Austin College

Last updated
Austin College
Austin College Logo.png
MottoNil nisi per aspera
Type Private liberal arts college
Established1849
Affiliation Presbyterian
Endowment $133 million [1]
President Steven O'Day
Administrative staff
104
Students1,223 (2019) [2]
Location, ,
The United States of America
Campus Suburban, 70 acres (28 ha)
Colors Crimson & Gold [3]
          
Athletics NCAA Division IIISCAC
Compete in the Southern Athletic Association for football
Nickname Kangaroos, The Fighting 'Roos
Affiliations Oberlin Group
Annapolis Group
CIC
APCU
Mascot Kangaroo [4]
Website www.austincollege.edu
Administrative building. AdminAC.JPG
Administrative building.

Austin College is a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA) and located in Sherman, Texas. [5]

Private universities are typically not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. This is in contrast to public universities and national universities. Most private universities are non-profit organizations.

Liberal arts colleges in the United States are certain undergraduate institutions of higher education in the United States. The Encyclopædia Britannica Concise offers a definition of the liberal arts as a "college or university curriculum aimed at imparting general knowledge and developing general intellectual capacities, in contrast to a professional, vocational, or technical curriculum." Generally, a full-time, four-year course of study at a liberal arts college leads students to earning Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), Bachelor of Science (B.S.) and on rare occasion Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.) degrees.

Presbyterian Church (USA) Mainline Protestant denomination in the USA

The Presbyterian Church (USA) is a mainline Protestant denomination in the United States. A part of the Reformed tradition, it is the largest Presbyterian denomination in the US, and known for its relatively progressive stance on doctrine. The PC (USA) was established by the 1983 merger of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, whose churches were located in the Southern and border states, with the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, whose congregations could be found in every state. The similarly named Presbyterian Church in America is a separate denomination whose congregations can also trace their history to the various schisms and mergers of Presbyterian churches in the United States.

Contents

About 1,300 students are enrolled at the college. [6] Students are required to live on campus for the first three years of their education in order to foster a close-knit and community oriented campus lifestyle. Austin College actively promotes study abroad programs; 70% of graduates have at least one international study experience during college, and about 82% of students are involved in research. [7] The college cultivates close interaction between students and professors via a 12:1 student to faculty ratio and an average class size of fewer than 25 students. [8] The college has no teaching assistants, so regular faculty teach all levels of coursework.

Chartered in November 1849, Austin College remains the oldest institution of higher education in Texas to be operating under its original charter and name as recognized by the State Historical Survey Committee. [5] The college was profiled in all three editions of Colleges That Change Lives .

Texas Historical Commission agency of the State of Texas, United States

The Texas Historical Commission is an agency dedicated to historic preservation within the state of Texas. It administers the National Register of Historic Places for sites in Texas.

<i>Colleges That Change Lives</i> college educational guide

Colleges That Change Lives is a college educational guide, originally by longtime student advocate and former New York Times education editor Loren Pope. It was first published in 1996, with a second edition in 2000, a third edition in 2006 and a fourth edition in 2013. It concerns college admissions in the United States.

History

Old Main Old Main.GIF
Old Main

The college was founded on October 13, 1849, in Huntsville, Texas, by the Hampden–Sydney [9] and Princeton-educated missionary Dr. Daniel Baker. Signed by Texas Governor George Wood, the charter of Austin College was modeled after those of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. [10]

Huntsville, Texas City in Texas, United States

Huntsville is a city in and the county seat of Walker County, Texas. The population was 38,548 as of the 2010 census. It is the center of the Huntsville micropolitan area.

Hampden–Sydney College

Hampden–Sydney College (H-SC) is a liberal arts college for men in Hampden Sydney, Virginia. Founded in 1775, Hampden–Sydney is the oldest privately chartered college in the southern United States, the tenth-oldest college in the nation, the last college founded before the American Declaration of Independence, and one of only three four-year, all-male liberal arts colleges remaining in the United States. Hampden–Sydney College is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and the Virginia Landmarks Register. It is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA).

