President of Ghana

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President of the
Republic of Ghana
Seal of the Presidency of the Republic of Ghana.svg
Presidential Seal of Ghana
Presidential Standard of Ghana.svg
Nana Akufo-Addo at European Development Days 2017.jpg
Nana Akufo-Addo

since 7 January 2017
Style His/Her Excellency
Residence Jubilee House
Term length Four years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Kwame Nkrumah
Republic established
Jerry Rawlings
Current Constitution
FormationRepublic Day
1 July 1960
1992 Constitution
15 May 1992
Deputy Vice President of Ghana
Salary144,000 Cedi annually
Website(in English)
(in English)
Coat of arms of Ghana.svg
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The President of the Republic of Ghana is the elected head of state and head of government of Ghana, as well as Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces. The current President of Ghana is Nana Akufo-Addo, who won the 2016 presidential election against the incumbent, John Dramani Mahama, by a margin of 9.45%. Nana Akufo-Addo was sworn into office on 7 January 2017. [1]

A head of state is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more.

The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

Ghana Republic in West Africa

Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language.



According to Chapter 8, Article 62 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana, a person shall not be qualified for election as the President of Ghana unless:

Constitution Set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed

A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

Oath of office

The President of Ghana must be sworn in by the Chief Justice before the citizens of Ghana at the Independence Square in Accra. The President-elect must repeat the following:

Chief Justice of Ghana

The Chief Justice of Ghana is the highest judge of the Supreme Court of Ghana. The Chief Justice is also the head of the Judiciary of Ghana and is responsible for its administration and supervision. In order of state precedence, the Chief Justice is the fourth highest official in Ghana.

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

"I, _______________ having been elected to the high office of President of the Republic of Ghana do (in the name of the Almighty God swear) (solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful and true to the Republic of Ghana; that I will at all times preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana; and that I dedicate myself to the service and well-being of the people of the Republic of Ghana and to do right to all manner of persons.

I further (solemnly swear) (solemnly affirm) that should I at any time break this oath of office; I shall submit myself to the laws of the Republic of Ghana and suffer the penalty for it. (So help me God)". [3]


After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his/her office and are used on special occasions.

Powers and duties of the President

Presidential styles of
Nana Akufo-Addo
Seal of the Presidency of the Republic of Ghana.svg
Reference style 'His Excellency President of the Republic of Ghana"
Spoken styleYour Excellency"
Alternative styleMr. President

Chapter 8 of the Constitution of Ghana states the duties and the powers of the President. The President is required to:

Also, the President is given the powers:

The President may execute or cause to be executed treaties, agreements or conventions in the name of the Republic of Ghana. [2] The President shall take precedence over the populace of the Republic of Ghana and may refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint senior public officials, and grant amnesty (with the concurrence of the Parliament of Ghana). [2] In times of serious internal or external turmoil or threat, or economic or financial crises, the President may assume emergency powers "for the maintenance of national security or public peace and order". [2]

The President shall be removed from office if he/she is found, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, Chapter 8 section 69 (ii) – prejudicial or inimical to the economy or the security of the Republic of Ghana. [2] The President shall cease to hold office on the date the Parliament of Ghana decides that he/she be removed from office. [2]

List of Presidents of Ghana (1960–present)

   Convention People's Party    People's National Party    National Democratic Congress    New Patriotic Party    Military

