Gordon College (Massachusetts)

Last updated
Gordon College
Seal of Gordon College
Former names
Boston Missionary Training Institute
Boston Missionary Training School
Gordon Missionary Training School
Gordon Bible College
Gordon College of Theology and Missions
Gordon College and Divinity School
Motto Ίησοῦς Χριστός, Θεοῦ Υἱός, Σωτήρ" (Greek)
Motto in English
Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior
Type Private liberal arts college
Accreditation NECHE
Religious affiliation
Non-denominational Christian
Endowment $73.9M [1]
President Michael D. Hammond
Undergraduates 1,507
Postgraduates 350
Location, ,
United States

42°35′23″N70°49′22″W / 42.589780°N 70.822880°W / 42.589780; -70.822880 Coordinates: 42°35′23″N70°49′22″W / 42.589780°N 70.822880°W / 42.589780; -70.822880
Campus Suburban
Colors Navy blue and white   
Athletics NCAA Division IIICCC, ECAC
Nickname Fighting Scots
Affiliations Annapolis Group
Sports21 varsity teams
(10 men's & 11 women's)
MascotScottish Lion Rampant
Website www.gordon.edu

Gordon College is a private Christian college in Wenham, Massachusetts. The college offers 33 majors, 38 concentrations, and 21 interdisciplinary and pre-professional minors as well as graduate programs in education and music education. Gordon has an undergraduate enrollment of around 1,600 students representing more than 50 Christian denominations.



In 1889 Adoniram Judson Gordon founded the school, Boston Missionary Training Institute, [2] in the Fenway–Kenmore neighborhood of Boston at the Clarendon Street Baptist Church [3] to train Christian missionaries for work in what was then the Congo Free State. [4] Progressive at its inception in 1889, the school admitted both men and women of various ethnicities. It was renamed Gordon Bible College in 1916 [3] and expanded to Newton Theological Institution facilities along the Fenway, into a facility donated by Martha Frost in 1919. Frost, a widowed Bostonian with several properties in the city, provided a significant philanthropic gift. [5] In 1921, the school was renamed Gordon College of Theology and Missions. [3]

In the early 1950s, a Gordon student named James Higginbotham approached Frederick H. Prince about selling his 1,000-acre (4.0 km2) estate to the College after learning of recent property viewings by the United Nations and Harvard University. In 1955, Gordon developed into a liberal arts college with a graduate theological seminary and moved to its present several-hundred-acre Wenham campus north of Boston. [5] Gordon sold its Boston campus on Evans Way to Wentworth Institute of Technology. The Prince Memorial Chapel on the Wenham campus (since replaced) was named for Frederick Prince, and the Prince residence was named Frost Hall after Martha Frost.

In 1958, Gordon College instituted a core curriculum. In the 1950s it launched its first study-abroad program, European Seminar.[ citation needed ]

In 1962, the school changed its name to Gordon College and Divinity School. [3] In 1970, the Gordon Divinity School separated from the College to merge with the Conwell School of Theology, once part of Temple University, to form the Gordon–Conwell Theological Seminary in Hamilton, Massachusetts. [5]

Barrington College, founded in 1900 as the Bethel Bible Institute in Spencer, Massachusetts, later relocated to Dudley, Massachusetts, and then to Providence, Rhode Island. It took the name Barrington after the campus was moved to Barrington, Rhode Island, in 1959. Barrington merged with Gordon College in 1985, forming a United College of Gordon and Barrington.[ citation needed ]

Princeton Review recognition

Gordon College is one of two CCCU members listed in the 2021 Edition of The Best 386 Colleges published by The Princeton Review; Wheaton College (Illinois) is the other. [6] For reference, U.S. News ranks 1,400 out of a total of 3,313 public and private non-profit institutions (Feb. 2019). [7]

