|Turnout||79.67% (first round)|
78.70% (second round)
Presidential election results
All 513 seats
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
54 of the 81 seats
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
General elections were held in Brazil on 7 October 2018 to elect the president, National Congress and state governors. As no candidate in the presidential election received more than 50% of the vote in the first round, a runoff round was held on 28 October.
The election occurred during a tumultuous time in Brazilian politics. Narrowly re-elected in 2014,President Dilma Rousseff of the centre-left Workers’ Party (PT), which had dominated Brazilian politics since 2002, was impeached in 2016. Replacing her was her Vice President, Michel Temer of the centre-right Brazilian Democratic Movement Party. Temer, whose age of 75 at inauguration made him the oldest to ever take office, broke sharply with his predecessor’s policies and amended the constitution to freeze public spending. He was extraordinarily unpopular, reaching an approval rating of 7% versus 76% in favor of his resignation. Despite mass demonstrations against his rule, including a 2017 general strike and a 2018 truck drivers’ strike, Temer refused to step down and served the duration of his term in office. Due to being convicted of breaking campaign finance laws, Temer was ineligible to run in 2018.
The candidacy of Jair Bolsonaro, a controversial federal deputy from Rio de Janeiro known for his far-right politicsand defense of the former Brazilian military dictatorship, overshadowed other conservative candidates. Noted for his vehement opposition to abortion and same-sex marriage, Bolsonaro joined the small Social Liberal Party (PSL) to mount his bid for the presidency, shifting the party's ideology in favor of social conservatism and nationalism. Bolsonaro benefited from opposition to the former PT government and ran in favor of expanding gun ownership in response to high crime, legalizing the death penalty, and the privatization of state-owned companies. For the position of Vice President, Bolsonaro chose Hamilton Mourão, a conservative retired general in the Brazilian Army. During the campaign, Bolsonaro was the subject of widespread protests for his homophobic, racist, and misogynistic beliefs. Former Governor of São Paulo Geraldo Alckmin, who ran as a member of the previously dominant centre-right Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), received the worst result for a presidential nominee of his party in Brazilian history.
Former President Lula da Silva, once considered one of the most popular politicians in the world,intended to run for president as the candidate of the PT with former Mayor of São Paulo Fernando Haddad as his running-mate. Polling taken during the campaign found Lula as the favorite in both the first and second rounds of the election. However, Lula's 2017 conviction on corruption charges barred him from running. Haddad, who was largely unknown to Brazilian voters at the time, was chosen to run in his place, with Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB) deputy Manuela d’Avila of Rio Grande do Sul serving as his running mate. His major opponent on the left was Ciro Gomes, a mainstay of Brazilian politics who ran a centre-left campaign as a member of the Democratic Labour Party (PDT). Following Haddad's advancement to the second round, Ciro did not endorse his campaign, though he did signal opposition to Bolsonaro.
The campaign was marked by political violence, with Bolsonaro being a victim of a stabbing attack at a campaign rally in Minas Geraisand supporters of both Haddad and Bolsonaro falling victim to politically-motivated attacks. Fake news spread on popular messaging app WhatsApp was a focal point of election coverage, with disinformation spread on the app being blamed for influencing voting intentions. In the first round of the election, Bolsonaro received approximately 46% of the vote to Haddad's 29%, with Ciro coming in third place with over 12% of the vote. In the second round, Bolsonaro defeated Haddad by approximately ten percentage points, with the deputy receiving over 55% of the vote to less than 45% for Haddad. Bolsonaro took office on 1 January 2019 as President of Brazil.
The 2014 elections saw Workers' Party candidate Dilma Rousseff reelected as President in the second round with 51.6% of the vote, defeating Aécio Neves of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party who received 48.4% of the vote.Rousseff had first been elected in the 2010 elections, succeeding her political mentor, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who was in office from 2003 until 2011.
However, on 3 December 2015, impeachment proceedings against Rousseff were officially accepted by the Chamber of Deputies.On 12 May 2016, the Federal Senate temporarily suspended Rousseff's powers and duties for up to six months or until the Senate reached a verdict: to remove her from office if found guilty or to acquit her from the crimes charged. Vice President Michel Temer, of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, assumed her powers and duties as Acting President of Brazil during the suspension. On 31 August 2016, the Senate voted 61–20 in favor of impeachment, finding Rousseff guilty of breaking budgetary laws and removing her from office. Critics of the impeachment saw it as a legislative coup d'état. Vice President Temer succeeded Rousseff as the 37th President of Brazil. His government implemented policies that contradicted the platform on which Rousseff's Workers Party had been elected, in one of the most controversial and heated political periods of modern Brazilian history.
