|President of the|
Republic of Ghana
Presidential Seal of Ghana
|Term length||Four years, renewable once|
|Inaugural holder|| Kwame Nkrumah |
1 July 1960
15 May 1992
|Deputy||Vice President of Ghana|
|Salary||144,000 Cedi annually|
|Website||(in English) Presidency.gov.gh |
(in English) Ghana.gov.gh
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The President of the Republic of Ghana is the elected head of state and head of government of Ghana, as well as Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces. The current President of Ghana is Nana Akufo-Addo, who won the 2016 presidential election against the incumbent, John Dramani Mahama, by a margin of 9.45%. Nana Akufo-Addo was sworn into office on 7 January 2017.
A head of state is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more.
The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language.
According to Chapter 8, Article 62 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana, a person shall not be qualified for election as the President of Ghana unless:
A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
The President of Ghana must be sworn in by the Chief Justice before the citizens of Ghana at the Independence Square in Accra. The President-elect must repeat the following:
The Chief Justice of Ghana is the highest judge of the Supreme Court of Ghana. The Chief Justice is also the head of the Judiciary of Ghana and is responsible for its administration and supervision. In order of state precedence, the Chief Justice is the fourth highest official in Ghana.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
"I, _______________ having been elected to the high office of President of the Republic of Ghana do (in the name of the Almighty God swear) (solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful and true to the Republic of Ghana; that I will at all times preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana; and that I dedicate myself to the service and well-being of the people of the Republic of Ghana and to do right to all manner of persons.
I further (solemnly swear) (solemnly affirm) that should I at any time break this oath of office; I shall submit myself to the laws of the Republic of Ghana and suffer the penalty for it. (So help me God)".
After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his/her office and are used on special occasions.
|Presidential styles of|
|Reference style||'His Excellency President of the Republic of Ghana"|
|Spoken style||Your Excellency"|
|Alternative style||Mr. President|
Chapter 8 of the Constitution of Ghana states the duties and the powers of the President. The President is required to:
Also, the President is given the powers:
The President may execute or cause to be executed treaties, agreements or conventions in the name of the Republic of Ghana.The President shall take precedence over the populace of the Republic of Ghana and may refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint senior public officials, and grant amnesty (with the concurrence of the Parliament of Ghana). In times of serious internal or external turmoil or threat, or economic or financial crises, the President may assume emergency powers "for the maintenance of national security or public peace and order".
The President shall be removed from office if he/she is found, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, Chapter 8 section 69 (ii) – prejudicial or inimical to the economy or the security of the Republic of Ghana.The President shall cease to hold office on the date the Parliament of Ghana decides that he/she be removed from office.
Convention People's Party People's National Party National Democratic Congress New Patriotic Party Military
|Picture||Took office||Left office||Elected|
|1||Presidents of the Republic of Ghana (First Republic: 1960–1966)|
|1||1|| Kwame Nkrumah |
|1 July 1960||24 February 1966|
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
|1960 (1st)||Convention People's Party|
|2||Presidents as Head of State (Second Republic: 1966–1972)|
|2||1|| Joseph Ankrah |
(Chairman of the National Liberation Council )
|24 February 1966||2 April 1969||—||National Liberation Council|
|3||2|| Akwasi Afrifa |
(Chairman of the National Liberation Council until 3 September 1969, thereafter Chairman of the Presidential Commission)
|2 April 1969||7 August 1970||—||National Liberation Council|
|4||3|| Nii Amaa Ollennu |
|7 August 1970||31 August 1970||—||Independent|
|5||4|| Edward Akufo-Addo |
|31 August 1970||13 January 1972|
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
|6||5|| Ignatius Acheampong |
(Chairman of the National Redemption Council until 9 October 1975, thereafter Chairman of the Supreme Military Council )
|13 January 1972||5 July 1978|