Princeton University University in Princeton, New Jersey

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later, and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896.

Baker named the school for the Texas historical figure Stephen F. Austin after the original land on which it was built was donated by the Austin family. Two other important figures in Texas history, Sam Houston and Anson Jones, [5] served on the original board of trustees for the college, and the former site in Huntsville later became today's Sam Houston State University.

Stephen F. Austin American empresario, slaveholder, namesake of Austin, Texas

Stephen Fuller Austin was an American empresario. Known as the "Father of Texas", and the founder of Texas, he led the second, and ultimately, the successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825.

Sam Houston nineteenth-century American statesman, politician, and soldier, namesake of Houston, Texas

Sam Houston was an American soldier and politician. An important leader of the Texas Revolution, Houston served as the 1st and 3rd president of the Republic of Texas, and was one of the first two individuals to represent Texas in the United States Senate. He also served as the 6th Governor of Tennessee and the 7th governor of Texas, the only American to be elected Governor of two different states in the United States.

Anson Jones Texan politician

Anson Jones was a doctor, businessperson, member of Congress, and the fourth and last President of the Republic of Texas, sometimes called the "Architect of Annexation".

Austin College's founding president was Irish-born Presbyterian minister Samuel McKinney, who served as the school's president a second time from 1862 to 1871. [11] Under the tenure of the fourth president of Austin College, Reverend Samuel Magoffin Luckett, [12] Austin College suffered several yellow fever epidemics and complications related to the Civil War. Texas Synod of the Presbyterian Church decided the college would be relocated to Sherman in 1876. Construction of the new campus in north Texas came in the form of "Old Main," a two-story, red brick structure, which occurred between 1876 and 1878. Struggling with the Long Depression. Austin College saw little improvement to its building or grounds during the late 1870s; as such, Samuel Luckett resigned his position as president. From 1878 to 1885, the college continued to struggle from the aftershocks of economic depression; with an increasing debt and shrinking student body, the college turned to its 7th president, Reverend Donald MacGregor. A shrewd and well connected businessman, President MacGregor relieved a great deal of the college's debt and returned operations to normalcy. After MacGregor's death in 1887, the college welcomed President Luckett back to the campus. Throughout his second term as president, Samuel Luckett adopted a military program, grew the student body, introduced a YMCA chapter, established intercollegiate athletics and Greek fraternities, and added two wings to Old Main.

Samuel McKinney (1807–1879) was an Irish-born Presbyterian minister and educator in the American South, particularly Tennessee, Mississippi and Texas. He founded the Chalmers Institute in Holly Springs, Mississippi in 1850. He served as the founding president of Austin College in Huntsville, Texas from 1850 to 1853, and again from 1862 to 1871.

Yellow fever viral disease

Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration. In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches. Symptoms typically improve within five days. In about 15% of people, within a day of improving the fever comes back, abdominal pain occurs, and liver damage begins causing yellow skin. If this occurs, the risk of bleeding and kidney problems is also increased.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history. Primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

One of the school's most iconic presidents came in the form of Reverend Thomas Stone Clyce, who served as the Austin College president from 1900 to 1931; Reverend Clyce's presidency would become, and remains, the longest tenure in Austin College history.

On January 21 of 1913, Old Main was set ablaze and burnt to the ground in a matter of hours. A professor of Austin College, Davis Foute Eagleton described the incident:

"Austin College on fire and every particle of wood reduced to ashes--and walls rendered totally unfit for use. Oh, dies irae, dies irae! - The dear old building in which I have laboured for twenty-four years, gone! What traditions, memories, griefs, joys, were associated with it! The carpenters were approaching the completion of their work. The new English room was completed, the library room was soon to be ready. The literary societies lost everything. I lost all books, or, [those] in my class room. The laboratories were almost a total loss. Fortunately, the library, records, and office furniture were all in the new Y.M.C.A. building. Before the fire had begun to die out, the Senior class called the student body together and they pledged themselves by classes in writing to stand by the Faculty and the College, and that no one would leave. The Faculty also met shortly after and unanimously decided to continue college work the next day as usual, meeting their classes in places designated. Probably not another institution in the State could have done this.But the old College building is gone forever!!!" [13]

