17th century

Last updated
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601 (MDCI), to December 31, 1700 (MDCC). It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, [1] the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid Wars (Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23), Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53)), Anglo-Mughal Indian War, and the Dutch–Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. [2]

Contents

Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Aurangzeb-portrait.jpg
Mughal emperor Aurangzeb
A scene on the ice, Dutch Republic, first half of 17th century Hendrick Avercamp - A Scene on the Ice - WGA01076.jpg
A scene on the ice, Dutch Republic, first half of 17th century
Persian Ambassador during his entry into Krakow for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland in 1605. Polska rullen - Livrustkammaren - 55709.tif
Persian Ambassador during his entry into Kraków for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland in 1605.
Abo Akademi University's inauguration on 1640 in Turku. Turun akatemian vihkiaiset.jpg
Åbo Akademi University's inauguration on 1640 in Turku.
Catholic general Albrecht von Wallenstein Albrecht Wallenstein.jpeg
Catholic general Albrecht von Wallenstein
Rene Descartes with Queen Christina of Sweden. Rene Descartes i samtal med Sveriges drottning, Kristina.jpg
René Descartes with Queen Christina of Sweden.
James I of England and VI of Scotland John de Critz the Elder James I of England with a Red Curtain.jpg
James I of England and VI of Scotland
Tsar Michael I of Russia Tsar Mikhail I.jpg
Tsar Michael I of Russia
Battle of Nordlingen (1634). The Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by professional Habsburg Spanish troops won a great victory in the battle over the combined Protestant armies of Sweden and their German allies Jan van der Hoecke - The Battle of Nordlingen, 1634.jpg
Battle of Nördlingen (1634). The Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by professional Habsburg Spanish troops won a great victory in the battle over the combined Protestant armies of Sweden and their German allies
Taj Mahal, built by Shah Jahan, one of the Wonders of the World. Taj Mahal (Edited).jpeg
Taj Mahal, built by Shah Jahan, one of the Wonders of the World.
The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam La ronda de noche, por Rembrandt van Rijn.jpg
The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
The massacre of settlers in 1622. The massacre was instrumental in causing English colonists to view all natives as enemies. 1622 massacre jamestown de Bry.jpg
The massacre of settlers in 1622. The massacre was instrumental in causing English colonists to view all natives as enemies.
Map of Europe in 1648 at the end of the Thirty Years' War Europe map 1648.png
Map of Europe in 1648 at the end of the Thirty Years' War
Cardinal Mazarin Mazarin-mignard.jpg
Cardinal Mazarin
Claiming Louisiana for France Lasalle au Mississippi.jpg
Claiming Louisiana for France
Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu is the founder of Japan's last shogunate, which lasted well into the 19th century Tokugawa Ieyasu2.JPG
Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu is the founder of Japan's last shogunate, which lasted well into the 19th century

In the Islamic world, the gunpowder empires – the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal – grew in strength. Especially in the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture, culture and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself, during the sharia reign of Emperor Aurangzeb, is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP, [3] and its wealthiest province, the Bengal Subah, signaled the period of proto-industrialization. [4]

In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period; the isolationist Sakoku policy began in the 1630s and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty.

From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were increasingly dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. The semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that the English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.

By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).

Events

1601–1650

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 - 21 September 1629), the founder of Batavia, was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Jan Pieterszoon Coen.jpg
Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629), the founder of Batavia, was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

1651–1700

French invasion of the Netherlands, which Louis XIV initiated in 1672, starting the Franco-Dutch War 1680 van der Meulen Louis XIV bei Lobith anagoria.JPG
French invasion of the Netherlands, which Louis XIV initiated in 1672, starting the Franco-Dutch War
The Battle of Vienna marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe. Atlas Van der Hagen-KW1049B10 050-De belegering van Wenen door de Turken in 1683.jpeg
The Battle of Vienna marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.

Related Research Articles

16th century Century

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 (MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (MDC).

1570s

The 1570s decade ran from January 1, 1570, to December 31, 1579.

1603 Calendar year

1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1603rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 603rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 3rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1603, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

The 1600s ran from January 1, 1600, to December 31, 1609.

1604 Calendar year

1604 (MDCIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1604th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 604th year of the 2nd millennium, the 4th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1604, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1605 Calendar year

1605 (MDCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1605th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 605th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1605, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1613 Calendar year

1613 (MDCXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1613th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 613th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1613, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1639 Calendar year

1639 (MDCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1639th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 639th year of the 2nd millennium, the 39th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1639, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg) European coalition

The Grand Alliance was the anti-French coalition formed on 20 December 1689 between England, the Dutch Republic and the Holy Roman Empire. It was signed by the two leading opponents of France: William III, King of England and Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, and Emperor Leopold, on behalf of the Archduchy of Austria.

Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. Major historical events in Early Modern British history include numerous wars, especially with France, along with the English Renaissance, the English Reformation and Scottish Reformation, the English Civil War, the Restoration of Charles II, the Glorious Revolution, the Treaty of Union, the Scottish Enlightenment and the formation and collapse of the First British Empire.

Early modern period Period between about 1500 and 1800 CE

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of this period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late post-classical or Middle Ages through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions. It is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Renaissance period in Europe and Timurid Central Asia, the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, the end of the Crusades, the Age of Discovery, and ending around the French Revolution in 1789, or Napoleon's rise to power.

The military history of England and Wales deals with the period prior to the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.(for the period after 1707 see Military history of the United Kingdom)

Stuart period Period in British history

The Stuart period of British history lasted from 1603 to 1714 during the dynasty of the House of Stuart. The period ended with the death of Queen Anne and the accession of King George I from the German House of Hanover.

International relations, 1648–1814

International relations from 1648 to 1814 covers the major interactions of the nations of Europe, as well as the other continents, with emphasis on diplomacy, warfare, migration, and cultural interactions, from the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna. It is followed by International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919).

This is a timeline of the 17th century.

References

  1. "The Thirty-Years-War". Western New England College. Archived from the original on 1999-10-09. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
  2. "The Seventeenth-Century Decline". The Library of Iberian resources online. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  3. Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics , OECD Publishing, ISBN   9264104143, pages 259–261
  4. Lex Heerma van Voss; Els Hiemstra-Kuperus; Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk (2010). "The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India". The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000. Ashgate Publishing. p. 255. ISBN   9780754664284.
  5. Ricklefs (1991), page 28
  6. History of UST UST.edu.ph. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  7. "The Tatar Khanate of Crimea". Archived from the original on 2016-03-23. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
  8. Alan Macfarlane (1997). The savage wars of peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian trap . Wiley . p. 64. ISBN   0-631-18117-2
  9. Karen J. Cullen (2010). " Famine in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of the 1690s ". Edinburgh University Press. p. 20. ISBN   0-7486-3887-3

Further reading

Detail of a 17th-century Tekke Turkmen carpet Detail of Tekke Lot 86 2019.jpeg
Detail of a 17th-century Tekke Turkmen carpet

Focus on Europe