Tuition decrease

In the October 2020, Gordon College announced a 33% reduction in tuition from $56.7k sticker price to $37.9k, joining two other CCCU schools in bringing tuition costs more in line with what a typical family would consider 'affordable.' The College notes that this reduction is made possible due to its Faith Rising capital campaign, which has expanded its base endowment by $125 million in the past year (250%), coupled with 24% debt reduction. Scholarships will be adjusted accordingly, with current students allowed to choose which arrangement they prefer. The reduction takes effect in the fall semester of 2021. [8]

Previously, in the fall of 2019, Gordon received the largest donation in its history, an anonymous gift of $75.5 million, with additional commitments of an additional $50 million, substantially increasing an endowment of $50 million [9] and resulting in a 15% increase in college-funded student financial aid. [10]

2014 discrimination controversy

On July 1, 2014, Gordon College President D. Michael Lindsay was one of fourteen leaders of religious and civic organizations who signed a letter to U.S. President Barack Obama about an executive order he was contemplating that would prohibit federal contractors from discriminating on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. [11] The letter asked the president to include language that would exempt religious organizations from the executive order's requirements, suggesting he "find a way to respect diversity of opinion . . . in a way that respects the dignity of all parties". They suggested the exemption be based on language the U.S. Senate had recently added as an amendment to the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA). [12] [13] Obama did not use the ENDA amendment's language when he issued his order on July 21 but left in place a narrower exemption established with respect to federal contractors in 2002 by President George W. Bush's Executive Order 13279. [14]

In response, on July 9, Salem, Massachusetts, Mayor Kimberley Driscoll ended Gordon College's contract to manage and maintain the city's Old Town Hall, citing a city ordinance that prohibits Salem from contracting with entities that discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation. [15] Gordon's contract with the city would otherwise have expired on September 1. [16] For similar reasons, in August, the Lynn Public Schools ended its relationship with the College, which had provided students to work without pay in the schools as part their training toward degrees in education and social work. [17]

In late July, the Peabody Essex Museum ended its academic relationship with the Gordon museum studies program, later withdrawing its support for Gordon's grant application to the National Endowment for the Humanities that aimed at funding an expansion of its museum studies program. [18] In mid-September the New England Association of Schools and Colleges gave the college a year to report on how its non-discrimination policies met the organization's standards for accreditation. [19] At its April 2015 meeting, the New England Association of Schools and Colleges affirmed that Gordon's accreditation remained in good standing, with no further action required by the Commission at that time. [20] [21] [22] [23]

Conservative legal organizations have offered to represent the college in lawsuits that would argue that severing ties to the school constituted retaliation for the exercise of free speech and the practice of religion. Lindsay declined those offers and later said he would not have signed the letter had he anticipated the reaction and the impact on Gordon. The school subsequently reviewed its code of conduct, which, in addition to banning sex outside of marriage, bans homosexual practice. [24] Based on that review, Lindsay announced that "its policy barring student or faculty sex out of heterosexual marriage will remain as is." [25] In addition, Gordon College rolled out several initiatives aimed at preventing bullying of gay, lesbian, transsexual, and bisexual students. [25]


In 2015, Lauren Barthold, associate professor in the department of philosophy, filed a lawsuit against the college for retaliating against her because she publicly disagreed with the college's President D. Michael Lindsay who sought to allow federal contractors, on the basis of religion, to discriminate against LBGTQ individuals in hiring. [26] The lawsuit contends that the college violated state laws protecting against retaliation. [27] As part of a joint resolution, Prof. Barthold resigned in 2016. [28]

In 2017, the college was sued by Margaret DeWeese-Boyd, associate professor in the department of sociology and social work. DeWeese-Boyd filed a complaint in Essex Superior Court claiming that the college's President Lindsay and Provost Janel Curry discriminated against her because of her gender and denied her promotion to full professorship for advocating against the school's LGBTQ policies. The college filed a motion seeking a summary judgment to determine whether the ministerial exception clause barred DeWeese-Boyd from suing. In November 2019, both parties appeared before the court for a hearing and DeWeese-Boyd argued that she never worked as a minister with the college. On April 2, 2020, Judge Jeffrey T. Karp of the Massachusetts Superior Court ruled against the ministerial exception defense. This decision has been appealed to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court based on the July 2020 Supreme Court decision handed down in Our Lady of Guadalupe School v. Morrissey-Berru . [29]

