Second impeachment of Donald Trump

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Second impeachment of Donald Trump
Trump Second Impeachment Vote.png
The House of Representatives votes to adopt the article of impeachment (H.Res. 24)
Accused Donald Trump (President of the United States)
DateJanuary 13, 2021 (2021-01-13) ⁠–⁠ February 13, 2021 (2021-02-13)
(1 month)
OutcomeAcquitted by the U.S. Senate
Congressional votes
Voting in the U.S. House of Representatives
AccusationIncitement of insurrection
Votes in favor232
Votes against197
Not voting4
Voting in the U.S. Senate
AccusationIncitement of insurrection
Votes in favor57 "guilty"
Votes against43 "not guilty"
ResultAcquitted (67 "guilty" votes necessary for a conviction)

The second impeachment of Donald Trump, the 45th president of the United States, occurred on January 13, 2021, one week before his term expired. It was the fourth impeachment of a U.S. president, and the second for Trump after his first impeachment in December 2019. [1] [2] Ten Republican representatives voted for the second impeachment, the most pro-impeachment votes ever from a president's party. [3] This was also the first presidential impeachment in which all majority caucus members voted unanimously for impeachment.


The House of Representatives of the 117th U.S. Congress adopted one article of impeachment against Trump of "incitement of insurrection", alleging that he had incited the January 6 attack of the U.S. Capitol. These events were preceded by numerous unsuccessful attempts by Trump to overturn the 2020 presidential election, as well as his pushing of voter fraud conspiracy theories on his social media channels before, during, and after the election. [4] A single article of impeachment charging Trump with "incitement of insurrection" against the U.S. government and "lawless action at the Capitol" was introduced to the House of Representatives on January 11, 2021. [5] The article was introduced with more than 200 co-sponsors. [6] The same day, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi gave Vice President Mike Pence an ultimatum to invoke Section 4 of the 25th Amendment to assume the role of acting president within 24 hours, or the House would proceed with impeachment proceedings. [7] [8] Pence stated that he would not do so in a letter to Pelosi the following day, arguing that to do so would not "be in the best interest of our Nation or consistent with our Constitution". [9] Nevertheless, a House majority, including Republican Adam Kinzinger passed a resolution urging Pence to invoke the 25th Amendment. [10]

The House impeachment managers formally triggered the start of the impeachment trial on January 25 by delivering to the Senate the charge against Trump. The nine managers walked into the Senate chamber led by the lead impeachment manager, Representative Jamie Raskin, who read the article of impeachment. [11] The trial in the Senate was scheduled to start on February 9. [12] The trial was the first of its kind for a departed U.S. president, with Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton, and Trump having each been the incumbent in prior impeachment trials; as a result, Chief Justice John Roberts chose not to preside as he had done for Trump's first impeachment trial (the president pro tempore of the Senate, Vermont senator Patrick Leahy, presided instead [11] [13] ), and arguments favoring the conviction of Trump cited the Senate's 1876 conviction of Ulysses S. Grant's Secretary of War William W. Belknap, who was impeached and convicted after leaving office. [14] At the trial, 57 senators voted "guilty", which was less than the two-thirds majority needed (67) to convict Trump, and 43 senators voted "not guilty", resulting in Trump being acquitted of the charges on February 13, 2021. [15]


Attempts to overturn the 2020 election

For weeks prior to the impeachment, President Trump made numerous unsuccessful attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election.

2021 U.S. Capitol attack

Trump called on his supporters to come to Washington D.C. on January 6, on the day that Congress was counting the electoral votes, to the "March to Save America" rally on the National Mall. At the rally, Trump as well as other speakers repeated the false claims that the election was stolen, used the word "fight", [16] made an analogy to boxing, [16] and suggested that his supporters had the power to prevent President-elect Joe Biden from taking office. [17]