PictureTook officeLeft officeElected
Political Party
1Presidents of the Republic of Ghana (First Republic: 1960–1966)
11 Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah (JFKWHP-AR6409-A).jpg 1 July 196024 February 1966
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
1960 (1st) Convention People's Party
2Presidents as Head of State (Second Republic: 1966–1972)
21 Joseph Ankrah
(Chairman of the National Liberation Council )
No image.svg 24 February 19662 April 1969 National Liberation Council
32 Akwasi Afrifa
(Chairman of the National Liberation Council until 3 September 1969, thereafter Chairman of the Presidential Commission)
No image.svg 2 April 19697 August 1970 National Liberation Council
43 Nii Amaa Ollennu
Nii Amaa Ollennu.png 7 August 197031 August 1970 Independent
54 Edward Akufo-Addo
No image.svg 31 August 197013 January 1972
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
65 Ignatius Acheampong
(Chairman of the National Redemption Council until 9 October 1975, thereafter Chairman of the Supreme Military Council )
No image.svg 13 January 19725 July 1978
(Deposed in a palace coup d'état)
Supreme Military Council
76 Fred Akuffo
(Chairman of the Supreme Military Council )
No image.svg 5 July 19784 June 1979
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
Supreme Military Council
3Presidents as Head of State (Third Republic: 1979–1981)
81 Jerry Rawlings
(Chairman of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council )
Jerry Rawlings visits AMISOM 02 (6874167713) (cropped).jpg 4 June 197924 September 1979 Armed Forces Revolutionary Council
92 Hilla Limann
Hilla Limann.jpg 24 September 197931 December 1981
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
1979 (1st) People's National Party
103 Jerry Rawlings
(Chairman of the Provisional National Defence Council )
Jerry Rawlings visits AMISOM 02 (6874167713) (cropped).jpg 31 December 19817 January 1993 Provisional National Defence Council
4Presidents of the Republic of Ghana (Fourth Republic: since 1993)
101 Jerry Rawlings
Jerry Rawlings visits AMISOM 02 (6874167713) (cropped).jpg 7 January 19937 January 2001 1992 (1st)
1996 (2nd)
National Democratic Congress
112 John Kufuor
John Kufuor 080915-A-8817J-090.JPG 7 January 20017 January 2009 [4] 2000 (3rd)
2004 (4th)
New Patriotic Party
123 John Atta Mills
John Atta-Mills election poster (cropped).jpg 7 January 2009 [4] 24 July 2012 [5]
(Died in office)
2008 (5th) National Democratic Congress
134 John Mahama
John Dramani Mahama 2014 (cropped).jpg 24 July 2012 [6] 7 January 2017 [7] 2012 (6th) National Democratic Congress
145 Nana Akufo-Addo
Nana Akufo-Addo at European Development Days 2017.jpg 7 January 2017 2016 (7th) New Patriotic Party


Jubilee House
Golden Jubilee House.jpg
General information
Location Accra, Ghana
Current tenants Nana Akufo-Addo

The President of Ghana's official residence was Osu Castle (also known as Fort Christiansborg or Christiansborg Castle) in Accra. In 2007, the opposition MPs in Ghana stormed out of a parliamentary debate on whether to take out a $50m loan to build a new presidential palace. MPs from President John Kufuor's New Patriotic Party voted unanimously in favour of taking the loan from India. [8]

They argued that the President should not be based in Osu Castle, where slaves used to be kept. The opposition National Democratic Congress said the money would be better spent elsewhere. [8] The old flagstaff house used by Ghana's first president as a residence is being renovated into a museum, while the grounds on which it stands is being built up as an ultra modern office complex and residence for the president and vice-president of Ghana as well as their staff. [8] The new presidential palace was expected to be completed by August 2008 but was finally completed in November 2008. At the inauguration of the new presidential palace, President John Kufuor revealed to the press that the new name of the palace would be Golden Jubilee House. The name was chosen in reference to the 50th anniversary of Ghana's Independence. [8]

Part of the office space has been given to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs when it had to be relocated because of a fire that guttered its offices. The NDC government refused to move to the venue after it assumed office in 2009 noting that some of the work in the residency is not completed. The government of President Atta Mills also noted that the National Security establishment Bureau of National Investigations (BNI) wanted to ensure that security at the venue was improved before the government moved in. The name was changed to Flagstaff House by John Atta-Mills in an attempt many see as to cover its link to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of Ghana under the New Patriotic Party. On 7 February 2013, the office of the Presidency was finally moved to the flagstaff house. [9]

The name has been reverted to the Jubilee House .


Dassault Falcon 900 EX of the President of Ghana Dassault Falcon 900 EX of the Republic of Ghana (President of Ghana).jpg
Dassault Falcon 900 EX of the President of Ghana

National transport services for the Ghanaian President are: [10]

Air transport services for the Ghanaian President are: [11]

The presidential aircraft uses the colour scheme as the flag of Ghana in stripes, except for the use of the Ghanaian coat of arms on the empennage instead of the flag of Ghana.