Academic associations

Gordon College is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education. [30] The music program is accredited by the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) and the social work program is accredited by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). The Department of Education of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognizes Gordon College's teacher-education program under the Interstate Service Compact. [31] Gordon is a member of the Annapolis Group and of the Christian College Consortium. It is also a member of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU).


Jenks Library Jenks Library, Gordon College.jpg
Jenks Library

Gordon College offers BA, BM, BS, MEd, MMEd, MA, and MS degrees. [31] It offers undergraduate degrees from 27 majors, 42 concentrations and 11 interdisciplinary and preprofessional minors. [32] Gordon offers both[ clarification needed ] a graduate degree in education and music. The Graduate Education program offers the MEd degree. The Graduate Music program offers an MMEd degree, licensure-only options, and workshops. [33]

Student life

As of 2013 a total of 2,109 students enrolled at Gordon College, 1,707 of them undergraduates. [34]

A Christian multidenominational college, Gordon requires students to sign the school's Statement of Faith, [35] though the religious conclusions and commitments among students and faculty remain diverse. Catholics do not teach at Gordon College although some students are Catholic. All students must also sign a Life and Conduct Statement agreeing to the standards of behavior that Gordon values. Gordon College prohibits sexual relations outside marriage, homosexual practice, alcohol, tobacco, and narcotic or hallucinogenic drugs on campus [36] and continues to uphold a dorm-visitation policy that allows for male-female visitation only during particular hours. [37] Chapel services take place on Mondays and Wednesdays, and an academic convocation takes place on Fridays; attendance of chapel, convocation or other events (lectures, debates, presentations, films, exhibitions, etc.) is required to graduate. All full-time students must obtain 30 "Christian Life and Worship Credits" per semester. [38]

Student body and demographics

Frost Hall Frost Hall.jpg
Frost Hall

In the fall of 2013 the College drew its undergraduate enrollment of 1,707 from 43 states and 41 foreign countries. Approximately 22 percent of enrollment—including international students—were of Asian, African American, mestizo, Native American, or other non-Caucasian descent.


Gordon College has a student association, student ministries, intramural sports, and a Campus Events Council. There are student-led community-service and outreach organizations ranging from drama troupes to Big Brothers Big Sisters and Habitat for Humanity.

Many other Gordon College outreach programs are based at other sites, such as Lynn, Massachusetts, where the school has partners for community development. Several student-led groups organize spring-break, winter-break and summer-break community-service trips and mission trips to different sites around the country and the globe.


Gordon College's varsity sports compete in the NCAA Division III and ACHA, primarily in the Commonwealth Coast Conference (CCC). Gordon College's 30 teams compete in baseball, basketball, cross-country, field hockey, lacrosse, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, track & field (indoor and outdoor) and volleyball. Athletes are called "The Fighting Scots." [39]

Fighting Scots Basketball

Head coach Tod Murphy, who became head coach in 2009, had led the Fighting Scots to five Commonwealth Coast Conference tournament appearances as of 2015. [40] One of these five years he led the team to an NCAA tournament appearance.

Eric Demers, a ’20 graduate, led the nation in points per game averaging 33.3 points, including a 42-point performance against University of Hartford (Division 1). [41] [42] [43]


A. J. Gordon Memorial Chapel A J Gordon Memorial Chapel, Gordon College, Wenham MA.jpg
A. J. Gordon Memorial Chapel

In 2007, Gordon College dedicated its 450-acre campus property in the name of benefactors Dale E. and Sarah Ann Fowler following an unrestricted endowment promise of $60 million from their estate, which the College would receive at an undetermined future date. As of 2007, the Fowler gift (once received) was projected to triple the current endowment for Gordon College. In 2014 the Gordon endowment was $44,008,437. [44] The Dale E. and Sarah Ann Fowler Campus at Gordon College is 25 miles north of Boston. The campus is situated on 450 acres (180 ha) of wooded property.

