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| Bankruptcy in the|
|Bankruptcy in the United States|
|Aspects of bankruptcy law|
Chapter 11 is a chapter of Title 11, the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. Chapter 11 bankruptcy is available to every business, whether organized as a corporation, partnership or sole proprietorship, and to individuals, although it is most prominently used by corporate entities.In contrast, Chapter 7 governs the process of a liquidation bankruptcy, though liquidation can be done under Chapter 11 also; while Chapter 13 provides a reorganization process for the majority of private individuals.
Title 11 of the United States Code, also known as the United States Bankruptcy Code, is the source of bankruptcy law in the United States Code.
In the United States, bankruptcy is governed by federal law, commonly referred to as the "Bankruptcy Code" ("Code"). The United States Constitution authorizes Congress to enact "uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States". Congress has exercised this authority several times since 1801, including through adoption of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978, as amended, codified in Title 11 of the United States Code and the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.
When a business is unable to service its debt or pay its creditors, the business or its creditors can file with a federal bankruptcy court for protection under either Chapter 7 or Chapter 11.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit. It does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."
United States bankruptcy courts are courts created under Article I of the United States Constitution. The current system of bankruptcy courts was created by the United States Congress in 1978, effective April 1, 1984. United States bankruptcy courts function as units of the district courts and have subject-matter jurisdiction over bankruptcy cases. The federal district courts have original and exclusive jurisdiction over all cases arising under the bankruptcy code,, and bankruptcy cases cannot be filed in state court. Each of the 94 federal judicial districts handles bankruptcy matters.
In Chapter 7, the business ceases operations, a trustee sells all of its assets, and then distributes the proceeds to its creditors. Any residual amount is returned to the owners of the company.
In Chapter 11, in most instances the debtor remains in control of its business operations as a debtor in possession , and is subject to the oversight and jurisdiction of the court.
A debtor in possession in United States bankruptcy law is a person or corporation who has filed a bankruptcy petition, but remains in possession of property upon which a creditor has a lien or similar security interest. A corporation which continues to operate its business under Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings is a debtor in possession.
A Chapter 11 bankruptcy will result in one of three outcomes for the debtor: reorganization, conversion to Chapter 7 bankruptcy, or dismissal.In order for a chapter 11 debtor to reorganize, the debtor must file (and the court must confirm) a plan of reorganization. In effect, the plan is a compromise between the major stakeholders in the case, including the debtor and its creditors. Most chapter 11 cases aim to confirm a plan, but that may not always be possible.
If the judge approves the reorganization plan and the creditors all agree, then the plan can be confirmed. Section 1129 of the Bankruptcy Code requires the bankruptcy court reach certain conclusions prior to confirming or approving the plan and making it binding on all parties in the case, most notably that the plan complies with applicable law and was proposed in good faith. § 1129 The court must also find that the reorganization plan is feasible in that, unless the plan provides otherwise, the plan is not likely to be followed by further reorganization or liquidation.11 U.S.C.
Chapter 11 retains many of the features present in all, or most, bankruptcy proceedings in the U.S. It provides additional tools for debtors as well. Most importantly, 11 U.S.C. § 1108 empowers the trustee to operate the debtor's business. In Chapter 11, unless a separate trustee is appointed for cause, the debtor, as debtor in possession, acts as trustee of the business.
Chapter 11 affords the debtor in possession a number of mechanisms to restructure its business. A debtor in possession can acquire financing and loans on favorable terms by giving new lenders first priority on the business's earnings. The court may also permit the debtor in possession to reject and cancel contracts. Debtors are also protected from other litigation against the business through the imposition of an automatic stay. While the automatic stay is in place, creditors are stayed from any collection attempts or activities against the debtor in possession, and most litigation against the debtor is stayed, [ citation needed ]or put on hold, until it can be resolved in bankruptcy court, or resumed in its original venue.
If the business is insolvent, its debts exceed its assets and the business is unable to pay debts as they come due, [ citation needed ]
All creditors are entitled to be heard by the court.The court is ultimately responsible for determining whether the proposed plan of reorganization complies with the bankruptcy law.
One controversy that has broken out in bankruptcy courts concerns the proper amount of disclosure that the court and other parties are entitled to receive from the members of the ad hoc creditor's committees that play a large role in many such proceedings.