When the United States Congress convened to certify the electoral votes of the presidential election, supporters of Trump crossed the Mall and stormed the United States Capitol in an attempt to prevent the tabulation of votes and protest against Biden's win. Trump supporters unlawfully entered the Capitol and gathered on both its eastern and western sides, including on the inaugural platform constructed for Biden's inauguration. [18] Five people, including a Capitol Police officer, died as a result of the riots, while several improvised explosive devices were found on and near the Capitol grounds. [19] [20] Another Capitol police officer on duty during the riots died by suicide days later. [21] During the riots, Trump was "initially pleased" by the attack on the Capitol and took no action. [22] [23] In a speech hours into the event, Trump told the rioters "We love you. You're very special," restated his false claims of electoral fraud, and then asked them to go home. [24] Hours later, Congress reconvened and ultimately certified the electoral votes in the early morning hours of January 7. Trump then released a statement asserting that there would be an "orderly transition" of power on Inauguration Day, even while continuing to falsely claim that the election was "stolen" from him and also stating that he would not attend Biden's inauguration. [25]

Considered scenarios

Four scenarios for the removal of Trump from office had been posited by members of Congress, members of Trump's cabinet, political commentators, or legal scholars: resignation, the invocation of the 14th Amendment, invocation of the 25th Amendment, or impeachment and conviction.


The President of the United States can resign from office, in which case the Vice President will automatically become president, instead of merely assuming the powers and duties of the presidency as acting president. While Article II of the Constitution states that the "Powers and Duties" of the president devolve to the vice president in the event of the president's death, resignation, incapacity, or removal, John Tyler interpreted that provision as allowing the Vice President to ascend to the presidency in such cases, without any qualifications. This practice was codified in 1967, with the passage of the 25th Amendment.

If Trump had resigned, Vice President Mike Pence would have become the 46th president of the United States; Pence would have been the shortest-serving president ever, being in office for a matter of days before handing power to Joe Biden as the 47th president on January 20. This would have surpassed the record of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days into his term. It would have been the second time in history that a president would be forced to resign; the first was the 1974 resignation of Richard Nixon when it appeared inevitable that he would be impeached and removed from office for his role in the Watergate scandal.

Due to intense pressure on his administration, the threat of removal, and numerous resignations, Trump committed to an orderly transition of power in a televised speech on January 7. [26] In the White House on January 8, Trump mentioned that he was not considering resignation. [27] On January 9, The New York Times reported that Trump told White House aides that he regretted his statement committing to an orderly transition of power and that there was no chance he would resign from office. [28]

14th Amendment

The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the Reconstruction Amendments. It addresses citizenship rights and equal protection under the law and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War. Section 3 states that a person who participated in insurrection after having taken an oath to support the Constitution is disqualified from holding future office unless permitted by Congress.

If Trump had been removed from office under Section 3 of the 14th Amendment, Pence would have become the 46th president of the United States, and he would still have been the shortest-serving president ever before handing power to Biden as the 47th president on January 20. It would also be the first time that Section 3 of the 14th Amendment was invoked since 1919 when it stopped Victor L. Berger, convicted of violating the Espionage Act for his anti-militarist views, from taking his seat in the House of Representatives. [29] It would also be the first time that it would be invoked on a sitting president and was seen as especially unlikely. [30]

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez was one of the House Democrats that supported invoking the 14th Amendment against Trump. In a letter, Pelosi thanked her colleagues for their contributions to discussions on the 14th Amendment. [31] If successful, the former President would be ineligible for appointment to any federal office without a Senate supermajority vote in favor.

25th Amendment

The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution deals with presidential succession and disability. Though the amendment thus far has been used in medical situations, Section 4 provides that the vice president, together with a majority of Cabinet secretaries, may declare the president unable to carry out his duties, after which the vice president immediately assumes the duties of the president.

If Section 4 of the 25th Amendment action had been carried out, it would have made Pence the acting president, assuming the "powers and duties of the office" of the president. Trump would have remained president for the rest of his term, albeit stripped of all authority. Section 4 of the 25th Amendment has not been invoked before. [32] [33] The 25th Amendment, however, was initially created for the case where the President was incapacitated.

