17th century

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The 17th century lasted from January 1, 1601 (MDCI), to December 31, 1700 (MDCC). It falls into the early modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis.

Contents

From the mid-17th century, European politics were increasingly dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. The semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that the English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.

By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure, and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).

It was during this period that the European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. [1] Also during this period, there would be a more intense European presence in Southeast Asia and East Asia (such as the colonization of Taiwan). These foreign elements would contribute to a revolution in Ayutthaya. While the Mataram Sultanate and the Aceh Sultanate would be the major powers of the region, especially during the first half of the century.

In the Islamic world, the gunpowder empires – the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal – grew in strength. Especially in the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture, culture, and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself, during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb, is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP. [2] The southern half of India would see the decline of the Deccan Sultanates and extinction of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Dutch would colonize Ceylon and endure hostilities with Kandy.

A scene on the ice, Dutch Republic, first half of 17th century Hendrick Avercamp - A Scene on the Ice - WGA01076.jpg
A scene on the ice, Dutch Republic, first half of 17th century

In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period; the isolationist Sakoku policy began in the 1630s and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzhi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty.

The greatest military conflicts of the century were the Thirty Years' War, [3] Dutch–Portuguese War, the Great Turkish War, the Nine Years' War, Mughal–Safavid Wars, and the Qing annexation of the Ming.

Events

1601–1650

Persian Ambassador during his entry into Krakow for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland in 1605. Polska rullen - Livrustkammaren - 55709.tif
Persian Ambassador during his entry into Kraków for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland in 1605.

1651–1700

The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam La ronda de noche, por Rembrandt van Rijn.jpg
The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">16th century</span> Century

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 (MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (MDC).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">18th century</span> Century

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 (MDCCI) to December 31, 1800 (MDCCC). During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions. During the century, slave trading and human trafficking expanded across the shores of the Atlantic, while declining in Russia, China, and Korea. Revolutions began to challenge the legitimacy of monarchical and aristocratic power structures, including the structures and beliefs that supported slavery. The Industrial Revolution began during mid-century, leading to radical changes in human society and the environment.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1680s</span> Decade in the 17th Century

The 1680s decade ran from January 1, 1680, to December 31, 1689.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1685</span> Calendar year

1685 (MDCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1685th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 685th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1685, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1605</span> Calendar year

1605 (MDCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1605th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 605th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1605, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1613</span> Calendar year

1613 (MDCXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1613th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 613th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1613, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg)</span> European coalition

The Grand Alliance was the anti-French coalition formed on 20 December 1689 between the Dutch Republic, England and the Holy Roman Empire. It was signed by the two leading opponents of France: William III, Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic and King of England, and Emperor Leopold, on behalf of the Archduchy of Austria.

Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Major historical events in early modern British history include numerous wars, especially with France, along with the English Renaissance, the English Reformation and Scottish Reformation, the English Civil War, the Restoration of Charles II, the Glorious Revolution, the Treaty of Union, the Scottish Enlightenment and the formation and the collapse of the First British Empire.

The early modern period of modern history spans the period after the Late Middle Ages of the post-classical era through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions. Although the chronological limits of this period are open to debate, the timeframe is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Renaissance period in Europe and Timurid Central Asia, the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, the end of the Crusades, the Age of Discovery, and ending around the French Revolution in 1789, or Napoleon's rise to power.

The term French–Habsburg rivalry describes the rivalry between France and the House of Habsburg. The Habsburgs headed an expansive and evolving Empire that included, at various times, the Holy Roman Empire, the Spanish Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire from the Diet of Augsburg in the High Middle Ages until the dissolution of the monarchy following World War I in the late modern period.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Second Hundred Years' War</span> Military conflicts (1689 to 1815)

The Second Hundred Years' War is a periodization or historical era term used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. The Second Hundred Years' War is named after the Hundred Years' War, when the rivalry between England and France began in the 14th century. The term appears to have been coined by J. R. Seeley in his influential work The Expansion of England (1883).

The military history of England and Wales deals with the period prior to the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.(for the period after 1707 see Military history of the United Kingdom)

<span class="mw-page-title-main">International relations (1648–1814)</span> Review of the topic

International relations from 1648 to 1814 covers the major interactions of the nations of Europe, as well as the other continents, with emphasis on diplomacy, warfare, migration, and cultural interactions, from the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna.

This is a timeline of the 18th century.

This is a timeline of the 17th century.

References

  1. "The Seventeenth-Century Decline". The Library of Iberian resources online. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  2. Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics , OECD Publishing, ISBN   9264104143, pages 259–261
  3. "The Thirty-Years-War". Western New England College. Archived from the original on 1999-10-09. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
  4. Turchin, Peter (2009). Secular Cycles. Princeton University Press. pp. 256–257. ISBN   9780691136967.
  5. Ricklefs (1991), page 28
  6. History of UST UST.edu.ph. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  7. "The Tatar Khanate of Crimea". Archived from the original on 2016-03-23. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
  8. Mark, Joshua J. "Indian Massacre of 1622". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2022-09-13.
  9. Campbell, B.C (2008). Disasters, accidents, and crises in American history: A reference guide to the nation's most catastrophic events. Infobase Publishing. pp. 11–12.
  10. Rokosz, M. (1995). "History of the Aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius) in Poland" (PDF). Animal Genetics Resources Information. 16: 5–12. doi:10.1017/S1014233900004582. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 January 2013.
  11. "René-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle". Britannica. 30 March 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  12. Alan Macfarlane (1997). The savage wars of peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian trap . Wiley . p. 64. ISBN   0-631-18117-2
  13. Karen J. Cullen (2010). " Famine in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of the 1690s ". Edinburgh University Press. p. 20. ISBN   0-7486-3887-3

Further reading

Detail of a 17th-century Tekke Turkmen carpet Detail of Tekke Lot 86 2019.jpeg
Detail of a 17th-century Tekke Turkmen carpet

Focus on Europe