Social Liberal Party (Brazil)

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Social Liberal Party

Partido Social Liberal
President of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro
President Luciano Bivar
Founded30 October 1994;24 years ago (1994-10-30)
HeadquartersSHN, Quadra 02, Bloco F, Ed. Executive Office Tower, Sala 1.122 – Brasília, DF
Membership (July 2018)241,439 [1]
Ideology Conservatism
Brazilian nationalism [2]
Liberal conservatism [3]
Social conservatism [4]
Economic liberalism [5]
Fiscal conservatism
Right-wing populism [6]
National conservatism [7]
Militarism [8]
Christian right [9]
Anti-communism [2]
Monarchism [10] [11] [12]
Political position Right-wing to far-right [13]
Colours     Blue
TSE Identification Number17
Seats in the
Chamber of Deputies
54 / 513
Seats in the
4 / 81
3 / 27
State deputies
76 / 1,035
City councillors (2016)
878 / 57,720

The Social Liberal Party (Portuguese : Partido Social Liberal, PSL) is a right-wing to far-right conservative political party in Brazil. Founded in 1994 as a social liberal party, the PSL was registered on the Superior Electoral Court in 1998.

Portuguese language Romance language that originated in Portugal

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. Reintegrationists maintain that Galician is not a separate language, but a dialect of Portuguese. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).

Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics, or tradition. Hierarchy and inequality may be viewed as natural results of traditional social differences or the competition in market economies. The term right-wing can generally refer to "the conservative or reactionary section of a political party or system".

Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of extreme nationalism, nativist ideologies, and authoritarian tendencies.


In January 2018, former Social Christian politician Jair Bolsonaro joined the party and later converted it into an economically liberal, nationalist, radically anti-communist and social conservative party. The original name remained after the ideological shift, and after Livres (the party's original main wing) left the party and formed their own political movement to continue the party's original goals. Bolsonaro became the party's nominee for the 2018 presidential election and won in both rounds.

The Social Christian Party is a conservative political party in Brazil.

Jair Bolsonaro 38th President of Brazil

Jair Messias Bolsonaro is a Brazilian politician and retired military officer, serving as the 38th President of Brazil since 1 January 2019. He served in the country's Chamber of Deputies, representing the state of Rio de Janeiro, between 1991 and 2018. He currently is a member of the conservative Social Liberal Party.

Brazilian nationalism

Brazilian nationalism refers to the nationalism of Brazilian people and Brazilian culture. It became strong during the declaration of Independence of Brazil, in the 19th century.


PSL was originally founded on 30 October 1994 by businessman Luciano Bivar as a social liberal party. [14] It was registered on the Superior Electoral Court on 2 June 1998. [15]

Luciano Bivar Brazilian politician

Luciano Caldas Bivar is a Brazilian politician and businessman who was the PSL candidate for the 2006 Brazilian presidential election. His political platform included projects such as the end of income tax in favour of a unique tax on products and services, and also building military barracks in Brazilian favelas. He received 0.06% of the total vote in the first round and did not progress to the second round.

Superior Electoral Court

The Superior Electoral Court is the highest body of the Brazilian Electoral Justice, which also comprises one Regional Electoral Court in each of the 26 states and the Federal District of the country, as determined by Article 118 of the Constitution of Brazil.

In the 2002 legislative elections, PSL won 1 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Federal Senate. In the 2006 legislative elections, the party won no seats in the Chamber of Deputies or the Federal Senate. In the 2010 legislative elections, PSL won 1 seat in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Federal Senate, maintaining the same results in the 2014 legislative elections.

Chamber of Deputies (Brazil) lower house of the National Congress of Brazil

The Chamber of Deputies is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. The chamber comprises 513 deputies, who are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. The current President of the Chamber is the deputy Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), who was elected in July 14, 2016 to serve for the remainder of the 2015–2016 term.

Federal Senate upper house of the National Congress of Brazil

The Federal Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was initially similar to the United Kingdom's House of Lords. Since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 the Federal Senate has resembled the United States Senate.

