1268

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1268 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1268
MCCLXVIII
Ab urbe condita 2021
Armenian calendar 717
ԹՎ ՉԺԷ
Assyrian calendar 6018
Balinese saka calendar 1189–1190
Bengali calendar 675
Berber calendar 2218
English Regnal year 52  Hen. 3   53  Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar 1812
Burmese calendar 630
Byzantine calendar 6776–6777
Chinese calendar 丁卯(Fire  Rabbit)
3964 or 3904
     to 
戊辰年 (Earth  Dragon)
3965 or 3905
Coptic calendar 984–985
Discordian calendar 2434
Ethiopian calendar 1260–1261
Hebrew calendar 5028–5029
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1324–1325
 - Shaka Samvat 1189–1190
 - Kali Yuga 4368–4369
Holocene calendar 11268
Igbo calendar 268–269
Iranian calendar 646–647
Islamic calendar 666–667
Japanese calendar Bun'ei 5
(文永5年)
Javanese calendar 1178–1179
Julian calendar 1268
MCCLXVIII
Korean calendar 3601
Minguo calendar 644 before ROC
民前644年
Nanakshahi calendar −200
Thai solar calendar 1810–1811
Tibetan calendar 阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
1394 or 1013 or 241
     to 
阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1395 or 1014 or 242
Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Konradin.jpg
Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty.

Year 1268 ( MCCLXVIII ) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A leap year starting on Sunday is any year with 366 days that begins on Sunday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are AG, such as the years 1888, 1928, 1956, 1984, 2012, 2040, 2068, 2096, 2108, 2136, 2164, and 2192 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 1996 and 2024 in the obsolete Julian calendar.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

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Events

By topic

War and politics

February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 316 days remaining until the end of the year.

Battle of Wesenberg (1268) battle fought on February 18, 1268

The Battle of Wesenberg, Rakvere or Rakovor was a battle fought on February 18, 1268, between the combined forces of Danish Duchy of Estonia, Bishopric of Dorpat, Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights and local Estonian militia on one side and the forces of Novgorod and Pskov, led by Dmitry of Pereslavl, on the other. Medieval accounts of the battle vary with both sides claiming victory, however the Livonian victory being more plausible as Novgorodian-Pskovian forces retreated out of Danish Estonia, with Livonian Knights launching a retaliatory attack on Izborsk and Pskov soon afterwards, in June 1269.

Livonian Order Autonomous branch of knights of the Teutonic Order active 1237 to 1561

The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237. It was later a member of the Livonian Confederation, from 1435 to 1561.

Culture

Nicola Pisano Italian sculptor and architect

Nicola Pisano was an Italian sculptor whose work is noted for its classical Roman sculptural style. Pisano is sometimes considered to be the founder of modern sculpture.

Octagon shape with eight sides

In geometry, an octagon is an eight-sided polygon or 8-gon.

Gothic architecture style of architecture

Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was widely used, especially for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century.

By place

Asia

May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 227 days remaining until the end of the year.

Principality of Antioch former country

The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, and the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date.

Crusader states feudal state founded by the Crusaders

The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. The name also refers to other territorial gains made by medieval Christendom against Muslim and pagan adversaries.

Births

Philip IV of France King of France 1285–1314

Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."

Year 1314 (MCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Clare of Montefalco Augustinian nun and abbess

Saint Clare of Montefalco, also called Saint Clare of the Cross, was an Augustinian nun and abbess. Before becoming a nun, St. Clare was a member of the Third Order of St. Francis (Secular). She was canonized by Pope Leo XIII on December 8, 1881.

Deaths

May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 230 days remaining until the end of the year.

Peter II, Count of Savoy Savoian and British noble

Peter II, called the Little Charlemagne, held the Honour of Richmond, Yorkshire from April 1240 until his death and was Count of Savoy from 1263 until his death. He built the Savoy Palace in London.

Year 1203 (MCCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. It was also the first year to have all digits different from each other since 1098.

Related Research Articles

13th century Century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, and after its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe.

The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269.

Year 1192 (MCXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1177 (MCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1280 (MCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Julian calendar.

Battle of Benevento battle between the troops of Charles of Anjou and Manfred of Sicily

The Battle of Benevento was fought on 26 February 1266 near Benevento, in present-day Southern Italy. It was waged between the troops of Charles of Anjou and Manfred of Sicily. Manfred's defeat and death resulted in the capture of the Kingdom of Sicily by Charles, effectively ending the rule of the Hohenstaufen in the Italian Peninsula.

Conradin King of Jerusalem and German conqueror

Conrad, called the Younger or the Boy, but usually known by the diminutive Conradin, was the Duke of Swabia, King of Jerusalem, and King of Sicily.