Pence, who would have been required to initiate removal, stated that he would not invoke the 25th Amendment against Trump. [34]

Impeachment and conviction

Impeachment begins in the House of Representatives, where articles of impeachment are drawn up. These articles are then voted on by House members. Each article is voted on separately and requires a simple majority to pass. Once an article has been passed in the House, the president has been impeached. The articles are then sent to the Senate for adjudication with an impeachment trial. After views have been laid out in the trial, the Senate moves to vote on conviction. Each article requires a two-thirds majority of Senators present to pass. If an article passes in the Senate, the president has been convicted and is removed from office. Once the president is convicted, a further vote may then be held which determines whether the (now-former) president is barred from holding future office; this vote passes with a simple majority in the Senate. [35] [36]

Because the Senate was not scheduled to reconvene until January 19, 2021, [37] members of Congress discussed holding the trial after Trump had left office. A former president had never been tried by the Senate; however, Secretary of War William W. Belknap was impeached by the House and tried by the Senate after he had resigned. [14]

Invoking the 25th Amendment

House Resolution 21--Calling on Vice President Michael R. Pence to convene and mobilize the principal officers of the executive departments of the Cabinet to activate section 4 of the 25th Amendment to declare President Donald J. Trump incapable of executing the duties of his office and to immediately exercise powers as acting president. House Resolution 21 - Calling on Vice President Michael R. Pence to convene and mobilize the principal officers of the executive departments of the Cabinet to activate section 4 of the 25th Amendment.pdf
House Resolution 21—Calling on Vice President Michael R. Pence to convene and mobilize the principal officers of the executive departments of the Cabinet to activate section 4 of the 25th Amendment to declare President Donald J. Trump incapable of executing the duties of his office and to immediately exercise powers as acting president.
Pence's letter to Pelosi rejecting to invoke the 25th Amendment to strip Trump of his powers 01.12.21 Vice President Pence's letter to House Speaker Pelosi.pdf
Pence's letter to Pelosi rejecting to invoke the 25th Amendment to strip Trump of his powers

On the evening of January 6, CBS News reported that Cabinet members were discussing invoking the 25th Amendment. [38] The ten Democrats on the House Judiciary Committee, led by U.S. Representative David Cicilline, sent a letter to Pence to "emphatically urge" him to invoke the 25th Amendment and declare Trump "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office", claiming that he incited and condoned the riots. [39] [40] For invocation, Pence and at least eight Cabinet members, forming a simple majority, would have to consent. Additionally, if challenged by Trump, the second invocation would maintain Pence as acting president, subject to a vote of approval in both houses of Congress, with a two-thirds supermajority necessary in each chamber to sustain. However, Congress would not have needed to act before January 20 for Pence to remain acting president until Biden was inaugurated, per the timeline described in Section 4.

Senator Elizabeth Warren (DMA) accused Education Secretary Betsy DeVos in a tweet of quitting rather than supporting efforts to invoke the 25th Amendment to remove Trump. [41] A Trump administration official disputed Warren's claim. [41] House majority whip Jim Clyburn on Friday accused DeVos and Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao of "running away from their responsibility" by resigning from President Trump's Cabinet before invoking the 25th Amendment to remove him from office. [42] Multiple news agencies reported that DeVos was in discussions to invoke the 25th Amendment prior to her resignation. [41] By late January 9, it was reported that Pence had not ruled out invoking the 25th Amendment and was actively considering it. [43] [ needs update ]

The House Rules Committee met on January 12, 2021, to vote on a non-binding resolution calling on Pence to invoke the 25th Amendment. [6] Pence later reiterated his position of not invoking the 25th Amendment, according to a letter sent to Pelosi late on January 12. In it, he stated that the 25th Amendment was intended for presidential incapacity or disability, and invoking Section 4 to punish and usurp President Trump in the middle of a presidential transition would undermine and set a terrible precedent for the stability of the executive branch and the United States federal government. [44]

On the same day, the House of Representatives voted to call for Pence to invoke the 25th Amendment. The resolution passed with 223 in favor, 205 against, and 5 (all Republicans) [lower-alpha 1] not voting; Adam Kinzinger was the only Republican to join a unified Democratic Caucus. [45]