Following the fire, the citizens of Sherman raised $50,000 to help the college rebuild. Now one of the oldest buildings on the Austin College campus, Sherman Hall housed administrative offices, an auditorium-chapel, and a library. Now the home of the humanities division, Sherman Hall boasted such guests as Harry Houdini, Harry Blackstone Sr., Madame Schumann-Heink, William Howard Taft, and George H.W. Bush.

To this day, the Austin College administration rarely cancels classes for weather or minor incidents in honor of the great commitment students and faculty made to continue on with regular coursework following the fire.

Austin College became co-educational in 1918, merging in 1930 with the all-female Texas Presbyterian College.

The Great Depression severely limited campus growth and educational expansion, however the college quickly regained momentum in the mid-1930s with the introduction of many courses, ground breaking on new facilities, and growth of previously established programs. Throughout 1942, Austin College trained some 300 men and women in engineering, science and management courses as part of the United States Office of Education's war efforts. The following year, Austin College undertook a Cadet nurses training program and hosted Naval Reserves, Texas Home Guard, Army-air trainees and Air Corps Cadets.

On September 20, 1973, the musician Jim Croce died in a plane crash in Natchitoches, Louisiana, on his way to perform the next night at Austin College. Six people died in the crash.

In 1994, Dr. Oscar Page joined the community as its 14th president. Under his tenure, 1994-2009, Dr. Page increased the school's endowment by nearly 80%, due in large part to his dedicated fundraising efforts as evidenced by the success of the "Campaign for the New Era;" a total of $120 million were raised and the campaign was heralded as the largest fundraiser in Austin College's history. Dr. Page orchestrated the construction of Jordan Family Language House, Jerry E. Apple Stadium, the Robert J. and Mary Wright Campus Center, the Robert M. and Joyce A. Johnson 'Roo Suites, and the Betsy Dennis Forster Art Studio Complex; as well as the renovation of the David E. and Cassie L. Temple Center for Teaching and Learning at Thompson House and of Wortham Center, and creation of the John A. and Katherine G. Jackson Technology Center, the Margaret Binkley Collins and William W. Collins, Jr., Alumni Center, and the College Green in Honor of John D. and Sara Bernice Moseley and Distinguished Faculty. [12]

In the latter part of Austin College's history, the school would see de-segregation, welcome its first full-time black faculty member, first female head of a department, and, employ its first female president.

Dr. Marjorie Hass joined the campus in 2009 as both its first female and Jewish faith president. Under her leadership, the college saw the construction of the IDEA Center and two new housing complexes—the Flats at Brockett Court and the Village on Grand. The IDEA Center is a 103,000 square ft. facility which includes multi-disciplinary and multi-purpose classrooms, laboratories, lecture halls and the largest telescope in the region found in Adams Observatory. It is a LEED Gold certified facility. [14]

Administration

On August 17, 2017 Austin College announced its 16th President, Steven P. O'Day, J.D., former vice president of strategic initiatives at Lebanon Valley College. O'Day took office on October 30, 2017.

Rankings

University rankings
National
Forbes [15] 250
Liberal arts colleges
U.S. News & World Report [16] 89
Washington Monthly [17] 116

Listed in the U.S. News & World Report "Guide to the 331 Most Interesting Colleges", Austin College is also ninth on the U.S. News 2006 list of "most students studying abroad" and #82 on the 2013 list of National Liberal Arts Colleges. [18] The school is named a Best Western College by The Princeton Review and is also included in The Princeton Review's Best 377 Colleges. Austin College has been ranked as one of the top ten colleges in Texas by USA Today, College Factual, and Best Colleges.

Austin College is a member of the International 50, a group of the top colleges in the US for international focus, the non-profit organization Colleges That Change Lives and is one of the original 40 colleges profiled in the book Colleges That Change Lives: 40 Schools That Will Change the Way You Feel About Colleges by Loren Pope.