(Deposed in a palace coup d'état)
|—||Supreme Military Council|
|7||6|| Fred Akuffo |
(Chairman of the Supreme Military Council )
|5 July 1978||4 June 1979|
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
|—||Supreme Military Council|
|3||Presidents as Head of State (Third Republic: 1979–1981)|
|8||1|| Jerry Rawlings |
(Chairman of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council )
|4 June 1979||24 September 1979||—||Armed Forces Revolutionary Council|
|9||2|| Hilla Limann |
|24 September 1979||31 December 1981|
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
|1979 (1st)||People's National Party|
|10||3|| Jerry Rawlings |
(Chairman of the Provisional National Defence Council )
|31 December 1981||7 January 1993||—||Provisional National Defence Council|
|4||Presidents of the Republic of Ghana (Fourth Republic: since 1993)|
|10||1|| Jerry Rawlings |
|7 January 1993||7 January 2001|| 1992 (1st)|
|National Democratic Congress|
|11||2|| John Kufuor |
|7 January 2001||7 January 2009|| 2000 (3rd)|
|New Patriotic Party|
|12||3|| John Atta Mills |
|7 January 2009||24 July 2012 |
(Died in office)
|2008 (5th)||National Democratic Congress|
|13||4|| John Mahama |
|24 July 2012||7 January 2017||2012 (6th)||National Democratic Congress|
|14||5|| Nana Akufo-Addo |
|7 January 2017||2016 (7th)||New Patriotic Party|
|Current tenants||Nana Akufo-Addo|
The President of Ghana's official residence was Osu Castle (also known as Fort Christiansborg or Christiansborg Castle) in Accra. In 2007, the opposition MPs in Ghana stormed out of a parliamentary debate on whether to take out a $50m loan to build a new presidential palace. MPs from President John Kufuor's New Patriotic Party voted unanimously in favour of taking the loan from India.
They argued that the President should not be based in Osu Castle, where slaves used to be kept. The opposition National Democratic Congress said the money would be better spent elsewhere.The old flagstaff house used by Ghana's first president as a residence is being renovated into a museum, while the grounds on which it stands is being built up as an ultra modern office complex and residence for the president and vice-president of Ghana as well as their staff. The new presidential palace was expected to be completed by August 2008 but was finally completed in November 2008. At the inauguration of the new presidential palace, President John Kufuor revealed to the press that the new name of the palace would be Golden Jubilee House. The name was chosen in reference to the 50th anniversary of Ghana's Independence.
Part of the office space has been given to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs when it had to be relocated because of a fire that guttered its offices. The NDC government refused to move to the venue after it assumed office in 2009 noting that some of the work in the residency is not completed. The government of President Atta Mills also noted that the National Security establishment Bureau of National Investigations (BNI) wanted to ensure that security at the venue was improved before the government moved in. The name was changed to Flagstaff House by John Atta-Mills in an attempt many see as to cover its link to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of Ghana under the New Patriotic Party. On 7 February 2013, the office of the Presidency was finally moved to the flagstaff house.
The name has been reverted to the Jubilee House .
National transport services for the Ghanaian President are:
Air transport services for the Ghanaian President are:
The presidential aircraft uses the colour scheme as the flag of Ghana in stripes, except for the use of the Ghanaian coat of arms on the empennage instead of the flag of Ghana.
In the autumn of 2012 a jet aircraft was acquired in the Golden Jubilee House. According to the Chief of the Golden Jubilee House Property Agency acquisition of a Embraer 190 jet aircraft for the President costed 105 million cedis (about $55 mln). The jet aircraft planned location is in the Ghanaian Presidential Retreat's Peduase Lodge.
|John Dramani Mahama||National Democratic Congress||5,574,761||50.70|
|Nana Akufo-Addo||New Patriotic Party||5,248,898||47.74|
|Paa Kwesi Nduom||Progressive People's Party||64,362||0.59|
|Henry Herbert Lartey||Great Consolidated Popular Party||38,223||0.35|
|Ayariga Hassan||People's National Convention||24,617||0.22|
|Michael Abu Sakara Foster||Convention People's Party||20,323||0.18|
|Jacob Osei Yeboah||Independent||15,201||0.14|
|Akwasi Addai Odike||United Front Party||8,877||0.08|
|Source: Electoral Commission of Ghana|
The President-elect of Ghana is the apparent winner, as ascertained by the Chairperson of the Electoral Commission of Ghana, following the general election on 7 December.