Raskin bill

The 25th Amendment allows Congress to establish a committee to determine when a president is unfit to serve (section 4 of the Amendment provides that the "declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office" is made by "the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments [i.e., the Cabinet] or of such other body as Congress may by law provide"). [46] However, such a committee has never been established. In May 2017, Representative Jamie Raskin (DMD-8) introduced legislation to create a standing, independent, nonpartisan body, called the Oversight Commission on Presidential Capacity, to make such a determination. The bill had 20 cosponsors. [47] Raskin had previously introduced a legislative proposal under the same title with the same purpose back in 2017.

In October 2020, Raskin and Pelosi introduced a similar bill to create a Commission on Presidential Capacity to Discharge the Powers and Duties of Office, to have 17 members four physicians, four psychiatrists, four retired Democratic statespersons, and four retired Republican statespersons appointed by congressional leaders (the Speaker of the House, House Minority Leader, Senate Majority Leader, and Senate Minority Leader). The bill defines "retired statespersons" as former presidents, vice presidents, attorneys general, secretaries of state, defense secretaries, Treasury secretaries, and surgeons general. The committee chair would be appointed by the other members. The bill provides that no members of the commission could be a current elected official, federal employee, or active or reserve military personnel, a measure intended to avoid conflicts of interest and chain-of-command problems. A majority of the commission (nine members), plus the vice president, would need to support invoking the 25th Amendment. The bill had 38 cosponsors. [48] While the bill has received renewed interest since the Capitol incident, as with any other bill it would require passage by both houses of Congress and consideration by the president for the commission to be formed and consider invocation of Section 4.


Drafted articles of impeachment

Within hours of the Capitol attack, multiple members of Congress began to call for the impeachment of Donald Trump as president. Several representatives began the process of independently drafting various articles of impeachment. Of these attempts, the first to become public were those of Representative Ilhan Omar (DMN-5) who drafted and introduced articles of impeachment against Trump. [49] [50] [51] [52]

Representative David Cicilline (DRI-1) separately drafted an article of impeachment. The text was obtained by CNN on January 8. [53] On Twitter, Cicilline acknowledged the coauthorship of Ted Lieu and Jamie Raskin, [54] and said that "more than 110" members had signed on to this article. [55] "Article I: Incitement of Insurrection" accuses Trump of having "willfully made statements that encouraged—and foreseeably resulted in—imminent lawless action at the Capitol". [56] As a result of incitement by Trump, "a mob unlawfully breached the Capitol" and "engaged in violent, deadly, destructive, and seditious acts". [57] On January 10, it was announced that the bill had gathered 210 cosponsors in the House. [58]

Article of impeachment introduced

On January 11, 2021, U.S. Representatives David Cicilline, along with Jamie Raskin and Ted Lieu, introduced an article of impeachment against Trump, charging Trump with "incitement of insurrection" in urging his supporters to march on the Capitol building. The article contended that Trump made several statements that "encouraged—and foreseeably resulted in—lawless action" that interfered with Congress' constitutional duty to certify the election. It argued that by his actions, Trump "threatened the integrity of the democratic system, interfered with the peaceful transition of power, and imperiled a coequal branch of Government," doing so in a way that rendered him "a threat to national security, democracy, and the Constitution" if he were allowed to complete his term. [6] [59] By the time it was introduced, 218 of the 222 House Democrats had signed on as cosponsors, assuring its passage. [60] Trump was impeached in a vote on January 13, 2021; ten Republicans, including House Republican Conference chairwoman Liz Cheney, joined all of the Democrats in supporting the article.

