology – Architecture – Art |
Film - Literature – Music - (jazz)
|Australia – Belgium – Brazil – Bulgaria – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – Venezuela|
|Rail transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Sovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2602|
|Balinese saka calendar||1770–1771|
|British Regnal year||12 Vict. 1 – 13 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 戊申年 (Earth Monkey)|
4545 or 4485
— to —
己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
4546 or 4486
|- Vikram Samvat||1905–1906|
|- Shaka Samvat||1770–1771|
|- Kali Yuga||4949–4950|
|Japanese calendar|| Kaei 2|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||63 before ROC |
|Thai solar calendar||2391–2392|
1975 or 1594 or 822
— to —
1976 or 1595 or 823
1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1849th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 849th year of the 2nd millennium, the 49th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1849, the Gregorian calendar was 12days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1848th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 848th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1848, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
Artúr Görgei de Görgő et Toporc was a Hungarian military leader renowned for being one of the greatest generals of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army.
Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim was a Croatian lieutenant field marshal in the Imperial-Royal Army and politician, the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 April 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia.
The Battle of Segesvár, also called the Battle of Fehéregyháza, was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 31 July 1849 between the Hungarian revolutionary army under the command of Lieutenant General Józef Bem and the Russian V Corps under General Alexander von Lüders. The battle ended with the victory of the Russian army, which was presumably the death location of Hungarian poet and national hero Sándor Petőfi, though his body was never found. Furthermore, The Chief of Staff Russian V corps, General Grigory Skariatin was killed at the battle. Although heavy, the defeat was not decisive for the Hungarian army of Transylvania, Lieutenant General Józef Bem continuing his resistance in this province until the Battle of Nagycsűr from 6 August 1849.
Julius Jakob Freiherr von Haynau was an Austrian general who suppressed insurrectionary movements in Italy and Hungary in 1848 and later. While a hugely effective military leader, he also gained renown as an aggressive and ruthless commander. His soldiers called him the "Habsburg Tiger"; those opponents who suffered from his brutality called him the "Hyena of Brescia" and the "Hangman of Arad".
György (Móric) Klapka was a Hungarian general. He was one of the most important Hungarian generals of the Hungarian War of Independence of 1848–1849, politician, member of the Hungarian Parliament, and deputy War Minister.
The Battle of Temesvár was a key battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 9 August 1849 between the Austrian Empire, led by Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau, and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army, led by Lieutenant General Józef Bem. Hungarian forces under Bem, together with siege corps led by Major General Károly Vécsey, totalled 55,000 soldiers. Austrian forces under Haynau totalled 38,000 soldiers, although their numerical disadvantage was mitigated by superior artillery. The battle resulted in an Austrian victory and was the decisive engagement of the war, which ended in defeat for the Hungarians.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 or fully Hungarian Civic Revolution and War of Independence of 1848–1849 was one of many European Revolutions of 1848 and was closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. Although the revolution failed, it is one of the most significant events in Hungary's modern history, forming the cornerstone of modern Hungarian national identity.
Sir Mór Perczel de Bonyhád, was a Hungarian landholder, general, and one of the leaders of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
The Battle of Szőreg was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 5 August 1849 at Szőreg, Hungary, fought between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army led by Lieutenant General Henryk Dembiński and the main army of the Habsburg Empire led by Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau. The Austrian army was pressing on Szeged, a well fortified city from Southern Hungary. Dembiński decided to leave the fortifications and retreat to Szőreg near the Tisza river, where he placed many artillery batteries in the place named Kamaratöltés, preveting the frontal attack of Haynau's troops. The Austrian commanders response was sending his cavalry to cross the Tisza and flank the Hungarian troops. The cavalry managed to cross the river between Törökkanizsa and Makó, then engaged with the Hungarian cavalry in a huge battle around and in Szőreg, in which Dembiński himself was wounded, and the Hungarians retreated. The Hungarians retreated quite safely, because the darkness of the evening came. The outcome of the battle was not serious because of the Hungarian losses, but because of the unity of the army was broken up by the Austro-Russian attack. Thanks to the heroic resistance of some units, the Hungarians avoided the catastrophe. After the battle Dembiński made an even greater mistake. Instead of marching towards North, to Arad, where the Upper Danube Army led by General Artúr Görgei was heading, and now, united with them, thus having an important numerical superiority, to try to crush Haynau's army, he headed alone with his troops towards South, to Temesvár where his army will suffer the decissive defeat from the Austrians.
The Surrender at Világos, which was the formal end of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, took place on 13 August 1849, at Világos,. The terms were signed by Hungarian General Artúr Görgey on the rebels' side and Count Theodor von Rüdiger of the Russian Imperial Army. Following the capitulation, General Julius Jacob von Haynau was appointed Imperial plenipotentiary in the country and brutally re-subjugated it.
The Hungarian State was a short-lived state that existed for 4 months in the last phase of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848–49.
The Spring Campaign, named also the Glorious Spring Campaign is the military campaign of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army against the forces of the Habsburg Empire in Middle and Western Hungary during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 between 2 April and 21 May 1849, which resulted in the liberation of almost the whole territory of Hungary from the Habsburg forces.
The Second Battle of Komárom, also known as the Battle of Ács, took place on July 2, 1849, between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Austrian Army of the Austrian Empire ; a contingent of almost 12,000 Russian Empire troops was led by Lieutenant General Fyodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin. The Austrian army outnumbered the Hungarian troops two to one, and had a multitude of infantry, light infantry, heavy cavalry (cuirassiers), and better weapons. The Hungarians, except for the Landwehr and the hussars, had few types of military units. Other problems also negatively impacted the Hungarian army. The Lajos Kossuth government decided to withdraw the Hungarian troops from Komárom to southern Hungary without consulting Görgei, the war minister, the only one authorised to make a military decision. Görgei grudgingly agreed to the decision, fixing the date of departure for southern Hungary to 3 July. Uncertainty and conflicts existed among the Hungarian officers and soldiers before the attack. Kossuth sent Lieutenant General Lázár Mészáros to Komárom to relieve Görgei of leadership and send him to Pest. When Mészáros approached Komárom by steamboat on 2 July, however, he heard gunfire from the battle and returned to Pest.