Chapter 11 usually results in reorganization of the debtor's business or personal assets and debts, but can also be used as a mechanism for liquidation. Debtors may "emerge" from a chapter 11 bankruptcy within a few months or within several years, depending on the size and complexity of the bankruptcy. The Bankruptcy Code accomplishes this objective through the use of a bankruptcy plan. The debtor in possession typically has the first opportunity to propose a plan during the period of exclusivity. This period allows the debtor 120 days from the date of filing for chapter 11, to propose a plan of reorganization before any other party in interest may propose a plan. If the debtor proposes a plan within the 120-day exclusivity period, a 180-day exclusivity period from the date of filing for chapter 11 is granted in order to allow the debtor to gain confirmation of the proposed plan.With some exceptions, the plan may be proposed by any party in interest. Interested creditors then vote for a plan.
[ citation needed ] In order to proceed to the confirmation hearing, the disclosure statement must be approved by the bankruptcy court. Once the disclosure statement is given the “OK”, the plan proponent will solicit votes from the classes of creditors. Solicitation is the process by which creditors vote on the proposed confirmation plan. This process can be complicated if creditors fail or refuse to vote. In which case, the plan proponent might tailor his or her efforts in obtaining votes, or the plan itself. The plan may be modified before confirmation, so long as the modified plan meets all the requirements of Chapter 11.
Like other forms of bankruptcy, petitions filed under chapter 11 invoke the automatic stay of § 362. [ citation needed ][ citation needed ][ citation needed ]
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In the new millennium airlines have fallen under intense scrutiny for what many see as abusing Chapter 11 Bankruptcy as a simple tool for escaping labor contracts, usually 30-35% of an airline's operating cost.Every major US airline has filed for Chapter 11 since 2002. In the space of 2 years (2002–2004) US. Airways filed for bankruptcy twice leaving the AFL-CIO, pilot unions and other airline employees claiming the rules of Chapter 11 have helped turn the USA into a corporatocracy.
Chapter 11 follows the same priority scheme as other bankruptcy chapters. The priority structure is defined primarily by § 507 of the Bankruptcy Code (11 U.S.C. § 507).
As a general rule, administrative expenses (the actual, necessary expenses of preserving the bankruptcy estate, including expenses such as employee wages, and the cost of litigating the chapter 11 case) are paid first. 507. For instance the claims of suppliers of products or employees of a company may be paid before other unsecured creditors are paid. Each priority level must be paid in full before the next lower priority level may receive payment.Secured creditors—creditors who have a security interest, or collateral, in the debtor's property—will be paid before unsecured creditors. Unsecured creditors' claims are prioritized by §
Section 1110 (11 U.S.C. § 1110) generally provides a secured party with an interest in an aircraft the ability to take possession of the equipment within 60 days after a bankruptcy filing unless the airline cures all defaults. More specifically, the right of the lender to take possession of the secured equipment is not hampered by the automatic stay provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.
If the company's stock is publicly traded, a Chapter 11 filing generally causes it to be delisted from its primary stock exchange if listed on the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, or the NASDAQ. On the NASDAQ the identifying fifth letter "Q" at the end of a stock symbol indicates the company is in bankruptcy [ citation needed ][ citation needed ]
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[ citation needed ] An example is the airline industry in the United States; in 2006 over half the industry's seating capacity was on airlines that were in Chapter 11. These airlines were able to stop making debt payments, break their previously agreed upon labor union contracts, freeing up cash to expand routes or weather a price war against competitors — all with the bankruptcy court's approval.
Studies on the impact of forestalling the creditors' rights to enforce their security reach different conclusions.
Within 60 days of filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, the debtor must submit a written disclosure statement with the court containing information on assets, liabilities and business affairs.
Chapter 11 cases dropped by 60% from 1991 to 2003. One 2007 studyfound this was because businesses were turning to bankruptcy-like proceedings under state law, rather than the federal bankruptcy proceedings, including those under chapter 11. Insolvency proceedings under state law, the study stated, are currently faster, less expensive, and more private, with some states not even requiring court filings. However, a 2005 study claimed the drop may have been due to an increase in the incorrect classification of many bankruptcies as "consumer cases" rather than "business cases".
