2nd century

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Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. East-Hem 100ad.jpg
Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 2nd century AD.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 2nd century AD. East-Hem 200ad.jpg
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 2nd century AD.

The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.

Contents

Early in the century, the Roman Empire attained its greatest expansion under the emperor Trajan, but after his death became primarily defensive for the rest of its history. Much prosperity took place throughout the empire at this time, ruled as it were by the Five Good Emperors, a succession of well-received and able rulers. This period also saw the removal of the Jews from Jerusalem during the reign of Hadrian after Bar Kokhba's revolt. The last quarter of the century saw the end of the period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana at the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, last of the "Five Good Emperors", and the ascension of Commodus. After Commodus was murdered in 192, a turbulent period known as the Year of the Five Emperors ensued, which, after the quick successive removals of Pertinax and Didius Julianus from power, had the general-turned-emperor Septimius Severus, founder of the Severan dynasty, pitted against rival claimants in the form of Pescennius Niger, whom his forces defeated at the Battle of Issus in 194, and Clodius Albinus, whom he defeated at the Battle of Lugdunum in 197, granting him sole authority over the empire.

Although the Han Dynasty of China was firmly cemented into power and extended its imperial influence into Central Asia during the first half of the century, by the second half there was widespread corruption and open rebellion. This set in motion its ultimate decline, and in September 189, the Han general Dong Zhuo, after being summoned to the capital by He Jin to help quell the corrupt and powerful eunuch faction by serving as an intimidator to both them and the Empress Dowager, marched his army into Luoyang in light of He Jin's assassination and the subsequent slaughter of the eunuchs, taking over the capital and effectively becoming the de facto head of the government, although warlords and government officials quickly took against him in a campaign that, while failing to put him down, compelled Dong Zhuo to shift the seat of imperial power further west to Chang'an. As Dong Zhuo was killed in 192, the chaos in the wake of the collapse of centralized authority only continued, with various warlords attempting to vye for supremacy in order to establish or hold onto their authority within the decaying empire. Meanwhile, Dong Zhuo's former followers Li Jue and Guo Si were left to squabble amongst themselves, while the emperor himself eventually fled and returned to the ravaged city of Luoyang, but shortly thereafter, in 196, was given refuge by the warlord Cao Cao, who relocated him to the new capital city of Xu, from where Cao Cao could control the emperor. Cao Cao would only further exert his authority by defeating the powerful warlord Yuan Shao at the decisive Battle of Guandu in 200.

Events

Pieces of Hadrian's Wall remain near Greenhead and along the route, though large sections have been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby construction projects. Hadrian's wall at Greenhead Lough.jpg
Pieces of Hadrian's Wall remain near Greenhead and along the route, though large sections have been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby construction projects.
The La Mojarra Stela 1, from Veracruz, Mexico, made by the Epi-Olmec culture in 156. Harvestermountainlord.jpg
The La Mojarra Stela 1, from Veracruz, Mexico, made by the Epi-Olmec culture in 156.

Significant people

Trajan Traianus Glyptothek Munich 72.jpg
Trajan
Hadrian Bust of Hadrian in the Musei Capitolini MC817.jpg
Hadrian
Antoninus Pius Antoninus Pius BM Sc1463.jpg
Antoninus Pius
Marcus Aurelius 0 Marcus Aurelius - Palazzo Nuovo - Musei Capitolini (1).JPG
Marcus Aurelius
Septimius Severus Septimius Severus Glyptothek Munich 357.jpg
Septimius Severus
Apollodorus of Damascus Apollodorus of Damascus, Greek Architect and Engineer. Pic 01.jpg
Apollodorus of Damascus

Literature

Science and philosophy

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Related Research Articles

Septimius Severus Roman emperor (193–211)

Septimius Severus was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the customary succession of offices under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors.

3rd century Century

The 3rd century was the period from 201 to 300 AD or CE.

200s (decade) decade

The 200s decade ran from January 1, 200, to December 31, 209.

The 110s decade ran from January 1, 110, to December 31, 119.

The 130s decade ran from January 1, 130, to December 31, 139.

The 140s decade ran from January 1, 140, to December 31, 149.

The 160s decade ran from January 1, 160, to December 31, 169.

The 170s decade ran from January 1, 170, to December 31, 179.

The 180s decade ran from January 1, 180, to December 31, 189.

The 190s decade ran from January 1, 190, to December 31, 199.

Year 195 (CXCV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Scrapula and Clemens. The denomination 195 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

189 Calendar year

Year 189 (CLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Silanus and Silanus. The denomination 189 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

The 210s decade ran from January 1, 210, to December 31, 219.

The 220s decade ran from January 1, 220, to December 31, 229.

Year 192 (CXCII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aelius and Pertinax. The denomination 192 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

193 Calendar year

Year 193 (CXCIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Sosius and Ericius. The denomination 193 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Year 197 (CXCVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Magius and Rufinus. The denomination 197 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

208 Calendar year

Year 208 (CCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aurelius and Geta. The denomination 208 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

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References

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  2. Martin, Rebecca. "Kallanai Dam (Grand Anicut) - TheCivilEngineer.org". www.thecivilengineer.org. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
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  4. "Trajan's Amazing Column". www.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
  5. Lightfoot, C.S. (1990). "Trajan's Parthian War and the Fourth-Century Perspective". The Journal of Roman Studies. 80: 115–126. doi:10.2307/300283. JSTOR   300283.