1278

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1278 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1278
MCCLXXVIII
Ab urbe condita 2031
Armenian calendar 727
ԹՎ ՉԻԷ
Assyrian calendar 6028
Balinese saka calendar 1199–1200
Bengali calendar 685
Berber calendar 2228
English Regnal year 6  Edw. 1   7  Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar 1822
Burmese calendar 640
Byzantine calendar 6786–6787
Chinese calendar 丁丑(Fire  Ox)
3974 or 3914
     to 
戊寅年 (Earth  Tiger)
3975 or 3915
Coptic calendar 994–995
Discordian calendar 2444
Ethiopian calendar 1270–1271
Hebrew calendar 5038–5039
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1334–1335
 - Shaka Samvat 1199–1200
 - Kali Yuga 4378–4379
Holocene calendar 11278
Igbo calendar 278–279
Iranian calendar 656–657
Islamic calendar 676–677
Japanese calendar Kenji 4 / Kōan 1
(弘安元年)
Javanese calendar 1188–1189
Julian calendar 1278
MCCLXXVIII
Korean calendar 3611
Minguo calendar 634 before ROC
民前634年
Nanakshahi calendar −190
Thai solar calendar 1820–1821
Tibetan calendar 阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1404 or 1023 or 251
     to 
阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1405 or 1024 or 252

Year 1278 ( MCCLXXVIII ) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year that begins on Saturday, 1 January, and ends on Saturday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is B. Examples include 1949, 1955, 1966, 1977, 1983, 1994, 2005, 2011 and 2022 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2017 and 2023 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in May. Leap years starting on Friday share this characteristic.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 AUC (46 BC/BCE), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC/BCE), by edict. It was designed with the aid of Greek mathematicians and Greek astronomers such as Sosigenes of Alexandria.

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February is the second month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have fewer than 31 days and the only of these to have a length of fewer than 30 days. The other seven months have 31 days. In 2019, February had 28 days.

Japanese era name first of the two elements (second being a number) that identify years in the Japanese era calendar scheme

The Japanese era name, also known as gengō (元号), is the first of the two elements that identify years in the Japanese era calendar scheme. The second element is a number which indicates the year number within the era, followed by the literal "nen (年)" meaning "year".

Kenji (era) Japanese era name

Kenji (建治) is a Japanese era name which followed Bun'ei and preceded Kōan. This period spanned the years from April 1275 to February 1278. The reigning emperor was Go-Uda-tennō (後宇多天皇).

Europe

January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

King of Jerusalem

The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.

May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 244 days remain until the end of the year.

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Arts and culture

  • The earliest known written copy of the Avesta , a collection of ancient sacred Persian Zoroastrian texts previously passed down orally, is produced.
Avesta Zoroastrian compendium of sacred literature

The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.

Iran A country in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With 82 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the political and economic center of Iran, and the largest and most populous city in Western Asia with more than 8.8 million residents in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area.

Markets

  • Giles of Lessines writes his De usuris. He estimates that some credit contracts need not to be usurious, as "future things are not estimated to be of such value as those collected in the instant". The prevalence of this view in the usury debate allows for the development of the financial industry in Roman Catholic Europe. [3]

Giles of Lessines OP was a thirteenth-century Dominican scholastic philosopher, a pupil of Thomas Aquinas. He was also strongly influenced by Albertus Magnus. He was an early defender of Thomism.

Religion

Pope Nicholas III Pope from 1277 to 1280

Pope Nicholas III, born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was Pope from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280.

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King Ottokar II of Bohemia PecetpoII.jpg
King Ottokar II of Bohemia

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13th century Century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar. After its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe, while the Muslim Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of the Indian subcontinent. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.

12th century Century

The 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and is sometimes called the Age of the Cistercians. In Song dynasty China an invasion by Jurchens caused a political schism of north and south. The Khmer Empire of Cambodia flourished during this century, while the Fatimids of Egypt were overtaken by the Ayyubid dynasty. Following the expansions of the Ghaznavids and Ghurid Empire, the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent take place in the end of the century.

Year 1282 (MCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

The 1300s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1300, and ended on December 31, 1309.

The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279.

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Year 1266 (MCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

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Ottokar II, the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until his death in 1278. He also held the titles of Margrave of Moravia from 1247, Duke of Austria from 1251, Duke of Styria from 1260, as well as Duke of Carinthia and landgrave of Carniola from 1269.

Wenceslaus II of Bohemia King of bohemia

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The Duchy of Bohemia, also later referred to in English as the Czech Duchy, was a monarchy and a principality of the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages. It was formed around 870 by Czechs as part of the Great Moravian realm. The Bohemian lands separated from disintegrating Moravia after Duke Spytihněv swore fidelity to the East Frankish king Arnulf in 895.

Přemyslid dynasty dynasty

The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia, as well as in parts of Poland, Hungary, and Austria.

Duchy of Austria A medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus

The Duchy of Austria was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right. After the ruling dukes of the House of Babenberg became extinct in male line, there was as much as three decades of rivalry on inheritance and rulership, until the German king Rudolf I took over the dominion as the first monarch of the Habsburg dynasty in 1276. Thereafter, Austria became the patrimony and ancestral homeland of the dynasty and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1453, the archducal title of the Austrian rulers, invented by Duke Rudolf IV in the forged Privilegium Maius of 1359, was officially acknowledged by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III.

Margraviate of Moravia

The Margraviate of Moravia was one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. It was variously a de facto independent state, and also subject to the Duchy, later the Kingdom of Bohemia. It comprised the region called Moravia within the modern Czech Republic.

References

  1. 1 2 Lock, Peter (2013). The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN   9781135131371.
  2. de Epalza, Miguel (1999). Negotiating cultures: bilingual surrender treaties in Muslim-Crusader Spain under James the Conqueror. Brill. p. 120. ISBN   90-04-11244-8.
  3. Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.