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The largest bankruptcy in history was of the US investment bank Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc., which listed $639 billion in assets as of its Chapter 11 filing in 2008. The 16 largest corporate bankruptcies as of 13 December 2011:[ citation needed ]
|Company||Filing date||Total Assets pre-filing||Assets adjusted to the year 2012||Filing court district|
|Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. #||2008-09-15||$639,063,000,800||$744 billion||NY-S|
|Washington Mutual #||2008-09-26||$327,913,000,000||$382 billion||DE|
|Worldcom Inc.||2002-07-21||$103,914,000,000||$145 billion||NY-S|
|General Motors Corporation||2009-06-01||$82,300,000,000||$96.1 billion||NY-S|
|CIT Group||2009-11-01||$71,019,200,000||$82.9 billion||NY-S|
|Enron Corp. #‡||2001-12-02||$63,392,000,000||$89.7 billion||NY-S|
|Conseco, Inc.||2002-12-18||$61,392,000,000||$85.5 billion||IL-N|
|MF Global #||2011-10-31||$41,000,000,000||$45.7 billion||NY-S|
|Chrysler LLC||2009-04-30||$39,300,000,000||$45.9 billion||NY-S|
|Texaco, Inc.||1987-04-12||$35,892,000,000||$79.2 billion||NY-S|
|Financial Corp. of America||1988-09-09||$33,864,000,000||$71.7 billion||CA-C|
|Penn Central Transportation Company #||1970-06-21||$7,000,000,000||$45.2 billion||PA-S|
|Refco Inc. #||2005-10-17||$33,333,172,000||$42.8 billion||NY-S|
|Global Crossing Ltd.||2002-01-28||$30,185,000,000||$42 billion||NY-S|
|Pacific Gas and Electric Co.||2001-04-06||$29,770,000,000||$42.1 billion||CA-N|
|UAL Corp.||2002-12-09||$25,197,000,000||$35.1 billion||IL-N|
|Delta Air Lines, Inc.||2005-09-14||$21,801,000,000||$28 billion||NY-S|
|Delphi Corporation, Inc.||2005-10-08||$22,000,000,000||$28 billion||NY-S|
Enron, Lehman Brothers, MF Global and Refco have all ceased operations while others were acquired by other buyers or emerged as a new company with a similar name.
‡ The Enron assets were taken from the 10-Q filed on November 11, 2001. The company announced that the annual financials were under review at the time of filing for Chapter 11.
Chapter 7 of the Title 11 of the United States Code governs the process of liquidation under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. Chapter 7 is the most common form of bankruptcy in the United States.
Title 11 of the United States Code sets forth the statutes governing the various types of relief for bankruptcy in the United States. Chapter 13 of the United States Bankruptcy Code provides an individual the opportunity to propose a plan of reorganization to reorganize their financial affairs while under the bankruptcy court's protection. The purpose of chapter 13 is to enable an individual with a regular source of income to propose a chapter 13 plan that provides for their various classes of creditors. Under chapter 13, the Bankruptcy Court has the power to approve a chapter 13 plan without the approval of creditors as long as it meets the statutory requirements under chapter 13. Chapter 13 plans are usually three to five years in length and may not exceed five years. Chapter 13 is in contrast to the purpose of Chapter 7, which does not provide for a plan of reorganization, but provides for the discharge of certain debt and the liquidation of non-exempt property. A Chapter 13 plan may be looked at as a form of debt consolidation, but a Chapter 13 allows a person to achieve much more than simply consolidating his or her unsecured debt such as credit cards and personal loans. A chapter 13 plan may provide for the three general categories of debt: priority claims, secured claims, priority unsecured claims, and general unsecured claims. Chapter 13 plans are often used to cure arrearages on a mortgage, avoid "underwater" junior mortgages or other liens, pay back taxes over time, or partially repay general unsecured debt. In recent years, some bankruptcy courts have allowed Chapter 13 to be used as a platform to expedite a mortgage modification application.
Personal bankruptcy law allows, in certain jurisdictions, an individual to be declared bankrupt. Virtually every country with a modern legal system features some form of debt relief for individuals. Personal bankruptcy is distinguished from corporate bankruptcy.
Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent. There are two forms: cash-flow insolvency and balance-sheet insolvency.
The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA), is a legislative act that made several significant changes to the United States Bankruptcy Code. Referred to colloquially as the "New Bankruptcy Law", the Act of Congress attempts to, among other things, make it more difficult for some consumers to file bankruptcy under Chapter 7; some of these consumers may instead utilize Chapter 13. Voting record of S. 256.
