List of heads of state of Sudan

Last updated
President of Republic of the Sudan
رئيس جمهورية السودان
Presidential Standard of Sudan.svg
Incumbent
Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan
Chairman of the Transitional Military Council

since 12 April 2019
Residence Republican Palace
Khartoum, Sudan
Term length 5 years, renewable
Inaugural holderFive-member Sovereignty Council (collective presidency)
Formation1 January 1956
Deputy Vice President of Sudan
Website www.presidency.gov.sd/eng/
Emblem of Sudan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Sudan
Constitution
Flag of Sudan.svg Sudanportal

This article lists the heads of state of Sudan since the country's independence in 1956.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

Sudan Country in Northeast Africa

Sudan or the Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. It has a population of 39 million people and occupies a total area of 1,886,068 square kilometres, making it the third-largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, and its official languages are Arabic and English. The capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

Contents

History of the office

Since independence was proclaimed on 1 January 1956, six individuals (and three multi-member sovereignty councils) have served as head of state of Sudan, currently under the title President of the Republic of the Sudan. Prior to independence, Sudan was governed as a condominium by Egypt and the United Kingdom, under the name Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. As such, executive power was vested in a dyarchy consisting of both countries' heads of state – at the time of independence, the Queen of the United Kingdom (Elizabeth II) and the Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council (headed by Gamal Abdel Nasser). Immediately following independence, the role of head of state was filled by a five-member Sovereignty Council, with rival nationalist factions unable to agree on a single candidate. In November 1958, General Ibrahim Abboud led a military coup d'état, assuming the role of head of state as Chairman of the Supreme Council. Assuming the title of president in 1964, he resigned later that year due to general discontent around the rule of the military regime. Abboud was succeeded by a senior civil servant, Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa, who served as acting president for 18 days before transferring executive authority to a Committee of Sovereignty.

In international law, a condominium is a political territory in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Ismail al-Azhari, the leader of the National Unionist Party, was made president in July 1965, and ruled with limited power until he was deposed in 1969. The military officers responsible for the coup established the National Revolutionary Command Council, chaired by Gaafar Nimeiry. Nimeiry, the leader of the newly formed Sudanese Socialist Union, assumed the position of president in 1971, and subsequently established a one-party state, which existed until 1985, when a group of military officers overthrew his government and established the 1985 Transitional Military Council, led by Field Marshal Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab. Ahmed al-Mirghani succeeded to the relatively powerless position of Chairman of the Supreme Council in 1986, after multi-party election held that year. He was deposed in a 1989 military coup led by Lieutenant-General Omar al-Bashir. Al-Bashir served as head of state, under the title of Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation from 1989 to 1993 and as president from 1993 to 2019 (and from 1996 as the leader of the National Congress Party). Al-Bashir was removed from power by the Sudanese Armed Forces on 11 April 2019, amid ongoing protests after holding the office for nearly 30 years. Lieutenant-General Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf took control of Sudan without becoming head of state, established the 2019 Transitional Military Council, but resigned the following day in favor of Lieutenant-General Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan. [1]

Ismail al-Azhari Sudanese President

Ismail al-Azhari (Saiyid) was a Sudanese nationalist and political figure. He served as the first Prime Minister of Sudan between 1954 and 1956, and as President of Sudan from 1965 until he was overthrown by Gaafar Nimeiry in 1969.

Democratic Unionist Party (Sudan)

The Democratic Unionist Party, also referred to by itself as the Original Democratic Unionist Party, is a political party in Sudan, closely tied to the Khatmiyya Sufi order.

National Revolutionary Command Council (Sudan)

The National Revolutionary Council was the body that ruled Sudan after the coup d'état in May 1969. It was disbanded in October 1971.

Heads of State of Sudan (1956–present)

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Republic of the Sudan (1956–1969)

No.NameLifespanElectedTook officeLeft officePolitical party
1Sovereignty Council
Members:
Abdel Fattah Muhammad al-Maghrabi
Muhammad Ahmad Yasin
Ahmad Muhammad Salih
Muhammad Othman al-Dardiri
Siricio Iro Wani
1 January 195617 November 1958
Chairman of the Supreme Council
2 Ibrahim Abboud AABOUD.jpg 1900–198318 November 195831 October 1964 Military
Presidents
Ibrahim Abboud AABOUD.jpg 1900–198331 October 196416 November 1964 [lower-alpha 1] Military
Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa
Acting President
Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa.jpg 1919–200616 November 19643 December 1964 National Umma Party
3First Committee of Sovereignty
Members:
Abdel Halim Muhammad
Tijani al-Mahi
Mubarak Shaddad
Ibrahim Yusuf Sulayman
Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho
3 December 196410 June 1965
4Second Committee of Sovereignty
Members:
Ismail al-Azhari
Abdullah al-Fadil al-Mahdi
Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho
Abdel Halim Muhammad
Khidr Hamad
10 June 19658 July 1965
Chairman of the Sovereignty Council
5 Ismail al-Azhari Ismail al-Azahri.jpg 1900–19698 July 196525 May 1969 [lower-alpha 2] Democratic Unionist Party