In 2015, PSL underwent a reform led by the internal social liberal wing Livres, with names such as political scientist Fábio Ostermann  [ pt ] and journalist Leandro Narloch reinforcing the party's affiliation with social liberal policies. [16] [17] PSL also supported the impeachment of former president Dilma Rousseff. [18]

Livres is a Brazilian social-liberal political movement which joined the Social Liberal Party (PSL) in 2016 to reinforce the political party's social liberal values.

Leandro Narloch Brazilian writer

Leandro Narloch is a Brazilian journalist and writer. He worked as a reporter at Veja magazine and as an editor at Aventuras na História and Superinteressante magazines, all published by Grupo Abril.

Impeachment of Dilma Rousseff

The impeachment of Dilma Rousseff, the 36th President of Brazil, began on 2 December 2015 with a petition for her impeachment being accepted by Eduardo Cunha, then president of the Chamber of Deputies, and continued into late 2016. Rousseff, then more than 12 months into her second four-year term, was charged with criminal administrative misconduct and disregard for the federal budget in violation of article 85, items V and VI of the Constitution of Brazil and the Fiscal Responsibility Law, article 36.

On 5 January 2018, conservative and former Social Christian politician Jair Bolsonaro became a member of the party, which prompted the Livres wing to leave the party in protest of Bolsonaro's social conservative views. After the exit of Livres, the party followed a national conservative path, changed its colors from purple to the more nationalist blue, yellow and green (the colors of Brazil’s flag) and since then has discussed a name change either to Republicans (Republicanos) or Mobilize (Mobiliza). [19] On 5 March 2018, Bivar stepped down from party’s presidency and Gustavo Bebianno was appointed as acting president.

Flag of Brazil national flag

The flag of Brazil, known in Portuguese as Verde e amarela, or less usually 'Auriverde, is a blue disc depicting a starry sky spanned by a curved band inscribed with the national motto "Ordem e Progresso", within a yellow rhombus, on a green field. Brazil officially adopted this design for its national flag on November 19, 1889 — four days after the Proclamation of the Republic, to replace the flag of the Empire of Brazil. The concept was the work of Raimundo Teixeira Mendes, with the collaboration of Miguel Lemos, Manuel Pereira Reis and Décio Villares.

Gustavo Bebianno

Gustavo Bebianno Rocha is a Brazilian lawyer and advisor to President Jair Bolsonaro (PSL). Bebianno became Acting President of the Social Liberal Party in March 2018 after Luciano Bivar registered to run for federal deputy in the 2018 elections.

Bolsonaro eventually became PSL’s nominee for the 2018 presidential election, exceeding polling forecasts to receive 46% of the popular vote in the first round. [20] Bolsonaro's coattails helped elect 55 deputies and 4 senators from PSL, which will make it the largest political party in the next Chamber of Deputies. [21] It also became the largest single party in the legislative assemblies of both Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. [22] [23] On 28 October 2018, Bolsonaro was elected President with 55.13% of the votes, defeating Workers' Party's Fernando Haddad. [24] He took office on 1 January 2019. [25]

On 29 October 2018, Bivar was re-appointed as party’s president. [26]


Ideology and policies

Since Bolsonaro's entrance in the party, PSL has changed much of its ideologies, abandoning its former socially liberal policies and keeping its economic liberal policies, supporting privatisation and decentralisation while at the same time adopting socially conservative policies regarding abortion, legalization of marijuana and teaching of gender identity in schools. [2]

Electoral history

Presidential elections

Election dateParty candidateNumber of votesPercentage of votesNumber of votesPercentage of votesResult
First roundSecond round
2006 Luciano Bivar 62.0640.06%N/AN/ALost
2014 None, it endorsed Marina Silva [27] N/AN/AN/AN/ALost
2018 Jair Bolsonaro 49,276,99046.0%57,797,80155.13%Elected