The Gordon College Bennett Center [45] is a 78,000 square feet (7,200 m2) athletics and recreational sports facility. The Bennett Center is a gift to the Gordon community from the George and Helen Bennett family. The $8 million center was completed in October 1996 and in 1997 won the Athletics Business Magazine Top Ten New Facilities Award for its design and usability.

The Ken Olsen Science Center, named for the founder of Digital Equipment Corporation and long-time Gordon College Board member, Ken Olsen, is an 80,000 square feet (7,400 m2) science and technology center.

Gordon Global Programs

Gordon's Global Education Office has programs in Orvieto, Italy, Hong Kong, Oxford, Belize, Croatia, the Balkans, New Zealand, Latin America, and Uganda. Students enrolled in Gordon's Global program may use financial aid towards a study abroad semester.

Notable alumni

Notable faculty

Related Research Articles

Roanoke College Private liberal arts college in Salem, Virginia, USA

Roanoke College is a private liberal arts college in Salem, Virginia. It has approximately 2,000 students who represent approximately 40 states and 30 countries. The college offers 35 majors, 57 minors and concentrations, and pre-professional programs. Roanoke awards bachelor's degrees in arts, science, and business administration and is one of 280 colleges with a chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society.

Gordon–Conwell Theological Seminary Theological seminary in Massachusetts

Gordon–Conwell Theological Seminary (GCTS) is an evangelical seminary with its main campus in Hamilton, Massachusetts and three other campuses in Boston, Massachusetts; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Jacksonville, Florida. According to the Association of Theological Schools, Gordon-Conwell ranks as one of the largest evangelical seminaries in North America in terms of total number of full-time students enrolled.

Walla Walla University

Walla Walla University is a private Adventist university in College Place, Washington. The university has five campuses throughout the Pacific Northwest. It was founded in 1892 and is affiliated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Curry College Private liberal-arts based institution in Milton, MA

Curry College is a private college in Milton, Massachusetts. It was founded as the School of Elocution and Expression by Anna Baright in 1879. In 1885 it was taken over and renamed by Samuel Silas Curry.

Boston College Private research university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, United States

Boston College (BC) is a private, Jesuit research university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. Founded in 1863, the university has more than 9,300 full-time undergraduates and nearly 5,000 graduate students. Although Boston College is classified as an R1 research university, it still uses the word "college" in its name to reflect its historical position as a small liberal arts college. Its main campus is a historic district and features some of the earliest examples of collegiate gothic architecture in North America.

University of Massachusetts Public university system in Massachusetts, United States of America

The University of Massachusetts is the five-campus public university system and the only public research system in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The university system includes five campuses, and a satellite campus, with system administration in Boston and Shrewsbury. The system is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges and across its campuses enrolls 73,000 students.

Emmanuel College (Massachusetts) Private liberal arts college in Boston, Massachusetts, United States

Emmanuel College (EC) is a private coeducational Roman Catholic liberal arts college in Boston, Massachusetts. The college was founded by the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur as the first women's Catholic college in New England in 1919. In 2001, the College officially became a coeducational institution. It is a member of the Colleges of the Fenway consortium. In addition to the Fenway campus, Emmanuel operates a living and learning campus in Roxbury, Massachusetts.

Roberts Wesleyan College is a private Christian liberal arts college in Rochester, New York. It was the first educational institution established for Free Methodists in North America. Roberts is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, is a member of the Association of Colleges and Universities of the State of New York, the Rochester Area Colleges, the Association of Free Methodist Educational Institutions, the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), and the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU).