Democratic Republic of the Sudan (1969–1985)

Chairman of the National Revolutionary Command Council
6 Gaafar Nimeiry Nimeiry 1969.jpg 1930–200925 May 196912 October 1971 [lower-alpha 3] Military /
Sudanese Socialist Union
President
Gaafar Nimeiry Gaafar Nimeiry 1981.jpg 1930–2009 1971
(referendum)
1977
1983
12 October 19716 April 1985 [lower-alpha 4] Military /
Sudanese Socialist Union
Commander-in-Chief
7 Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab.png 1934–20186 April 19859 April 1985 Military
Chairman of the Transitional Military Council
Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab.png 1934–20189 April 198515 December 1985 Military

Republic of the Sudan (1985–present)

Chairman of the Transitional Military Council
(7) Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab.png 1934–201815 December 19856 May 1986 Military
Chairman of the Supreme Council
8 Ahmed al-Mirghani No image.png 1941–20086 May 198630 June 1989 [lower-alpha 5] Democratic Unionist Party
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation
9 Omar al-Bashir The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi meeting the President of Sudan, Mr. Omar al-Bashir, in New Delhi on October 30, 2015 (cropped).jpg 1944–30 June 198916 October 1993 Military /
National Congress Party
President
Omar al-Bashir The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi meeting the President of Sudan, Mr. Omar al-Bashir, in New Delhi on October 30, 2015 (cropped).jpg 1944– 1996
2000
2010
2015
16 October 199311 April 2019 [lower-alpha 6] Military /
National Congress Party
Chairmen of the Transitional Military Council
10 Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf No image.png c. 1954–11 April 201912 April 2019 Military /
National Congress Party
11 Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan No image.png 1960–12 April 2019Incumbent Military

Notes

  1. Resigned after mass protests.
  2. Deposed in the 1969 coup d'état.
  3. Briefly interrupted during the 19–22 July 1971 coup d'état.
  4. Deposed in the 1985 coup d'état.
  5. Deposed in the 1989 coup d'état.
  6. Deposed in the 2019 coup d'état.

See also

Politics of Sudan

Officially, the politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic consociationalist republic, where the President of Sudan is head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces in a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and in the two chambers, the National Assembly (lower) and the Council of States (upper), of the bicameral National Legislature. The judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional Court. However, following a deadly civil war and the still ongoing genocide in Darfur, Sudan was widely recognized as a totalitarian state where all effective political power was held by President Omar al-Bashir and the National Congress Party (NCP). However, al-Bashir and the NCP were ousted in a military coup which occurred on April 11, 2019. The government of Sudan is now led by the "Transitional Military Council".

Vice President of Sudan

The Vice President of Sudan is the second highest political position obtainable in Sudan. Currently there is a provision for two Vice Presidents, who are appointed by the President of Sudan. Historically either the First or the Second Vice President was from Southern Sudan. Since 2011, the Second Vice President has been from Darfur.

These are lists of incumbents, including heads of states or of subnational entities.

Latest election

CandidatePartyVotes%
Omar al-Bashir National Congress 5,252,47894.05
Fadl el-Sayed Shuiab Federal Truth Party 79,7791.43
Fatima Abdel Mahmoud Sudanese Socialist Democratic Union 47,6530.85
Mohamed Al Hassan National Reform Party42,3990.76
Abdul Mahmoud Abdul Jabar RahamtallaUnion of the Nation's Forces41,1340.74
Hamdi Hassan AhmedIndependent18,0430.32
Mohamed Ahmed Abdul Gadir Al ArbabIndependent16,9660.30
Yasser Yahiya Salih Abdul GadirIndependent16,6090.30
Khairi BakhitIndependent11,8520.21
Adel Dafalla JabirIndependent9,4350.17
Mohamed Awad Al BarowIndependent9,3880.17
Asad Al Nil Adel Yassin Al SaafiIndependent9,3590.17
Alam Al Huda Ahmed Osman Mohamed AliIndependent8,1330.15
Ahmed Al Radhi Jadalla SalemIndependent7,7510.14
Isaam Al Ghali Tajj Eddin AliIndependent7,5870.14
Omar Awad Al Karim Hussein AliIndependent6,2970.11
Invalid/blank votes506,549
Total6,091,412100
Registered voters/turnout13,126,98946.40
Source: NEC

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1989 Sudanese coup détat conflict

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Hashem al Atta Sudanese soldier & politician

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1969 Sudanese coup détat

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1985 Sudanese coup détat

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References

  1. El Sirgany, Sarah; Elbagir, Nima; Abdullah, Yasir (11 April 2019). "Sudan's President Bashir forced out in military coup". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 12 April 2019.