In the autumn of 2012 a jet aircraft was acquired in the Golden Jubilee House. According to the Chief of the Golden Jubilee House Property Agency acquisition of a Embraer 190 jet aircraft for the President costed 105 million cedis (about $55 mln). The jet aircraft planned location is in the Ghanaian Presidential Retreat's Peduase Lodge. [12]

Timeline since 1960

John Dramani MahamaJohn Atta MillsJohn KufuorJerry RawlingsHilla LimannJerry RawlingsFred AkuffoIgnatius AcheampongEdward Akufo-AddoNii Amaa OllennuAkwasi AfrifaJoseph Arthur AnkrahKwame NkrumahPresident of Ghana

Latest election

John Dramani Mahama National Democratic Congress 5,574,76150.70
Nana Akufo-Addo New Patriotic Party 5,248,89847.74
Paa Kwesi Nduom Progressive People's Party 64,3620.59
Henry Herbert Lartey Great Consolidated Popular Party 38,2230.35
Ayariga Hassan People's National Convention 24,6170.22
Michael Abu Sakara Foster Convention People's Party 20,3230.18
Jacob Osei YeboahIndependent15,2010.14
Akwasi Addai Odike United Front Party 8,8770.08
Invalid/blank votes251,720
Registered voters/turnout14,158,89079.43
Source: Electoral Commission of Ghana


The President-elect of Ghana is the apparent winner, as ascertained by the Chairperson of the Electoral Commission of Ghana, following the general election on 7 December.

During the period between the presidential election and the inauguration, the outgoing president is a lame duck, while the incoming president heads a presidential transition team to ensure a smooth handover of power. If a sitting president has won re-election, the incumbent is not referred to as a president-elect as he or she is already in office and is not waiting to become president. Likewise, if a Vice President succeeds to the Presidency by way of the President's death, resignation or removal (via impeachment) from office, that person never holds the title of President-elect, as they would become President immediately. The most recent President-elect is former Minister of Foreign Affairs Nana Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party, who won the presidential election on 9 December 2016. [13]

The Vice President-elect of Ghana is the running mate of presidential candidate who wins an election. First established after the adoption of the 3rd Constitution of Ghana, the inaugural holder is Joseph W.S. deGraft-Johnson. The current Vice President-elect of Ghana is Mahamudu Bawumia. Until the formation of the 3rd Republic of Ghana, the position of Vice President did not exist.

List of presidents-elect

   CPP    PNP    NDC    NPP

President–electPartyFromToNumber of days
1 Kwame Nkrumah   CPP 20 April 19601 July 196072 days
2 Hilla Limann   PNP 9 July 197924 September 197978 days
3 Jerry John Rawlings   NDC 3 November 19927 January 199365 days
4 John Agyekum Kufuor   NPP 28 December 20007 January 200110 days
5 John Atta Mills   NDC 28 December 20087 January 200910 days
7 Nana Akufo-Addo   NPP 9 December 20167 January 201731 days

Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah became the first Ghanaian to be elected as President of the Republic of Ghana. President Limann holds the record of having the longest transition period from President-elect to President. His transition period lasted 78 days. President Rawlings prior to the presidential elections in 1992, was already head of state of Ghana. He was the Chairman of the Provisional National Defence Council. Due to the fact that Ghana adopted a new constitution in 1992, the position of President of the Republic was vacant. President John Kufuor and President John Atta Mills both hold the record of having the shortest transition period from President-elect to President with both transition period lasting only 10 days. This is due to the fact that both Presidents needed a second round of voting (2000, 2008) to win the presidential election.

Living former heads of state

ImageNameTerm/ReignOfficeDate of birth
Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit.jpg Elizabeth II 1957–1960Queen of Ghana21 April 1926 (age 93)
Jerry Rawlings visits AMISOM 02 (6874167713) (cropped).jpg Jerry Rawlings 1979
Military ruler
President of Ghana
22 June 1947 (age 72)
John Agyekum Kufuor - World Economic Forum on Africa 2008.jpg John Kufuor 2000–2008President of Ghana8 December 1938 (age 80)
John Dramani Mahama 2014 (cropped).jpg John Dramani Mahama 2012–2016President of Ghana29 November 1958 (age 60)

See also

Related Research Articles

John Kufuor Fifth President of the Republic of Ghana

John Kofi Agyekum Kufuor KCB is a Ghanaian politician who served as the President of Ghana from 7 January 2001 to 7 January 2009. He was also Chairperson of the African Union from 2007 to 2008. His victory over John Evans Atta Mills after the end of Jerry Rawlings' second term marked the first peaceful democratic transition of power in Ghana since independence in 1957.