Academics

Austin College offers about 35 majors and pre-professional programs for study, and students can also create a specialized major to match their academic interests. The college is known for its nationally recognized five-year Master of Arts in Teaching program, its pre-medical, international studies, and pre-law programs, which draw many students to the campus. The college has a music program, [19] and supports the Austin College A Cappella Choir and the Sherman Symphony Orchestra [20] made up of students and local musicians, and assorted smaller musical ensembles. It sponsors the Posey Center of Excellence in Leadership, the Center for Environmental Studies, and the Center for Southwestern and Mexican Studies, three specialized programs that give students numerous research and internship opportunities. The school also has active programs in over 40 academic disciplines. The school's student newspaper, the Austin College Observer, is a bi-weekly publication.

Athletics

Athletics logo AustinCollege-kangaroo-logo.png
Athletics logo

Austin College participates in NCAA Division III athletics. Previously, Austin College competed in NAIA Division II athletics. Austin College athletes do not receive athletic scholarships. The football team became known as the "Kangaroos" sometime during the 1914 to 1915 seasons. According to campus legend, the mascot name was derived from a kangaroo court of organized students that would paddle violators of college rules. Currently students refer to their sports teams as the 'fighting roos.'

Kangaroo varsity teams include American football, men and women's soccer, men's and women's cross country, volleyball, men and women's basketball, swimming and diving, tennis, baseball and softball, which was added for the 2006-2007 season. More than 225 student athletics participate in varsity intercollegiate athletics each year. In 2004-2005, 28 students were recognized with all-conference athletic honors and 61 students received all-conference academic honors.

Austin College joined the Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference (SCAC) on July 1, 2006, replacing Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. Austin College was previously a member of the American Southwest Conference (ASC), Texas Intercollegiate Athletic Association, and Texas Conference. Beginning in 2017, the Austin College football team will join the Southern Athletic Association in football, while remaining a member of the SCAC across all other sports. [21]

Baseball

In 2007, the first year of participating in the SCAC, the Austin College baseball team won the conference tournament, beating Millsaps College 9-7 in the finals.The Roos finished the season with a win-loss record of 22-25. The tournament win was the first ever conference championship for the Roos and the first time the program had ever been in the Regional tournament. [22] Carl Iwasaki was the head coach for the Roos from 2005 until 2010. He won two coach of the year awards, the first in 2006 while the Roos were still in the ASC and the second, coming in 2007 after the Roos had joined the SCAC. Coach Iwasaki was replaced by James Rise for the 2011 season who coached for four seasons. Under Rise, the Roos went 11-24 in 2011, 8-29 in 2012, 12-29 in 2013, and 6-33 in 2014. [23] In the fall of 2014, the Roos hired Mike Ramsey, a former TCU baseball player, who in his first year went 8-21.

Football

Austin College began its first football season in 1896, making Austin College one of the first teams in the south. Austin College has had 119 straight seasons with a football team. Since its beginning Austin college has won eight conference championships, and one national championship. It has also hosted over 130 all Americans. Currently the football team is coached by Loren Dawson and is currently a member of NCAA Division III Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference (SCAC). As noted above, the football team moved to the Southern Athletic Association (SAA) in 2017.

Notable alumni

Notable faculty

Related Research Articles

Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference

The Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference (SCAC), founded in 1962, is an athletic conference which competes in the NCAA's Division III. Member institutions are located in Colorado, Louisiana, and Texas. Difficulties related to travel distances led seven former members to announce the formation of a new Southeastern US-based conference, the Southern Athletic Association, starting with the 2012–13 academic year.

Whittier College

Whittier College is a private liberal arts college in Whittier, California, United States. As of fall 2015, the college has approximately 1,725 enrolled students.