On January 12, with the article's passage assured, Pelosi named Raskin, Lieu, Cicilline, Diana DeGette, Joaquin Castro, Eric Swalwell, Joe Neguse, Madeleine Dean, and Stacey Plaskett as managers to present the prosecution case in the Senate conviction trial, with Raskin as lead manager. [61] The managers were chosen for their expertise in constitutional law, civil rights, and criminal justice. Raskin is a former constitutional law professor at American University. Lieu is a former military prosecutor in the United States Air Force. Cicilline is a former public defender. Swalwell was a former prosecutor in California. DeGette is a former civil rights attorney. Castro, Neguse, Dean and Plaskett are all lawyers in private practice. [62]

The House impeachment managers formally triggered the start of the impeachment trial on January 25 by walking across the Capitol and delivered to the Senate the charge against Trump. The nine managers walked two-by-two led into the Senate chamber by the lead impeachment manager, who read the article of impeachment. [11] The trial in the Senate was scheduled for and began on February 9. [12]

House vote

Speaker Nancy Pelosi signs the article of impeachment following passage by the House. Pelosi Signing Second Trump Impeachment.png
Speaker Nancy Pelosi signs the article of impeachment following passage by the House.
Voting results on House Resolution 24 [63]
(impeaching Donald John Trump, former President of the United States, for high crimes and misdemeanors)
PartyArticle I (incitement of insurrection)
YesNoPresentNot voting
Democratic (222)222
Republican (211)197
Total (433) [lower-alpha 2] 2321974
ResultAdopted [lower-alpha 3]
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Democratic aye