New Patriotic Party political party in Ghana

The New Patriotic Party (NPP) is a centre-right and liberal conservative party in Ghana. Since the democratization of Ghana in 1992, it has been one of the two dominant parties in Ghana politics; its leading rival being the centre-left National Democratic Congress (NDC). John Kufuor of the NPP was President of Ghana from 2001 to 2009. At the elections held on 7 December 2004, the party won 129 out of 230 seats. The NPP candidate was Kufuor, who was re-elected as President with 52.75% of the vote. The New Patriotic Party symbol is the African elephant and the New Patriotic Party colors are red, white, and blue.

2004 Ghanaian general election

General elections were held in Ghana on 7 December 2004. The presidential elections resulted in a victory for incumbent John Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP). The parliamentary elections saw the NPP win 128 of the 230 seats.

National Democratic Congress (Ghana) political party in Ghana

The National Democratic Congress (NDC) is a social democratic political party in Ghana, founded by Jerry Rawlings, who was Head of State of Ghana from 1981 to 1993 and the President of Ghana from 1993 to 2001. Following the formation of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) which ruled Ghana following the military coup d'état on 31 December 1981, there was pressure from the international community to restore democracy. The NDC was formed as the ruling party ahead of elections in 1992, in which Rawlings was elected president, and in 1996 Rawlings was re-elected as the NDC candidate. Rawlings' second term ended in 2001. The NDC lost the presidency in the 2000 election, and it was not until the 2008 election that they regained it with candidate John Atta Mills.

John Atta Mills sixth President of the Republic of Ghana

John Evans Fiifi Atta Mills was a Ghanaian politician and legal scholar who served as President of Ghana from 2009 to 2012. He was inaugurated on 7 January 2009, having defeated the ruling party candidate Nana Akufo-Addo in the 2008 election. Previously he was Vice-President from 1997 to 2001 under President Jerry Rawlings, and he stood unsuccessfully in the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections as the candidate of the National Democratic Congress (NDC). He is the first Ghanaian head of state to die in office.

John Mahama former President of the Republic of Ghana

John Mahamapronunciation  is a Ghanaian politician who served as President of Ghana from 24 July 2012 to 7 January 2017. He previously served as Vice President of Ghana from January 2009 to July 2012, and took office as President on 24 July 2012 following the death of his predecessor, John Atta Mills. Mahama is a communication expert, historian, and writer. He was a Member of Parliament from 1997 to 2009 and Minister of Communications from 1998 to 2001. He is a member of the National Democratic Congress.

Nana Akufo-Addo President of Ghana

Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo is currently the President of Ghana. He has been in office since January 2017. He previously served as Attorney General from 2001 to 2003 and as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2003 to 2007 under the Kufuor led administration.

Georgina Theodora Wood is a Ghanaian judge and also a former police prosecution officer. She was the Chief Justice of Ghana and the first woman to occupy that position. She retired in 2017 after five decades of service to the state. She is a member of the Council of State.

2008 Ghanaian general election election

General elections were held in Ghana on 7 December 2008. Since no candidate received more than 50% of the votes, a run-off election was held on 28 December 2008 between the two candidates who received the most votes, Nana Akufo-Addo and John Atta Mills. Mills was certified as the victor in the run-off election on January 3, 2009, by a margin of less than one percent. It is to date the closest election in Ghanaian history.

Electoral Commission of Ghana

The Electoral Commission of Ghana is the official body in Ghana responsible for all public elections. Made up of seven members, its independence is guaranteed by the 1992 Ghana constitution. The current commission was established by the Electoral Commission Act of 1993. Kwadwo Afari-Gyan was the first substantive Chairman of the Commission from 1993-2015. In December 5,2018 the Electoral commission chaired by Jean Adukwei Mensah reverted to the old logo Eagles with coat of arms after the controversy over the new logo

Jubilee House Official residence and office to the President of Ghana

Golden Jubilee House, or Jubilee House, is the presidential palace in Accra that serves as a residence and office to the President of Ghana. Jubilee House is built on the site of a building that was constructed and used for administrative purposes by the British Gold Coast Government. The previous seat of government of Ghana was Osu Castle. It was renamed Golden Jubilee House by President Nana Addo Danquah Akuffo Addo on 29 March 2018. It has previously been known as The Flagstaff House.