Legislative elections

Election Chamber of Deputies Federal Senate Role
Number of votesPercentage of votesNumber of seats+/–Number of votesPercentage of votesNumber of seats+/–
2002 408,5120.5%
1 / 513
Increase2.svg 1N/A0%
0 / 81
Steady2.svg 0Junior party in government coalition
2006 190,7930.2%
0 / 513
Decrease2.svg 146,5420.0%
0 / 81
Steady2.svg 0In opposition
2010 499,9630.5%
1 / 513
Increase2.svg 1446,5170.3%
0 / 81
Steady2.svg 0In opposition
2014 808,7100.83%
1 / 513
Steady2.svg 0N/A0%
0 / 81
Steady2.svg 0In opposition
2018 11,457,87811.7%
52 / 513
Increase2.svg 5119,413,86911.3%
4 / 81
Increase2.svg 4Government

See also

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  1. "Estatísticas do eleitorado – Eleitores filiados" (in Portuguese). Superior Electoral Court. July 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 "Em que acreditamos" (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  3. "Bolsonaro uniu agenda liberal ao conservadorismo" (in Portuguese). 28 October 2018.
  4. Scuch, Matheus (5 January 2018). "Bolsonaro decide concorrer à Presidência pelo PSL" (in Portuguese). GaúchaZH. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
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  6. Pearson, Samantha; Magalhaes, Luciana (28 October 2018). "Far-right populist Jair Bolsonaro wins divisive Brazil presidential election". MarketWatch. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  7. "Jair Bolsonaro seeks top judge to become Brazil justice minister". BBC News. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
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  9. "'A political rupture': far right ready to roll in Bolsonaro's Brazil". The Guardian. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  10. "Príncipe da família imperial brasileira será candidato a deputado federal". Gazeta do Povo (in Portuguese). 2 March 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  11. Holderf Nascimento, Raul (7 May 2018). "Monarquistas se aproximam de Bolsonaro e reforçam base de apoio do presidenciável" (in Portuguese). Conexão Política. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  12. Amendola, Gilberto; Venceslau, Pedro (5 May 2018). "O séquito de Bolsonaro já tem um príncipe". O Estado de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  13. "PSL - Partido Social Liberal 17" (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  14. "Partido Social Liberal - Nossa História". (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  15. "Partido Social Liberal". (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  16. Constantino, Rodrigo (28 January 2016). "PSL se renova e foca mais no "liberal" da sigla. Ou: It's happening!" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  17. "Impeachment de Dilma: saiba como votou cada um dos partidos na Câmara" (in Portuguese). Agência Brasil. 18 April 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  18. "Deputado Jair Bolsonaro anuncia filiação ao PSL" (in Portuguese). G1. 5 January 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  19. "Jair Bolsonaro: Far-right candidate wins first round of Brazil election". BBC News. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  20. Gamarski, Rachel; Adghirni, Samy (8 October 2018). "Bolsonaro Election Effect Turns Brazil's Congress on Its Head". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  21. "Deputados estaduais eleitos no RJ; veja lista" (in Portuguese). G1. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  22. Pessoa, Gabriela Sá; Saldaña, Paulo (8 October 2018). "PSDB cai pela metade na Assembleia de SP e PSL se torna principal bancada". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  23. Faiolo, Anthony; Lopes, Marina (7 October 2018). "Brazil's far-right candidate takes big lead in presidential election". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  24. Londoño, Ernesto; Darlington, Shasta (28 October 2018). "Jair Bolsonaro, Far-Right Populist, Elected President of Brazil". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  25. Grillo, Marco (29 October 2018). "Um dia após vitória de Bolsonaro, PSL troca presidência do partido". O Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  26. "PSL ficará na coligação, diz assessoria de Marina Silva". Exame. 03/12/2018.Check date values in: |date= (help)
Preceded by
16 – USWP (PSTU)
Numbers of Brazilian official political parties
17 – SLP (PSL)
Succeeded by