Manchester University (Indiana) liberal arts university with a campus located in North Manchester, Indiana, and a second campus in Fort Wayne, Indiana

Manchester University is a private liberal arts university associated with the Church of the Brethren and two campuses, one in North Manchester, Indiana and another in Fort Wayne, Indiana, home to the University's College of Pharmacy and Master of Science in Pharmacogenomics programs. Total enrollment is approximately 1,600 students.

Trinity University (Texas) university in San Antonio, Texas

Trinity University is a private liberal arts college in San Antonio, Texas. Founded in 1869, its campus is located in the Monte Vista Historic District adjacent to Brackenridge Park. The campus is three miles north of downtown San Antonio and the River Walk and six miles south of the San Antonio International Airport. The student body consists of approximately 2,300 undergraduate and 200 graduate students. Trinity offers 42 majors and 57 minors among 6 degree programs and has an endowment of $1.24 billion, the 85th largest in the country, which permits it to provide resources typically associated with much larger colleges and universities.

Stephen F. Austin State University public university located in Nacogdoches, Texas, United States

Stephen F. Austin State University (SFA) is a public university located in Nacogdoches, Texas, United States. Founded as a teachers' college in 1923 as a result of legislation authored by State Senator Wilfred Roy Cousins, Sr., the university was subsequently renamed after one of Texas's founding fathers, Stephen F. Austin. Its campus resides on part of the homestead of Thomas Jefferson Rusk. Stephen F. Austin is one of four independent public universities in Texas.

East Tennessee State University university

East Tennessee State University (ETSU) is a public university located in Johnson City, Tennessee. Despite being part of the State University and Community College System of Tennessee, the University is no longer governed by the Tennessee Board of Regents. As of May 2017, ETSU is governed by an institutional Board of Trustees. It is the fourth largest university in the state and has off-campus centers in nearby Kingsport and Elizabethton.

College of Wooster

The College of Wooster is a private liberal arts college in Wooster, Ohio. It is primarily known for its emphasis on mentored undergraduate research and enrolls approximately 2,000 students. Founded in 1866 by the Presbyterian Church as the University of Wooster, it officially has been non-sectarian since 1969, when ownership ties with the Presbyterian Church ended. From its creation, the college has been a co-educational institution. The school is a member of The Five Colleges of Ohio, Great Lakes Colleges Association, and the Association of Presbyterian Colleges and Universities. As of December 31, 2017, Wooster's endowment stood at $311 million.

Sul Ross State University

Sul Ross State University (SRSU) is a public university in Alpine, Texas, that offers certificate programs and associate's, bachelor's, and master's degrees. The main campus is the primary institution of higher education serving the nineteen-county Big Bend region of far West Texas. Branch campuses, branded as Rio Grande College, are located in Uvalde, Del Rio, Eagle Pass, and Castroville.

Cedarville University

Cedarville University is a private Baptist university in Cedarville, Ohio.

Muskingum University

Muskingum University is a private liberal arts college in New Concord, Ohio. Chartered in 1837 as Muskingum College, the institution is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA).

Texas Lutheran University

Texas Lutheran University (TLU) is an undergraduate, coeducational, private university of the liberal arts, sciences, and professional studies affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. It is located in Seguin, Texas, about 35 miles east of San Antonio, and 50 miles south of Austin. TLU is ranked number two in the U.S. News & World Report 2018 Regional Colleges West.

Centre College college in Kentucky

Centre College is a private liberal arts college located in Danville, Kentucky, a community of approximately 16,000 in Boyle County, about 35 miles (55 km) south of Lexington, Kentucky. Centre is an undergraduate four-year institution with an enrollment of approximately 1,400 students. Centre was founded by Presbyterian leaders, and it maintains a loose affiliation with the Presbyterian Church (USA). It was officially chartered by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1819. The college is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South and the Association of Presbyterian Colleges and Universities.

Southwestern University is a private, not-for-profit, liberal arts college in Georgetown, Texas. Formed in 1873 from a revival of collegiate charters granted in 1840, Southwestern is the oldest university in Texas. The school used to be affiliated with the United Methodist Church with a nonsectarian curriculum. Southwestern offers 40 bachelor's degrees in the arts, sciences, fine arts, and music as well as interdisciplinary and pre-professional programs. The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and the National Association of Schools of Music.