Martin Alamisi Burnes Kaiser Amidu is a Ghanaian politician. He was the Attorney-General and Minister for Justice from January 2011 till January 2012. He is the man, who introduced the word ‘gargantuan‘, into the lexicon of Ghanaian politics, when he opened the can of worms about the Woyome scandal which was set to be the worst financial scandal in Ghana’s fiscal history at the time. On 11 January 2018, Martin A.B.K Amidu was named by the President of Ghana as the Special Prosecutor for the newly created Office of the Special Prosecutor

The 2010 New Patriotic Party presidential primary election was a nationwide election organized by the Electoral Commission of Ghana at the request of the New Patriotic Party of Ghana for the election of a candidate that would represent the party in the 2012 presidential and parliamentary elections. It was held on 7 August 2010. The New Patriotic Party is the biggest opposition party in the Parliament of Ghana with 107 members of parliament out of 230.

2012 Ghanaian general election election

General elections were held in Ghana on Friday 7 December 2012 to elect a president and members of Parliament in 275 electoral constituencies. Owing to the breakdown of some biometric verification machines, some voters could not vote, and voting was extended to Saturday 8 December 2012. A run-off was scheduled for 28 December 2012 if no presidential candidate received an absolute majority of 50% plus one vote. Competing for presidency were incumbent president John Dramani Mahama of the National Democratic Congress (NDC), his main challenger Nana Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) and six other candidates.

Timeline of Ghanaian history

Ghana gained independence from the British on 6 March 1957. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The country became a republic on July 1, 1960.

Joe Ghartey is a Ghanaian lawyer, academic and politician. He is the current Railways and Development minister. He was appointed by President Nana Akuffo Addo on 11 January 2017. Joe Ghartey hails from Shama, in the Western Region of the Republic of Ghana.

2016 Ghanaian general election elections

General elections were held in Ghana on 7 December 2016 to elect a President and Members of Parliament. They had originally been scheduled for 7 November 2016, but the date was later rejected by Parliament. Former foreign minister Nana Akufo-Addo of the opposition New Patriotic Party was elected President on his third attempt, defeating incumbent President John Mahama of the National Democratic Congress.

Kennedy Ohene Agyapong is a Ghanaian politician and businessman who represents Assin Central in parliament for the New Patriotic Party. He was first elected a member of parliament in 2000 to the seat of Assin North. He retained his seat in the 2004 and 2008 parliamenary elections. In 2012 he was elected in the new seat of Assin Central and was re-elected in 2016.

Samuel Atta Akyea is a Ghanaian lawyer and politician. A member of the New Patriotic Party of Ghana, he is the Minister for Works and Housing, and the current Member of Parliament of Akim Abuakwa South constituency. He is only the second person apart from President Nana Akufo-Addo to have been elected as MP of that constituency in the 4th republic.

Hassan Ahmed is a Ghanaian diplomat and a member of the New Patriotic Party of Ghana. He has served as Ghana's ambassador to several countries including Iran, Japan and Cuba. He was Head of Office of the UN-AU Hybrid office in Sudan. He is the current Director of Protocol for Nana Akufo-Addo, President of Ghana.


  1. "Ghana Election: President admits defeat in poll". BBC. BBC News. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The President – Chapter 008 – The Constitution of the Republic of Ghana 1992 – The Executive Archived 28 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Judiciary of Ghana .
  3. The Constitution of the Republic of Ghana 1992 – The Oath of Allegiance Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine . Judiciary of Ghana .
  4. 1 2 "Profile: Ghana President John Atta Mills". BBC World News. 3 January 2009.
  5. "Ghana's President John Atta Mills dies". BBC World News. 24 July 2012.
  6. "Atta Mills dies". New York Times. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  7. "Ghanaian President John Dramani Mahama sworn in". Sina Corp . 7 January 2013.
  8. 1 2 3 4 "Ghana unveils presidential palace". BBC News Online. 10 November 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  9. President Mahama Moves To The Flagstaff House Archived 8 May 2013 at the Stanford Web Archive .
  10. President's transports. Cars. Government allocates Kufuor two Mercedes Benz cars, two four-wheel to follow
  11. President's transports. Air transport. Veep Inaugurating Falcon 900 EX EASY Presidential Jet
  12. "Ghana gets a New Presidential Jet". Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2013.Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  13. GhanaWeb (9 December 2016). "EC declares Akufo-Addo president-elect". Accra: Apex AdMedia. Retrieved 25 May 2018.