Temer was barred from running for a full term in 2018. He had been convicted of campaign law violations in 2016, and was banned from holding any political office for eight years.He was likely ineligible for a full term in any case due to the manner in which constitutional provisions on term limits are worded. The constitution stipulates that if the Vice President becomes Acting President for any reason, it counts toward the limit of two consecutive terms. This applies even when the Vice President becomes Acting President whenever the President is abroad.
Voting in Brazil is allowed for citizens over 16 years of age and mandatory for those between 18 and 70 years of age.Those who do not vote in an election and do not later present an acceptable justification (such as being away from their voting location at the time) must pay a fine of 3.51 BRL (equivalent to 0.90 USD in October 2018). Brazilian citizens residing abroad only vote for president.
The President and the Vice President of Brazil are elected using the two-round system. Citizens may field their candidacies for the presidency, and participate in the general elections, which are held on the first Sunday in October (in this instance, 7 October 2018).If the most-voted candidate takes more than 50% of the overall vote, he or she is declared elected. If the 50% threshold is not met by any candidate, a second round of voting is held on the last Sunday in October (in this instance, 28 October 2018). In the second round, only the two most-voted candidates from the first round may participate. The winner of the second round is elected President of Brazil. Candidates for President run for office jointly with a candidate for Vice-President, and the Vice-President is elected as a consequence of the election of the President.
The Governors and Vice Governors of all states and of the Federal District are elected in the same way as the president, using two rounds of voting if necessary.
In 2018, two-thirds of the 81 members of the Federal Senate were elected for a term of 8 years in office, the other third having been elected in 2014. Two candidates will be elected from each of the states and Federal District using majority block voting, with voters able to cast two votes each.
All 513 members of the Chamber of Deputies (federal deputies) are elected, with candidates elected from 27 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the states and Federal District, varying in size from eight to 70 seats. The Chamber elections are held using open list proportional representation, with seats allocated using the simple quotient.
All members of the State Legislative Assemblies (state deputies) and of the Federal District Legislative Chamber (district deputies), varying in size from 24 to 94 seats, will be elected. These elections are also held using open list proportional representation, with seats allocated using the simple quotient.
|#||Party/coalition||Presidential candidate||Political office(s)||Vice-Presidential candidate|
|17||Cap. Jair Bolsonaro (PSL)|
|Federal Deputy for Rio de Janeiro (1991–2019)||Gen. Hamilton Mourão (PRTB)|
|13|| Fernando Haddad (PT)|
|51st Mayor of São Paulo (2013–17)||Manuela d'Ávila (PCdoB)|
|#||Party/coalition||Presidential candidate||Political office(s)||Vice-Presidential candidate|
|12|| Ciro Gomes (PDT)|
|Governor of Ceará (1991–94) and Federal Deputy for Ceará (2007–11)||Kátia Abreu (PDT)|
|15|| Henrique Meirelles (MDB)|
|Minister of Finance (2016–2018) and former President of the Central Bank of Brazil (2003–11)||Germano Rigotto (MDB)|
|16|| Vera Lúcia (PSTU)|
|Labor organizer||Hertz Dias (PSTU)|
|18|| Marina Silva (REDE)|
|Senator for Acre (1995–2011)||Eduardo Jorge (PV)|
|19|| Alvaro Dias |
|Senator for Paraná (1983–87, 1999–2018)||Paulo Rabello de Castro (PSC)|
Christian Democracy (DC)
| José Maria Eymael (DC)|
|Federal Deputy for São Paulo (1986–95)||Helvio Costa (DC)|
New Party (NOVO)
| João Amoêdo (NOVO)|
|President of NOVO (2015–17)||Christian Lohbauer (NOVO)|
|45|| Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB)|
|Governor of São Paulo (2001–06, 2011–18)||Ana Amélia (PP)|
|50|| Guilherme Boulos (PSOL)|
|Professor at University of São Paulo, coordinator of the Homeless Workers' Movement activist, and writer.||Sônia Guajajara (PSOL)|
| Cabo Daciolo (PATRI)|
|Federal Deputy for Rio de Janeiro (2015–2019)||Suelene Balduino Nascimento (PATRI)|
Free Homeland Party (PPL)
| João Vicente Goulart (PPL)|
|State Deputy of Rio Grande do Sul (1982–86)||Léo Alves (PPL)|
On 1 September, the Superior Electoral Court voted 6–1 to reject Lula's candidacy based on the Lei da Ficha Limpa and his conviction on corruption charges, but approved the PT-PCdoB-PROS coalition "The People Happy Again" and the candidacy of Fernando Haddad.The Workers' Party replaced Lula with Haddad and announced former presidential candidate Manuela d'Ávila as his running mate.
