|1227 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1227 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||1980|
|Balinese saka calendar||1148–1149|
|English Regnal year||11 Hen. 3 – 12 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar|| 丙戌年 (Fire Dog)|
3923 or 3863
— to —
丁亥年 (Fire Pig)
3924 or 3864
|- Vikram Samvat||1283–1284|
|- Shaka Samvat||1148–1149|
|- Kali Yuga||4327–4328|
|Japanese calendar|| Karoku 3 / Antei 1|
|Minguo calendar||685 before ROC |
|Thai solar calendar||1769–1770|
1353 or 972 or 200
— to —
1354 or 973 or 201
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1227 .|
Year 1227 ( MCCXXVII ) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:
A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year that begins on Friday, 1 January, and ends on Friday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is C. The most recent year of such kind was 2010 and the next one will be 2021 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2011 and 2022 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 2100, will also be a common year starting on Friday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in August. Leap years starting on Thursday share this characteristic, but also have another one in February.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 AUC (46 BC/BCE), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC/BCE), by edict. It was designed with the aid of Greek mathematicians and Greek astronomers such as Sosigenes of Alexandria.
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second-most-spoken Finnic language.
The Battle of Muhu was a military engagement fought between a force of Baltic and Germanic crusaders and pagan Oeselians. The battle, fought in Muhu, Estonia, resulted in the crusaders storming and capturing a fortress held by the Oeselians.
The Valjala Stronghold was a major ringfort on the island of Saaremaa in Estonia. Established in the 12th century, at the time it was the most important Oeselian stronghold. Its surrender in 1227 finalized the crusader conquest of Estonia.
January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.
The Livonian Crusade was the conquest of the territory constituting modern Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes. It ended with the creation of the Terra Mariana and Duchy of Estonia. The lands on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea were the last corners of Europe to be Christianized.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga, in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204 for the second time. The membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks" who fought Baltic and Finnic pagans in the area of modern-day Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Alternative names of the Order include Christ Knights, Swordbrothers, Sword Brethren, and The Militia of Christ of Livonia. The seal reads: +MAGISTRI ETFRM MILICIE CRI (Christi) DE LIVONIA.
September 30 is the 273rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 92 days remain until the end of the year.
Pope Nicholas IV, born Girolamo Masci, Pope from 22 February 1288 to his death in 1292. He was the first Franciscan to be elected pope.
Year 1292 (MCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Jochi was a Mongolian army commander who was the eldest son of Genghis Khan, and presumably one of the four sons by his principal wife Börte, though issues concerning his paternity followed him throughout his life. An accomplished military leader, he participated in his father's conquest of Central Asia, along with his brothers and uncles.
Genghis Khan was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed Genghis Khan, he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations, especially in the Khwarazmian– and Western Xia–controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.
Year 1182 (MCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 288 days remain until the end of the year.
Pope Honorius III, born as Cencio Savelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.
Year 1148 (MCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs.
The 1200s began on January 1, 1200, and ended on December 31, 1209.
Year 1202 (MCCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1220 (MCCXX) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1223 (MCCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1224 (MCCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.
The 1210s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1210, and ended on December 31, 1219.
The 1220s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1220, and ended on December 31, 1229.
Year 1217 (MCCXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1218 (MCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1219 (MCCXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1211 (MCCXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1210 (MCCX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1261 (MCCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1288 (MCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
The Duchy of Estonia, also known as Danish Estonia, was a direct dominion of the King of Denmark from 1219 until 1346 when it was sold to the Teutonic Order and became part of the Ordensstaat.
Inhabitants of Saaremaa, refers to people historically living on the island of Saaremaa, an island in Estonia in the Baltic Sea. In modern Estonian, they are called saarlased. In Viking-Age literature, the inhabitants were often included under the name "Vikings from Estonia". The name Oeselians was first used by Henry of Livonia in the 13th century. The inhabitants are often mentioned in the historic written sources during the Estonian Viking Age.
Terra Mariana was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia. It was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade, and its territories were composed of present day Estonia and Latvia. It was established on 2 February 1207, as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire, but lost this status in 1215 when Pope Innocent III proclaimed it as directly subject to the Holy See.