During the period between the presidential election and the inauguration, the outgoing president is a lame duck, while the incoming president heads a presidential transition team to ensure a smooth handover of power. If a sitting president has won re-election, the incumbent is not referred to as a president-elect as he or she is already in office and is not waiting to become president. Likewise, if a Vice President succeeds to the Presidency by way of the President's death, resignation or removal (via impeachment) from office, that person never holds the title of President-elect, as they would become President immediately. The most recent President-elect is former Minister of Foreign Affairs Nana Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party, who won the presidential election on 9 December 2016.
The Vice President-elect of Ghana is the running mate of presidential candidate who wins an election. First established after the adoption of the 3rd Constitution of Ghana, the inaugural holder is Joseph W.S. deGraft-Johnson. The current Vice President-elect of Ghana is Mahamudu Bawumia. Until the formation of the 3rd Republic of Ghana, the position of Vice President did not exist.
|President–elect||Party||From||To||Number of days|
|1||Kwame Nkrumah||CPP||20 April 1960||1 July 1960||72 days|
|2||Hilla Limann||PNP||9 July 1979||24 September 1979||78 days|
|3||Jerry John Rawlings||NDC||3 November 1992||7 January 1993||65 days|
|4||John Agyekum Kufuor||NPP||28 December 2000||7 January 2001||10 days|
|5||John Atta Mills||NDC||28 December 2008||7 January 2009||10 days|
|7||Nana Akufo-Addo||NPP||9 December 2016||7 January 2017||31 days|
Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah became the first Ghanaian to be elected as President of the Republic of Ghana. President Limann holds the record of having the longest transition period from President-elect to President. His transition period lasted 78 days. President Rawlings prior to the presidential elections in 1992, was already head of state of Ghana. He was the Chairman of the Provisional National Defence Council. Due to the fact that Ghana adopted a new constitution in 1992, the position of President of the Republic was vacant. President John Kufuor and President John Atta Mills both hold the record of having the shortest transition period from President-elect to President with both transition period lasting only 10 days. This is due to the fact that both Presidents needed a second round of voting (2000, 2008) to win the presidential election.
|Image||Name||Term/Reign||Office||Date of birth|
|Elizabeth II||1957–1960||Queen of Ghana||21 April 1926|
President of Ghana
|22 June 1947|
|John Kufuor||2000–2008||President of Ghana||8 December 1938|
|John Dramani Mahama||2012–2016||President of Ghana||29 November 1958|
John Kofi Agyekum Kufuor KCB is a Ghanaian politician who served as the President of Ghana from 7 January 2001 to 7 January 2009. He was also Chairperson of the African Union from 2007 to 2008. His victory over John Evans Atta Mills after the end of Jerry Rawlings' second term marked the first peaceful democratic transition of power in Ghana since independence in 1957.
The New Patriotic Party (NPP) is a centre-right and liberal conservative party in Ghana. Since the democratization of Ghana in 1992, it has been one of the two dominant parties in Ghana politics; its leading rival being the centre-left National Democratic Congress (NDC). John Kufuor of the NPP was President of Ghana from 2001 to 2009. At the elections held on 7 December 2004, the party won 129 out of 230 seats. The NPP candidate was Kufuor, who was re-elected as President with 52.75% of the vote. The New Patriotic Party symbol is the African elephant and the New Patriotic Party colors are red, white, and blue.
General elections were held in Ghana on 7 December 2004. The presidential elections resulted in a victory for incumbent John Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP). The parliamentary elections saw the NPP win 128 of the 230 seats.