Republican aye

Republican nay

Republican not voting

Vacant seat 2nd Trump impeachment house vote.svg
  Democratic aye
  Republican aye
  Republican nay
  Republican not voting
  Vacant seat
Full list of votes on House Resolution 24 [63]
DistrictMemberPartyArticle I
Alabama 1 Jerry Carl RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Alabama 2 Barry Moore RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Alabama 3 Mike Rogers RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Alabama 4 Robert Aderholt RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Alabama 5 Mo Brooks RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Alabama 6 Gary Palmer RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Alabama 7 Terri Sewell DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Alaska at-large Don Young RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Arizona 1 Tom O'Halleran DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Arizona 2 Ann Kirkpatrick DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Arizona 3 Raúl Grijalva DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Arizona 4 Paul Gosar RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Arizona 5 Andy Biggs RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Arizona 6 David Schweikert RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Arizona 7 Ruben Gallego DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Arizona 8 Debbie Lesko RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Arizona 9 Greg Stanton DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Arkansas 1 Rick Crawford RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Arkansas 2 French Hill RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Arkansas 3 Steve Womack RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Arkansas 4 Bruce Westerman RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 1 Doug LaMalfa RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 2 Jared Huffman DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 3 John Garamendi DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 4 Tom McClintock RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 5 Mike Thompson DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 6 Doris Matsui DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 7 Ami Bera DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 8 Jay Obernolte RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 9 Jerry McNerney DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 10 Josh Harder DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 11 Mark DeSaulnier DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 12 Nancy Pelosi DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 13 Barbara Lee DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 14 Jackie Speier DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 15 Eric Swalwell DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 16 Jim Costa DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 17 Ro Khanna DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 18 Anna Eshoo DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 19 Zoe Lofgren DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 20 Jimmy Panetta DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 21 David Valadao RepublicanGreen check.svg Yea
California 22 Devin Nunes RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 23 Kevin McCarthy RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 24 Salud Carbajal DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 25 Mike Garcia RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 26 Julia Brownley DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 27 Judy Chu DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 28 Adam Schiff DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 29 Tony Cárdenas DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 30 Brad Sherman DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 31 Pete Aguilar DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 32 Grace Napolitano DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 33 Ted Lieu DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 34 Jimmy Gomez DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 35 Norma Torres DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 36 Raul Ruiz DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 37 Karen Bass DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 38 Linda Sánchez DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 39 Young Kim RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 40 Lucille Roybal-Allard DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 41 Mark Takano DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 42 Ken Calvert RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 43 Maxine Waters DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 44 Nanette Barragán DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 45 Katie Porter DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 46 Lou Correa DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 47 Alan Lowenthal DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 48 Michelle Steel RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 49 Mike Levin DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 50 Darrell Issa RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
California 51 Juan Vargas DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 52 Scott Peters DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
California 53 Sara Jacobs DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Colorado 1 Diana DeGette DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Colorado 2 Joe Neguse DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Colorado 3 Lauren Boebert RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Colorado 4 Ken Buck RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Colorado 5 Doug Lamborn RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Colorado 6 Jason Crow DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Colorado 7 Ed Perlmutter DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Connecticut 1 John B. Larson DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Connecticut 2 Joe Courtney DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Connecticut 3 Rosa DeLauro DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Connecticut 4 Jim Himes DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Connecticut 5 Jahana Hayes DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Delaware at-large Lisa Blunt Rochester DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 1 Matt Gaetz RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 2 Neal Dunn RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 3 Kat Cammack RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 4 John Rutherford RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 5 Al Lawson DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 6 Michael Waltz RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 7 Stephanie Murphy DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 8 Bill Posey RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 9 Darren Soto DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 10 Val Demings DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 11 Daniel Webster RepublicanNV
Florida 12 Gus Bilirakis RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 13 Charlie Crist DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 14 Kathy Castor DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 15 Scott Franklin RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 16 Vern Buchanan RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 17 Greg Steube RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 18 Brian Mast RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 19 Byron Donalds RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 20 Alcee Hastings DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 21 Lois Frankel DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 22 Ted Deutch DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 23 Debbie Wasserman Schultz DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 24 Frederica Wilson DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Florida 25 Mario Díaz-Balart RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 26 Carlos A. Giménez RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Florida 27 Maria Elvira Salazar RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Georgia 1 Buddy Carter RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Georgia 2 Sanford Bishop DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Georgia 3 Drew Ferguson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Georgia 4 Hank Johnson DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Georgia 5 Nikema Williams DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Georgia 6 Lucy McBath DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Georgia 7 Carolyn Bourdeaux DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Georgia 8 Austin Scott RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Georgia 9 Andrew Clyde RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Georgia 10 Jody Hice RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Georgia 11 Barry Loudermilk RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Georgia 12 Rick W. Allen RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Georgia 13 David Scott DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Georgia 14 Marjorie Taylor Greene RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Hawaii 1 Ed Case DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Hawaii 2 Kai Kahele DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Idaho 1 Russ Fulcher RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Idaho 2 Mike Simpson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Illinois 1 Bobby Rush DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 2 Robin Kelly DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 3 Marie Newman DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 4 Jesús "Chuy" García DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 5 Mike Quigley DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 6 Sean Casten DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 7 Danny K. Davis DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 8 Raja Krishnamoorthi DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 9 Jan Schakowsky DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 10 Brad Schneider DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 11 Bill Foster DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 12 Mike Bost RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Illinois 13 Rodney Davis RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Illinois 14 Lauren Underwood DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 15 Mary Miller RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Illinois 16 Adam Kinzinger RepublicanGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 17 Cheri Bustos DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Illinois 18 Darin LaHood RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Indiana 1 Frank J. Mrvan DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Indiana 2 Jackie Walorski RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Indiana 3 Jim Banks RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Indiana 4 Jim Baird RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Indiana 5 Victoria Spartz RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Indiana 6 Greg Pence RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Indiana 7 André Carson DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Indiana 8 Larry Bucshon RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Indiana 9 Trey Hollingsworth RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Iowa 1 Ashley Hinson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Iowa 2 Mariannette Miller-Meeks RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Iowa 3 Cindy Axne DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Iowa 4 Randy Feenstra RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Kansas 1 Tracey Mann RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Kansas 2 Jake LaTurner RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Kansas 3 Sharice Davids DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Kansas 4 Ron Estes RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Kentucky 1 James Comer RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Kentucky 2 Brett Guthrie RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Kentucky 3 John Yarmuth DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Kentucky 4 Thomas Massie RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Kentucky 5 Hal Rogers RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Kentucky 6 Andy Barr RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Louisiana 1 Steve Scalise RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Louisiana 2 Cedric Richmond DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Louisiana 3 Clay Higgins RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Louisiana 4 Mike Johnson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Louisiana 5 Vacant
Louisiana 6 Garret Graves RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Maine 1 Chellie Pingree DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Maine 2 Jared Golden DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Maryland 1 Andy Harris RepublicanNV
Maryland 2 Dutch Ruppersberger DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Maryland 3 John Sarbanes DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Maryland 4 Anthony G. Brown DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Maryland 5 Steny Hoyer DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Maryland 6 David Trone DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Maryland 7 Kweisi Mfume DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Maryland 8 Jaime Raskin DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Massachusetts 1 Richard Neal DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Massachusetts 2 Jim McGovern DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Massachusetts 3 Lori Trahan DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Massachusetts 4 Jake Auchincloss DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Massachusetts 5 Katherine Clark DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Massachusetts 6 Seth Moulton DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Massachusetts 7 Ayanna Pressley DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Massachusetts 8 Stephen F. Lynch DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Massachusetts 9 Bill Keating DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Michigan 1 Jack Bergman RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Michigan 2 Bill Huizenga RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Michigan 3 Peter Meijer RepublicanGreen check.svg Yea
Michigan 4 John Moolenaar RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Michigan 5 Dan Kildee DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Michigan 6 Fred Upton RepublicanGreen check.svg Yea
Michigan 7 Tim Walberg RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Michigan 8 Elissa Slotkin DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Michigan 9 Andy Levin DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Michigan 10 Lisa McClain RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Michigan 11 Haley Stevens DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Michigan 12 Debbie Dingell DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Michigan 13 Rashida Tlaib DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Michigan 14 Brenda Lawrence DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Minnesota 1 Jim Hagedorn RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Minnesota 2 Angie Craig DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Minnesota 3 Dean Phillips DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Minnesota 4 Betty McCollum DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Minnesota 5 Ilhan Omar DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Minnesota 6 Tom Emmer RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Minnesota 7 Michelle Fischbach RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Minnesota 8 Pete Stauber RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Mississippi 1 Trent Kelly RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Mississippi 2 Bennie Thompson DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Mississippi 3 Michael Guest RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Mississippi 4 Steven Palazzo RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Missouri 1 Cori Bush DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Missouri 2 Ann Wagner RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Missouri 3 Blaine Luetkemeyer RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Missouri 4 Vicky Hartzler RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Missouri 5 Emanuel Cleaver DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Missouri 6 Sam Graves RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Missouri 7 Billy Long RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Missouri 8 Jason Smith RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Montana at-large Matt Rosendale RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Nebraska 1 Jeff Fortenberry RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Nebraska 2 Don Bacon RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Nebraska 3 Adrian Smith RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Nevada 1 Dina Titus DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Nevada 2 Mark Amodei RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Nevada 3 Susie Lee DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Nevada 4 Steven Horsford DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Hampshire 1 Chris Pappas DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Hampshire 2 Ann McLane Kuster DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 1 Donald Norcross DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 2 Jeff Van Drew RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