McMurry University

McMurry University is a private Methodist liberal arts university in Abilene, Texas. It was founded in 1923 and offers forty-five majors in the fields of fine arts, humanities, social and natural sciences, education, business, and religion, and nine pre-professional programs, including nursing, dentistry, medicine, pharmacy, veterinary, and law.

University of Pikeville

The University of Pikeville is a private, liberal arts university affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA), located in Pikeville, Kentucky, United States. The university is located on a 25-acre (10 ha) campus on a hillside overlooking downtown Pikeville. The university was founded in 1889 by the Presbyterian Church. Its current president is Dr. Burton Webb and the chancellor is former Governor of Kentucky and former university president Paul E. Patton.

Presbyterian College

Presbyterian College, commonly known as PC, is a four-year, private liberal arts college located in Clinton, South Carolina and affiliated with the Presbyterian Church USA. Presbyterian's undergraduate and graduate programs emphasize small class sizes, a congenial atmosphere between professors and students, and a commitment to service.

Westminster College (Pennsylvania) liberal arts college in New Wilmington, Pennsylvania

Westminster College is a liberal arts college located in New Wilmington, Pennsylvania, United States. Founded in 1852, it is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA). The student population is approximately 1,307 undergraduate and graduate students.

Albright College

Albright College is a private, co-educational, liberal arts college. It was founded in 1856 and is located in Reading, Pennsylvania, United States.

Concordia University Texas private university in Austin, Texas, United States

Concordia University Texas is a private, coeducational institution of liberal arts and sciences located in northwest Austin, in the U.S. state of Texas. The university offers undergraduate, graduate and online degrees as well as an Adult Degree Program for part-time and returning students.

Hardin–Simmons University

Hardin–Simmons University (HSU) is a private Baptist university in Abilene, Texas.

References

  1. As of November, 2014. "Austin College: Adding Value to a Changing World Strategic Plan 2015-2020" (PDF). Austin College. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
  2. U. S. News
  3. http://www.austincollege.edu/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/Brand-Guide-2014.pdf
  4. "The Kangaroo Mascot". Austin College.
  5. 1 2 3 Austin College, Austin College History.
  6. Austin College Archived June 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine , Austin College Life.
  7. http://www.austincollege.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/ACDifference_Bookmark_2013.pdf
  8. Austin College, Austin College Faculty.
  9. "An Army of Good Men". The Record. Hampden–Sydney College. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  10. "History". www.austincollege.edu. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
  11. Williams, Amelia W. (June 15, 2010). "MCKINNEY, SAMUEL". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association . Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  12. 1 2 "Past Presidents". www.austincollege.edu. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
  13. "Lost Buildings of Austin College 1". abell.austincollege.edu. Archived from the original on 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
  14. "IDEA Center". www.austincollege.edu. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
  15. "America's Top Colleges 2018". Forbes. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
  16. "Best Colleges 2019: National Liberal Arts Colleges Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. November 19, 2018.
  17. "2018 Rankings - National Universities - Liberal Arts". Washington Monthly. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
  18. "Austin College". U.S. News.
  19. "music program". austincollege.edu.
  20. "www.shermansymphony.com". shermansymphony.com.
  21. "Austin College Football to Join SAA as Affiliate Member". acroos.com. 18 November 2015.
  22. "Austin College Magazine" (PDF). June 2007.
  23. "SCAC". scacsports.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
  24. Steinberg, Jacques (1997-03-29). "From Religious Childhood To Reins of a U.F.O. Cult". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
  25. Stowers, Carlton, and Carroll Pickett, Within These Walls: Memoirs of a Death House Chaplain, ISBN   978-0-312-28717-7, St. Martin's Press, 2002, Google Books

Coordinates: 33°38′49.22″N96°35′50.16″W / 33.6470056°N 96.5972667°W / 33.6470056; -96.5972667