Boston College Law School is the law school of Boston College. Boston College Law School is situated on a 40-acre (160,000 m2) wooded campus in Newton, Massachusetts, about 1.5 miles from the university's main campus in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts.

Concordia University Wisconsin

Concordia University Wisconsin (CUW) is a private Lutheran university in Mequon, Wisconsin. The school is an affiliate of the eight-member Concordia University System operated by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

Springfield College

Springfield College is a private college in Springfield, Massachusetts. The institution confers undergraduate and graduate degrees. Known as the birthplace of basketball, the sport was invented there in 1891 by Canadian-American graduate student James Naismith. The college's philosophy of "humanics" "calls for the education of the whole person—in spirit, mind, and body—for leadership in service to others." It is symbolized by a balanced inverted triangle.

Nyack College

Nyack College is a private Christian college affiliated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance and located in New York City, New York. Enrolling just over 1,000 students, the school is organized in three academic divisions, including the Alliance Theological Seminary, the College of Arts and Sciences, and the College of Graduate and Professional Programs. Nyack offers both on-campus and online courses as part of its undergraduate, graduate, and seminary programs.

Salem State University Public university in Salem, Massachusetts.

Salem State University, commonly Salem State or SSU, is a public university in Salem, Massachusetts. Established in 1854, it is the oldest institute of higher education on the North Shore and is part of the state university system in Massachusetts.

Endicott College Private liberal arts college in Beverly, Massachusetts, United States

Endicott College is a private college in Beverly, Massachusetts.

Cambridge College is a private, non-profit college based in Boston, Massachusetts.

Hellenic College Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (HCHC) is an Orthodox Christian liberal arts college and seminary in Brookline, Massachusetts. Its mission is to educate individuals for life and service in the Orthodox Christian community; this includes men preparing for the priesthood of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese and other Orthodox Christian entities, as well as men and women for leadership roles in the church or within secular society. HCHC includes a graduate school of theology, seminary for clerical training and education, and several undergraduate and certificate programs in business, education, literature, and other secular professions.

Southern Baptist Theological Seminary

The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (SBTS) is a Southern Baptist seminary in Louisville, Kentucky. It is the oldest of the six seminaries affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC). The seminary was founded in 1859 in Greenville, South Carolina, where it was at first housed on the campus of Furman University. After being closed during the Civil War, it moved in 1877 to a newly built campus in downtown Louisville and moved to its current location in 1926 in the Crescent Hill neighborhood. For more than fifty years Southern has been one of the world's largest theological seminaries, with an FTE enrollment of over 3,300 students in 2015.

The Boston College School of Theology and Ministry (STM) is the Roman Catholic (Jesuit) graduate theological school at Boston College in the Chestnut Hill and Brighton neighborhoods of Boston, Massachusetts. It is an ecclesiastical faculty of theology that trains men and women, both lay and religious, for scholarship and service, especially within the Roman Catholic Church.

Andover Newton Theological School (ANTS) was a graduate school and seminary in Newton, Massachusetts. Affiliated with the American Baptist Churches USA and the United Church of Christ, it was an official open and affirming seminary, meaning that it was open to students of same-sex or transgender orientation and generally advocated for tolerance of it in church and society.

Simmons University Private women-focused university in Boston, Massachusetts

Simmons University is a private women focused undergraduate university and private co-educational graduate school in Boston, Massachusetts. It was established in 1899.