New Jersey 3 Andy Kim DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 4 Chris Smith RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
New Jersey 5 Josh Gottheimer DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 6 Frank Pallone DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 7 Tom Malinowski DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 8 Albio Sires DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 9 Bill Pascrell DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 10 Donald Payne Jr. DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 11 Mikie Sherrill DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Jersey 12 Bonnie Watson Coleman DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Mexico 1 Deb Haaland DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New Mexico 2 Yvette Herrell RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
New Mexico 3 Teresa Leger Fernandez DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 1 Lee Zeldin RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
New York 2 Andrew Garbarino RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
New York 3 Thomas Suozzi DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 4 Kathleen Rice DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 5 Gregory Meeks DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 6 Grace Meng DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 7 Nydia Velázquez DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 8 Hakeem Jeffries DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 9 Yvette Clarke DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 10 Jerry Nadler DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 11 Nicole Malliotakis RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
New York 12 Carolyn Maloney DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 13 Adriano Espaillat DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 14 Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 15 Ritchie Torres DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 16 Jamaal Bowman DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 17 Mondaire Jones DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 18 Sean Patrick Maloney DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 19 Antonio Delgado DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 20 Paul Tonko DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 21 Elise Stefanik RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
New York 22 Vacant
New York 23 Tom Reed RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
New York 24 John Katko RepublicanGreen check.svg Yea
New York 25 Joseph Morelle DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 26 Brian Higgins DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
New York 27 Chris Jacobs RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
North Carolina 1 G. K. Butterfield DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
North Carolina 2 Deborah K. Ross DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
North Carolina 3 Greg Murphy RepublicanNV
North Carolina 4 David Price DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
North Carolina 5 Virginia Foxx RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
North Carolina 6 Kathy Manning DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
North Carolina 7 David Rouzer RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
North Carolina 8 Richard Hudson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
North Carolina 9 Dan Bishop RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
North Carolina 10 Patrick McHenry RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
North Carolina 11 Madison Cawthorn RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
North Carolina 12 Alma Adams DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
North Carolina 13 Ted Budd RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
North Dakota at-large Kelly Armstrong RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 1 Steve Chabot RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 2 Brad Wenstrup RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 3 Joyce Beatty DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Ohio 4 Jim Jordan RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 5 Bob Latta RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 6 Bill Johnson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 7 Bob Gibbs RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 8 Warren Davidson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 9 Marcy Kaptur DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Ohio 10 Mike Turner RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 11 Marcia Fudge DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Ohio 12 Troy Balderson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 13 Tim Ryan DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Ohio 14 David Joyce RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 15 Steve Stivers RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Ohio 16 Anthony Gonzalez RepublicanGreen check.svg Yea
Oklahoma 1 Kevin Hern RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Oklahoma 2 Markwayne Mullin RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Oklahoma 3 Frank Lucas RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Oklahoma 4 Tom Cole RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Oklahoma 5 Stephanie Bice RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Oregon 1 Suzanne Bonamici DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Oregon 2 Cliff Bentz RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Oregon 3 Earl Blumenauer DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Oregon 4 Peter DeFazio DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Oregon 5 Kurt Schrader DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Pennsylvania 1 Brian Fitzpatrick RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Pennsylvania 2 Brendan Boyle DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Pennsylvania 3 Dwight Evans DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Pennsylvania 4 Madeleine Dean DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Pennsylvania 5 Mary Gay Scanlon DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Pennsylvania 6 Chrissy Houlahan DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Pennsylvania 7 Susan Wild DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Pennsylvania 8 Matt Cartwright DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Pennsylvania 9 Dan Meuser RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Pennsylvania 10 Scott Perry RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Pennsylvania 11 Lloyd Smucker RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Pennsylvania 12 Fred Keller RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Pennsylvania 13 John Joyce RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Pennsylvania 14 Guy Reschenthaler RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Pennsylvania 15 Glenn Thomposon RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Pennsylvania 16 Mike Kelly RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Pennsylvania 17 Conor Lamb DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Pennsylvania 18 Mike Doyle DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Rhode Island 1 David Cicilline DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Rhode Island 2 James Langevin DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
South Carolina 1 Nancy Mace RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
South Carolina 2 Joe Wilson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
South Carolina 3 Jeff Duncan RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
South Carolina 4 William Timmons RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
South Carolina 5 Ralph Norman RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
South Carolina 6 Jim Clyburn DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
South Carolina 7 Tom Rice RepublicanGreen check.svg Yea
South Dakota at-large Dusty Johnson RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Tennessee 1 Diana Harshbarger RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Tennessee 2 Tim Burchett RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Tennessee 3 Chuck Fleischmann RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Tennessee 4 Scott DesJarlais RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Tennessee 5 Jim Cooper DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Tennessee 6 John Rose RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Tennessee 7 Mark E. Green RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Tennessee 8 David Kustoff RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Tennessee 9 Steve Cohen DemocraticGreen check.svg Yea
Texas 1 Louie Gohmert RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Texas 2 Dan Crenshaw RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Texas 3 Van Taylor RepublicanDark Red x.svg Nay
Texas 4 Pat Fallon