Jair Bolsonaro was stabbed on 6 September 2018 while campaigning in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais and interacting with supporters.Bolsonaro's son, Flávio, stated that his father's wounds were only superficial and he was recovering in hospital. Police arrested and identified the attacker as Adelio Bispo de Oliveira, who claimed that he was "ordered by God to carry out the attack". Flávio Bolsonaro later stated that the wounds inflicted seemed worse than initially thought. He tweeted about his father's condition, explaining that the perforation reached part of the liver, the lung and part of the intestine. He also stated that Bolsonaro had lost a large amount of blood, arriving at the hospital with a pressure of 10/3, but had since stabilized. Most of the other candidates in the presidential race as well as and the then-Brazilian president, Michel Temer, condemned the attack. After being stabbed, Bolsonaro did not attend any further debates.
Two debates were held on 9 and 17 August, featuring eight presidential candidates: Bolsonaro, Alckmin, Silva, Gomes, Dias, Meirelles, Boulos, and Daciolo. Lula was unable to participate in the debates.The 9 August debate was moderated by Ricardo Boechat, and the 17 August debate was moderated by Amanda Klein, Boris Casoy and Mariana Godoy.
A debate scheduled for 27 Augustwas canceled after Jair Bolsonaro expressed his uncertainty about participating in the debates and the Workers' Party insisted on the participation of Lula, prohibited by the Electoral Justice. Bolsonaro did not participate in further debates after he was attacked on 6 September.
After a debate on 9 September moderated by Maria Lydia Flândoli,Fernando Haddad participated in all remaining debates. These occurred on 20 September (moderated by Joyce Ribeiro), 26 September (moderated by Carlos Nascimento), 30 September (moderated by Adriana Araújo and Celso Freitas), and 4 October (moderated by William Bonner).
A vice presidential debate was held on 5 September featuring four candidates; Fernando Haddad did not attend.
While several debates were scheduled for the second round, none were held. Debates planned for 12 October,14 October, and 15 October were cancelled due to Bolsonaro's health issues. A debate scheduled for 21 October was cancelled after the campaigns were unable to agree to terms.
|Candidate||Running mate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Jair Bolsonaro||Hamilton Mourão (PRTB)||Social Liberal Party||49,277,010||46.03||57,797,847||55.13|
|Fernando Haddad||Manuela d'Ávila (PCdoB)||Workers' Party||31,342,051||29.28||47,040,906||44.87|
|Ciro Gomes||Kátia Abreu||Democratic Labour Party||13,344,371||12.47|
|Geraldo Alckmin||Ana Amélia (PP)||Brazilian Social Democracy Party||5,096,350||4.76|
|João Amoêdo||Christian Lohbauer||New Party||2,679,745||2.50|
|Cabo Daciolo||Suelene Balduino||Patriota||1,348,323||1.26|
|Henrique Meirelles||Germano Rigotto||Brazilian Democratic Movement||1,288,950||1.20|
|Marina Silva||Eduardo Jorge (PV)||Sustainability Network||1,069,578||1.00|
|Alvaro Dias||Paulo Rabello de Castro (PSC)||Podemos||859,601||0.80|
|Guilherme Boulos||Sônia Guajajara||Socialism and Liberty Party||617,122||0.58|
|Vera Lúcia||Hertz Dias||United Socialist Workers' Party||55,762||0.05|
|José Maria Eymael||Hélvio Costa||Christian Democracy||41,710||0.04|
|João Vicente Goulart||Léo Dias||Free Fatherland Party||30,176||0.03|
|Demographic group||Bolsonaro||Haddad|| % of|
|16–24 years old||50||50||15|
|25–34 years old||56||44||21|
|35-44 years old||56||44||21|
|45-59 years old||54||46||24|
|60 and older||56||44||19|
|Less than high school||44||56||33|
|High school diploma||58||42||43|
|Bachelor’s degree or more||61||39||24|
|Under 2x min wage||42||58||40|
|2-5x min wage||61||39||38|
|5-10x min wage||69||31||12|
|Over 10x min wage||67||33||10|
|Social Liberal Party||11,457,878||11.65||52||+51|
|Brazilian Social Democracy Party||5,905,541||6.01||29||–25|
|Social Democratic Party||5,749,008||5.85||34||–2|