  1. "Gordon College Institutional Advancement" . Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  2. "A. J. Gordon Heritage Project". gordon.edu. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Songe, Alice H. (1978). American universities and colleges: a dictionary of name changes by Alice H. Songe. Rowman & Littlefield (1978), p. 79. ISBN   9780810811379 . Retrieved 2012-09-14.
  4. "A. J. Gordon Heritage Project - Gordon College". www.gordon.edu. Archived from the original on December 6, 2014.
  5. 1 2 3 "History at Gordon College". Gordon.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
  6. "Best 386 Colleges: 2021 Edition". www.princetonreview.com. Retrieved 2020-09-14.
  7. "A Guide to the Changing Number of U.S. Universities". U.S. News & World Report. February 15, 2019.
  8. Leighton, Paul. "Gordon College to cut tuition by 33%". Salem News.
  9. Fernandes, Deirdre. "A small religious college gets a $75 million lifeline - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
  10. Shellnutt, Kate. "Gordon College Receives Record $75.5 Million Donation". News & Reporting. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
  11. "Gordon head Michael Lindsay: Letter on hiring gays 'misconstrued'". The Salem News . July 9, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  12. Hirschfeld, Julie (July 8, 2014). "Faith Groups Seek Exclusion From Bias Rule". The New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
  13. "Letter to Obama from faith leaders". Washington Post. July 1, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  14. "Executive Order 13279—Equal Protection of the Laws for Faith-Based and Community Organizations | The American Presidency Project". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  15. "Salem nixes Gordon College contract". The Salem News . July 9, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  16. Rocheleau, Matt (July 10, 2014). "Salem ends Gordon College's use of town hall". Boston Globe. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  17. Ortega, Oliver (August 30, 2014). "Lynn public schools sever relationship with Gordon College". Boston Globe. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  18. Dempsey, Neil H. (July 25, 2014). "Peabody Essex Museum severs ties with Gordon College". Salem News. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  19. Moore, Mary (September 25, 2014). "Accreditation board gives Gordon College a year to review policy on homosexuality". Boston Business Journal. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  20. "Joint Statement by Gordon College and the Commission on Institutions of Higher Education". New England Association of Schools & Colleges, Inc. April 15, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  21. "College Creative - Gordon College". www.gordon.edu.
  22. Jones, Leigh (March 27, 2015). "Review board: Gordon College accreditation not at risk". WORLD. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  23. French, David (May 1, 2015). "Gordon College Keeps Its Faith and Its Accreditation". National Review. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  24. Zoll, Rachel (November 3, 2014). "Gordon College President Was Surprised At Reaction To Anti-Gay Stance". Huffington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  25. 1 2 "Gordon College maintains ban on 'homosexual practice,' creates human sexuality task force" . Retrieved 2017-03-11.
  26. Weinberg, Justin (2016-09-13). "Barthold Retaliation Case Settled". Daily Nous. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  27. "Barthold v. Gordon College". ACLU Massachusetts. 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  28. Leighton, Paul. "Professor who sued Gordon College agrees to resign". Salem News. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
  29. "Mass Appellate Courts - Public Case Search". www.ma-appellatecourts.org. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  30. Massachusetts Institutions – NECHE, New England Commission of Higher Education , retrieved May 26, 2021
  31. 1 2 "Stats and Facts". Gordon.edu. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  32. "Academics". Gordon.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  33. "Christian College: Graduate Programs – Gordon College". Gordon.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
  34. "National Center for Education Statistics: Gordon College". Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  35. "Statement of Faith". gordon.edu. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  36. "Summary of Behavioral Expectations at Gordon College". Gordon.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
  37. "Residence Life Information and Policies". Gordon.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
  38. "Chapel Attendance Policy at Gordon College". Gordon.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  39. "Gordon College Athletics - Official Athletics Website". Gordon College Athletics.
  40. "Gordon Athletics – Men's Basketball Archives". gordon.edu. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  41. "Gordon Athletics – 2009–10 Men's Basketball Schedule". Gordon College. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  42. "Gordon Athletics – Eric Demers". Gordon College. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  43. "Sports Illustrated – Eric Demers". Gordon College. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  44. "Gordon Endowment 2014" . Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  45. "Bennett Center". gordon.edu. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  46. "In Focus: Alumni". gordon.edu. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  47. "CNN Profiles - Thomas Lake - Senior Writer". CNN.
  48. "Michael Messenger, next President of World Vision Canada". www.worldvision.ca.