The National Democratic Congress (NDC) is a social democratic political party in Ghana, founded by Jerry Rawlings, who was Head of State of Ghana from 1981 to 1993 and the President of Ghana from 1993 to 2001. Following the formation of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) which ruled Ghana following the military coup d'état on 31 December 1981, there was pressure from the international community to restore democracy. The NDC was formed as the ruling party ahead of elections in 1992, in which Rawlings was elected president, and in 1996 Rawlings was re-elected as the NDC candidate. Rawlings' second term ended in 2001. The NDC lost the presidency in the 2000 election, and it was not until the 2008 election that they regained it with candidate John Atta Mills.
John Evans Fiifi Atta Mills was a Ghanaian politician and legal scholar who served as President of Ghana from 2009 to 2012. He was inaugurated on 7 January 2009, having defeated the ruling party candidate Nana Akufo-Addo in the 2008 election. Previously he was Vice-President from 1997 to 2001 under President Jerry Rawlings, and he stood unsuccessfully in the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections as the candidate of the National Democratic Congress (NDC). He is the first Ghanaian head of state to die in office.
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The Electoral Commission of Ghana is the official body in Ghana responsible for all public elections. Made up of seven members, its independence is guaranteed by the 1992 Ghana constitution. The current commission was established by the Electoral Commission Act of 1993. Kwadwo Afari-Gyan was the first substantive Chairman of the Commission from 1993-2015. In December 5,2018 the Electoral commission chaired by Jean Adukwei Mensah reverted to the old logo Eagles with coat of arms after the controversy over the new logo
Golden Jubilee House, or Jubilee House, is the presidential palace in Accra that serves as a residence and office to the President of Ghana. Jubilee House is built on the site of a building that was constructed and used for administrative purposes by the British Gold Coast Government. The previous seat of government of Ghana was Osu Castle. It was renamed Golden Jubilee House by President Nana Addo Danquah Akuffo Addo on 29 March 2018. It has previously been known as The Flagstaff House.
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The 2010 New Patriotic Party presidential primary election was a nationwide election organized by the Electoral Commission of Ghana at the request of the New Patriotic Party of Ghana for the election of a candidate that would represent the party in the 2012 presidential and parliamentary elections. It was held on 7 August 2010. The New Patriotic Party is the biggest opposition party in the Parliament of Ghana with 107 members of parliament out of 230.
General elections were held in Ghana on Friday 7 December 2012 to elect a president and members of Parliament in 275 electoral constituencies. Owing to the breakdown of some biometric verification machines, some voters could not vote, and voting was extended to Saturday 8 December 2012. A run-off was scheduled for 28 December 2012 if no presidential candidate received an absolute majority of 50% plus one vote. Competing for presidency were incumbent president John Dramani Mahama of the National Democratic Congress (NDC), his main challenger Nana Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) and six other candidates.
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General elections were held in Ghana on 7 December 2016 to elect a President and Members of Parliament. They had originally been scheduled for 7 November 2016, but the date was later rejected by Parliament. Former foreign minister Nana Akufo-Addo of the opposition New Patriotic Party was elected President on his third attempt, defeating incumbent President John Mahama of the National Democratic Congress.
Kennedy Ohene Agyapong is a Ghanaian politician and businessman who represents Assin Central in parliament for the New Patriotic Party. He was first elected a member of parliament in 2000 to the seat of Assin North. He retained his seat in the 2004 and 2008 parliamenary elections. In 2012 he was elected in the new seat of Assin Central and was re-elected in 2016.
Samuel Atta Akyea is a Ghanaian lawyer and politician. A member of the New Patriotic Party of Ghana, he is the Minister for Works and Housing, and the current Member of Parliament of Akim Abuakwa South constituency. He is only the second person apart from President Nana Akufo-Addo to have been elected as MP of that constituency in the 4th republic.
Hassan Ahmed is a Ghanaian diplomat and a member of the New Patriotic Party of Ghana. He has served as Ghana's ambassador to several countries including Iran, Japan and Cuba. He was Head of Office of the UN-AU Hybrid office in Sudan. He is the current Director of Protocol for Nana Akufo-Addo, President of Ghana.