Manfred, King of Sicily King of Sicily

Manfred was the last King of Sicily from the Hohenstaufen dynasty, reigning from 1258 until his death. The natural son of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Manfred became regent over the kingdom of Sicily on behalf of his nephew Conradin in 1254. As regent he subdued rebellions in the kingdom, until in 1258 he usurped Conradin's rule. After an initial attempt to appease pope Innocent IV he took up the ongoing conflict between the Hohenstaufens and the papacy through combat and political alliances. He defeated the papal army at Foggia on 2 December 1254. Excommunicated by three successive popes, Manfred was the target of a Crusade (1255–66) called first by Pope Alexander IV and then by Urban IV. Nothing came of Alexander's call, but Urban enlisted the aid of Charles of Anjou in overthrowing Manfred. Manfred was killed during his defeat by Charles at the Battle of Benevento, and Charles assumed kingship of Sicily.

Ottokar II of Bohemia Czech king and warrior

Ottokar II, the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until his death in 1278. He also held the titles of Margrave of Moravia from 1247, Duke of Austria from 1251, Duke of Styria from 1260, as well as Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Carniola from 1269.

Ernest, Margrave of Austria Austrian noble

Ernest, known as Ernest the Brave, was the Margrave of Austria from 1055 to his death in 1075. He was a member of the House of Babenberg.

Battle of Tagliacozzo

The Battle of Tagliacozzo was fought on 23 August 1268 between the Ghibellines supporters of Conradin of Hohenstaufen and the army of Charles of Anjou. The battle represented the last act of Hohenstaufen power in Italy. The end of Conradin marked also the fall of the family from the Imperial and Sicilian thrones, leading to the new chapter of Angevin domination in Southern Italy.

Duchy of Amalfi former country in modern-day Italy

The Duchy of Amalfi or the Republic of Amalfi was a de facto independent state centered on the Southern Italian city of Amalfi during the 10th and 11th centuries. The city and its territory were originally part of the larger ducatus Neapolitanus, governed by a patrician, but it extracted itself from Byzantine vassalage and first elected a duke in 958. During the 10th and 11th centuries Amalfi was estimated to have a population of 50,000 -70,000 people. It rose to become an economic powerhouse, a commercial center whose merchants dominated Mediterranean and Italian trade for centuries before being surpassed and superseded by the other maritime republics of the North, like Pisa, Venice, and Genoa. In 1073, Amalfi lost its independence, falling to French Norman invasion and subsequently to Pisa in 1137.

Agostino Barbarigo Doge of Venice (1486–1501)

Agostino Barbarigo was Doge of Venice from 1486 until his death in 1501.

John of Procida Italian physician and diplomat

John of Procida (1210–1298) was an Italian medieval physician and diplomat.

Mongol conquest of China 13th century conquest

The Mongol conquest of China was a series of major military efforts by the Mongol Empire to invade China proper. It spanned six decades in the 13th century and involved the defeat of the Jin dynasty, Western Xia, the Dali Kingdom and the Southern Song. The Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan started the conquest with small-scale raids into Western Xia in 1205 and 1207. By 1279, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan had established the Yuan dynasty in China and crushed the last Song resistance, which marked the onset of all of China under the Mongol Yuan rule. This was the first time in history that the whole of China was conquered and subsequently ruled by a foreign or non-native ruler.

Europeans in Medieval China

Given textual and archaeological evidence, it is thought that thousands of Europeans lived in Imperial China during the period of Mongol rule. These were people from countries traditionally belonging to the lands of Christendom during the High to Late Middle Ages who visited, traded, performed Christian missionary work, or lived in China. This occurred primarily during the second half of the 13th century and the first half of the 14th century, coinciding with the rule of the Mongol Empire, which ruled over a large part of Eurasia and connected Europe with their Chinese dominion of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). Whereas the Byzantine Empire centered in Greece and Anatolia maintained rare incidences of correspondence with the Tang, Song and Ming dynasties of China, the Roman papacy sent several missionaries and embassies to the early Mongol Empire as well as to Khanbaliq, the capital of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. These contacts with the West were only preceded by rare interactions between the Han-period Chinese and Hellenistic Greeks and Romans.

Kublai Khan founding emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, grandson of Genghis Khan

Kublai was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

The Duchy of Thuringia was an eastern frontier march of the Merovingian kingdom of Austrasia, established about 631 by King Dagobert I after his troops had been defeated by the forces of the Slavic confederation of Samo at the Battle of Wogastisburg. It was recreated in the Carolingian Empire and its dukes appointed by the king until it was absorbed by the Saxon dukes in 908. From about 1111/12 the territory was ruled by the Landgraves of Thuringia as Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Split, Croatia.

Nayan was a prince of the Borjigin royal family of the Mongol Empire. He raised a noteworthy and serious rebellion against the Mongolian Khagan, Kublai Khan. He was a Nestorian Christian. Much of what is known of Nayan was recorded by the Venetian traveller Marco Polo.

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