The main aim of the third Battle of Komárom was to push back the Austrian army, easing the task of the Hungarian army to retreat towards South-East. The Hungarian Government agreed on a Hungarian attack against the Austrian troops led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, which was stationing to East and South-East from the fortress of Komárom. On 11 July the Hungarian army started to attack the Austrians. Although General Artúr Görgei was the commander of the Hungarian Army of the Upper Danube, General György Klapka took over the command of Görgey's army because of Görgey's injury in the Second Battle of Komárom from 2 July 1849. New Hungarian troops arrived under the command of Ármin Görgey, and from Bátorkeszi under József Nagysándor, decreasing the Hungarian numerical disadvantage in relation to the Austrian army led by Julius Jacob von Haynau.
The Battle of Csorna, fought on 13 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army. The Hungarian army was led by Colonel György Kmety, and the imperial army by Major General Franz Wyss. After liberation of the Hungarian capitals from the siege of Buda, the Hungarian commanders elaborated a plan to continue the Hungarian advance towards the Habsburg capital Vienna, before the arrival of the 200,000-strong army, sent by the Russian Empire to help the 170,000-strong Habsburg troops to crush the Hungarian revolution and freedom. But before the real fighting started between the two main armies, the commander of the 15th division of the VII Hungarian army corps, Colonel György Kmety, attacked the imperial half brigade led by Franz Wyss by surprise, and in heavy fighting forced them to flee. During the retreat the imperial commander also received a fatal wound, dying on the battlefield. At the same time two other Hungarian detachments from the VII corps also won victories against Austrian troops, chasing them away from Öttevény and Kóny.
The Battle of Pered, fought on 20–21 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and the Habsburg Empire helped by Russian troops. The Hungarian army was led by General Artúr Görgei, while the imperial army by Lieutenant field marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau. After several preliminary minor battles of the Hungarian and Austrian troops along the Vág river, in which the attacking Hungarians could not achieve success, Görgei took the command of his troops, and after receiving reinforcements, on 20 June, put his troops to attack again towards West. Although the II. Hungarian army corps occupied in heavy fights the village of Pered, the other two corps were unsuccessful, and could not advance. The angered Görgei removed the commander of the III. corps, General Károly Knezić because of his inactivity, and Colonel Lajos Asbóth, the commander of the II. corps who, in contrast to Knezić, was the only commander who accomplished his duties. While Knezić's place was taken by Colonel Károly Leiningen-Westerburg, who was a great choice, Asbóth's place was taken by Colonel József Kászonyi, who was an explicitly bad choice. Haynau, who on the first day of the battle was moving the bulk of his troops to cross the Danube to start an attack on its southern bank, sent three of his corps, which were still on the northern bank, to repel the Hungarian forces. The two Austrian and one Russian corps started their attack on 21 June and forced the Hungarians to retreat from Pered and Zsigárd, which forced Görgei to order his troops to retreat from the battlefield.
The Battle of Győr took place during the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence. It was fought 28 June 1849 in the Hungarian city of Győr. The Hungarian Revolutionary Army was led by General Ernő Poeltenberg and General Artúr Görgei. The Austrian Empire was led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, with assistance from a Russian division led by Feodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin.
The Battle of Vác, fought between 15 and 17 July 1849, was one of two important battles which took place in Vác during the Hungarian War of Independence. This battle, fought between the Russian Empire's intervention forces led by Field Marshal Ivan Paskevichand and the Hungarian Army of the Upper Danube led by General Artúr Görgei, was part of the Summer Campaign. After the lost battle of Komárom from 11 July 1849, Görgei tried to lead his army to the planned concentration point of the Hungarian troops around Szeged, but the Russians cut his road at Vác. In the battle, the still convalescent Görgei managed to capture Vác from the Russians, repulse the Russian attacks, then to retreat towards North-East, as much superior Russian forces arrived. Fearing that Görgei will cut their supply lines, after the battle, the four times bigger Russian army, instead of marching towards Szeged in order to unite with the Austrian main army of Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau, and to crush the much weaker Hungarian forces which were gathering there, followed Görgei's retreating troops, enabling them to arrive to the Hungarian concentration point with several days in front of them, creating the condition to unite with the Southern Hungarian troops, and crush the Austrian army of Haynau before the Russians arrived. Considering the fact that the actual plan of Görgei was to arrive to the concentration point before the Russians, and, as a result of the battle of Vác from 15 to 17 July, he managed to achieve this, this battle is considered a strategic victory for the Hungarians.
The Battle of Ihász took place during the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence. It was fought on 27 June 1849 around and in Ihász, a formerly existing village, today part of Marcaltő. In this battle, the Hungarian division led by General György Kmety fought against the Austrian Gerstner brigade led by Lieutenant General Adolf Schütte Edler von Warensberg. During the preparations for the Battle of Győr, the Gerstner brigade wanted to cut the Hungarians from the south, by attacking Marcaltő, but the Kmety division attacked them and halted their advance for 2 hours with its artillery, but the attack of the Austrian cavalry forced the Hungarians to retreat towards Pápa. A result of this battle was that the Kmety division was forced to retreat in Southern Hungary, so it could not support the Hungarian main army led by General Artúr Görgei in the very important battles for Győr and Komárom.