|Brazilian Democratic Movement||5,439,167||5.53||34||–32|
|Brazilian Socialist Party||5,386,400||5.48||32||–2|
|Party of the Republic||5,224,591||5.31||33||–1|
|Brazilian Republican Party||4,992,016||5.08||30||+9|
|Democratic Labour Party||4,545,846||4.62||28||+9|
|Socialism and Liberty Party||2,783,669||2.83||10||+5|
|Republican Party of the Social Order||2,042,610||2.08||8||–3|
|Brazilian Labour Party||2,022,719||2.06||10||–15|
|Social Christian Party||1,765,226||1.80||8||–5|
|Popular Socialist Party||1,590,084||1.62||8||–2|
|Humanist Party of Solidarity||1,426,444||1.45||6||+1|
|Communist Party of Brazil||1,329,575||1.35||9||–1|
|Progressive Republican Party||851,368||0.87||4||+1|
|Brazilian Labour Renewal Party||684,976||0.70||0||–1|
|Party of National Mobilization||634,129||0.64||3||0|
|Christian Labour Party||601,814||0.61||2||0|
|Free Fatherland Party||385,197||0.39||1||+1|
|Party of the Brazilian Woman||228,302||0.23||0||New|
|Brazilian Communist Party||61,343||0.06||0||0|
|United Socialist Workers' Party||41,304||0.04||0||0|
|Workers' Cause Party||2,785||0.00||0||0|
|Source: Election Resources|
|Brazilian Social Democracy Party||20,310,558||11.85||4||8||–2|
|Social Liberal Party||19,413,869||11.33||4||4||New|
|Brazilian Democratic Movement||12,800,290||7.47||7||12||–6|
|Brazilian Socialist Party||8,234,195||4.80||2||2||–5|
|Social Democratic Party||8,202,342||4.79||4||7||+4|
|Democratic Labour Party||7,737,982||4.52||2||5||–3|
|Socialism and Liberty Party||5,273,853||3.08||0||0||–1|
|Humanist Party of Solidarity||4,228,973||2.47||2||2||New|
|Social Christian Party||4,126,068||2.41||1||1||+1|
|Party of the Republic||3,130,082||1.83||1||2||–2|
|Popular Socialist Party||2,954,800||1.72||2||2||New|
|Progressive Republican Party||1,974,061||1.15||1||1||+1|
|Brazilian Labour Party||1,899,838||1.11||2||3||0|
|Communist Party of Brazil||1,673,190||0.98||0||0||–1|
|Brazilian Republican Party||1,505,607||0.88||1||1||0|
|Republican Party of the Social Order||1,370,513||0.80||1||1||0|
|Brazilian Labour Renewal Party||886,267||0.52||0||0||0|
|Free Fatherland Party||504,209||0.29||0||0||0|
|United Socialist Workers' Party||413,914||0.24||0||0||0|
|Party of National Mobilization||329,973||0.19||0||0||0|
|Brazilian Communist Party||256,655||0.15||0||0||0|
|Christian Labour Party||222,931||0.13||0||1||+1|
|Party of the Brazilian Woman||51,027||0.03||0||0||New|
|Workers' Cause Party||38,691||0.02||0||0||0|
|Source: Election Resources|
The Social Liberal Party is a far-right political party in Brazil in a merger process with the Democrats to form the Brazil Union. Founded in 1994 as a social-liberal political party, the PSL was registered on the Superior Electoral Court in 1998.
Geraldo José Rodrigues de Alckmin Filho is a Brazilian politician who served as the Governor of São Paulo from 2001 to 2006, and then again from 2011 to 2018. He was the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) presidential nominee for the 2018 presidential election, when he finished in fourth place, as well for the 2006 presidential election, when he came in second place, losing in the runoff to then president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. He is usually described by political analysts and supporters as a pro-business centrist, closely associated with the political and financial establishment.
Ciro Ferreira Gomes GOMM, known mononymously as Ciro, is a Brazilian politician, lawyer, and academic. Identified as a centre-left politician, national-developmentalist, social democrat and labourist, Ciro is currently affiliated and vice-president of the Democratic Labour Party (PDT).
The Brazilian Labour Renewal Party is a conservative Brazilian political party. It was founded in 1994 and its electoral number is 28. According to the party's official website, PRTB's main ideology is "to establish an economic system based on participatory decision making as the primary economic mechanism for allocation in society".
General elections were held in Brazil on 3 October 2010 to elect the president, National Congress and state governors. As no presidential candidate received more than 50% in the first round of voting, a second round was held on 31 October to choose a successor to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of the Workers' Party (PT), who was constitutionally ineligible to run for a third term as he has already served two terms after winning the elections in 2002 and being re-elected in 2006.
Fernando Haddad is a Brazilian academic and politician who served as Mayor of São Paulo from 2013 to 2017. He was the Workers' Party candidate for President of Brazil in the 2018 election, replacing former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, whose candidacy was barred by the Superior Electoral Court under the Clean Slate law. Haddad faced Jair Bolsonaro in the run-off of the election, and lost the election with 44.87% of the votes against the 55.13% of Bolsonaro.
Patriota, abbreviated PATRI and formerly known as the National Ecological Party, is a right-wing to far-right political party in Brazil. It was registered in the Superior Electoral Court in the summer of 2012. The President of the party is the former State Deputy of São Paulo Adilson Barroso, who before creating PEN was a member of the Social Christian Party. The party's Superior Electoral Court identification number is 51.
General elections were held in Brazil on 5 October 2014 to elect the president, the National Congress, and state governorships. As no candidate in the presidential election received more than 50% of the vote in the first round on 5 October 2014, a second-round runoff was held on 26 October 2014.
Jair Messias Bolsonaro is a Brazilian politician and retired military officer who has been the 38th president of Brazil since 1 January 2019. He was elected in 2018 as a member of the conservative Social Liberal Party before cutting ties with it. From 1991 to 2018, Bolsonaro served in Brazil's Chamber of Deputies, representing the state of Rio de Janeiro.
Antônio Hamilton Martins Mourão is a Brazilian military officer and politician serving as the 25th vice president of Brazil. He has served as vice president under Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro since 1 January 2019. Mourão is the first person of caboclo background to serve as vice president.
The 2018 presidential campaign of Jair Bolsonaro was announced on 3 March 2016. Brazilian federal deputy and former military officer Jair Bolsonaro became the official nominee of the Social Liberal Party during their convention on 22 July 2018. The running mate decision came later on 8 August, when General Hamilton Mourão was chosen to compose the ticket with Bolsonaro. By choosing Mourão as running mate Bolsonaro secured a coalition with the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party.
The 2018 presidential campaign of Ciro Gomes was announced on 8 March 2018. At the Democratic Labour Party (PDT) convention on 20 July, Gomes was formally nominated as the party's presidential candidate. His running mate, Kátia Abreu, former Minister of Agriculture in Dilma Rousseff's government, was confirmed as his running mate on 5 August, on the last day of political parties conventions. Ciro Gomes' party formed the coalition Sovereign Brazil with AVANTE.
The 2018 presidential campaign of Fernando Haddad for the Presidency of Brazil was announced on 11 September 2018, two weeks after the candidacy of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, the former President of Brazil, was denied by the Superior Electoral Court for violating the Ficha Limpa. Haddad, who had been Lula's running mate, replaced him as the candidate and PCdoB state legislator Manuela d'Ávila became Haddad's running mate.
Gustavo Bebianno Rocha was a Brazilian lawyer and advisor to President Jair Bolsonaro (PSL). Bebianno became Acting Chairman of the Social Liberal Party in March 2018 after Luciano Bivar registered to run for federal deputy in the 2018 elections.
The 2020 São Paulo municipal election took place in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, with the first round taking place on 15 November 2020 and the second round taking place on 29 November 2020. Voters voted to elect the Mayor, the Vice Mayor and 55 city councillors for the administration of the city. The result was a 2nd round victory for incumbent Mayor Bruno Covas of the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), winning 3,169,121 votes and a share of 59,38% of the popular vote, defeating political activist Guilherme Boulos of the Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL), who took 2,168,109 votes and a share of 40.62% of the popular vote.
General elections are scheduled to be held in Brazil on 2 October 2022 to elect the President, Vice President, and the National Congress. Elections for state Governors and Vice Governors, State Legislative Assemblies, the Federal District Legislative Chamber and the District Council of Fernando de Noronha will be held at the same time.
Since the previous elections in 2018, polling companies have published surveys tracking voting intention for the 2022 Brazilian general election. The results of these surveys are listed below in reverse chronological order and include parties whose candidates frequently poll above 3% of the vote as well as the incumbent President of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro.
The 2021 President of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil election took place on 1 February 2021, the day after the opening day of the 3rd Session of the 56th Legislature of the National Congress.
The 2021 PSDB presidential primary was held on 21 and 27 November 2021 to elect the Brazilian Social Democracy Party presidential nominee.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2018 Brazilian election .|