A trustee in bankruptcy is an entity, often an individual, in charge of administering a bankruptcy estate.
A fraudulent conveyance, or fraudulent transfer, is an attempt to avoid debt by transferring money to another person or company. It is generally a civil, not a criminal matter, meaning that one cannot go to jail for it, but in some jurisdictions there is potential for criminal prosecution. It is generally treated as a civil cause of action that arises in debtor/creditor relations, particularly with reference to insolvent debtors. The cause of action is typically brought by creditors or by bankruptcy trustees.
An Adversary proceeding in bankruptcy, is a lawsuit in the American legal system filed by a party called a "plaintiff" against a party called a "defendant" filed in a United States bankruptcy court in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding.
A discharge in United States bankruptcy law, when referring to a debtor's discharge, is a statutory injunction against the commencement or continuation of an action to collect, recover or offset a debt as a personal liability of the debtor. The discharge is one of the primary benefits afforded by relief under the Bankruptcy Code and is essential to the "fresh start" of debtors following bankruptcy that is a central principle under federal bankruptcy law. Discharge is also believed to play an important role in credit markets by encouraging lenders, who may be more sophisticated and have better information than debtors, to monitor debtors and limit risk-taking.
In England and Wales, an individual voluntary arrangement (IVA) is a formal alternative for individuals wishing to avoid bankruptcy.
A general assignment or assignment is a concept in bankruptcy law that has a similar meaning, due to common law ancestry, in different jurisdictions, but wide dispersion in practical application. The "assignment for the benefit of creditors", also known as an ABC or AFBC is an alternative to bankruptcy, which is a "general assignment"/"assignment" concept.
In United States bankruptcy law, an automatic stay is an automatic injunction that halts actions by creditors, with certain exceptions, to collect debts from a debtor who has declared bankruptcy. Under section 362 of the United States Bankruptcy Code, the stay begins at the moment the bankruptcy petition is filed. Secured creditors may, however, petition the bankruptcy court for relief from the automatic stay upon a showing of cause.
As a legal concept, administration is a procedure under the insolvency laws of a number of common law jurisdictions, similar to bankruptcy in the United States. It functions as a rescue mechanism for insolvent entities and allows them to carry on running their business. The process – in the United Kingdom colloquially called "under administration" – is an alternative to liquidation, or may be a precursor to it. Administration is commenced by an administration order. A company in administrative receivership is operated by an administrator on behalf of its creditors. The administrator may recapitalize the business, sell the business to new owners, or demerge it into elements that can be sold and close the remainder. Most countries distinguish between voluntary (board-decided) and involuntary (court-decided) receivership. In voluntary administrative receivership, the administrator is appointed by the company directors. In involuntary administrative receivership, the administrator is appointed by a judicial court. The legal terms for these processes vary from country to country, and the processes may overlap.
Toibb v. Radloff, 501 U.S. 157 (1991), was a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that individuals are eligible to file for relief under the reorganization provisions of chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code, even if they are not engaged in a business. The case overturned the lower courts ruling which restricted individuals to chapter 7.
The insolvency law of Switzerland is the law governing insolvency, foreclosure, bankruptcy and debt restructuring proceedings in Switzerland. It is principally codified in the Federal Statute on Debt Enforcement and Bankruptcy of 11 April 1889 as well as in ancillary federal and cantonal laws.
Pre-packaged insolvency is a kind of bankruptcy procedure, where a restructure plan is agreed in advance of a company declaring its insolvency. In the United States pre-packs are often used in a Chapter 11 filing. In the United Kingdom, pre-packs have become popular since the Enterprise Act 2002, which has made administration the dominant insolvency procedure. Such arrangements are also available in Canada under the Companies' Creditors Arrangements Act.
Bankruptcy in Florida is made under title 11 of the United States Code, which is referred to as the Bankruptcy Code. Although bankruptcy is a federal procedure, in certain regards, it looks to state law, such as to exemptions and to define property rights. The Bankruptcy Code provides that each state has the choice whether to "opt in" and use the federal exemptions or to "opt out" and to apply the state law exemptions. Florida is an "opt out" state in regard to exemptions. Bankruptcy in the United States is provided for under federal law as provided in the United States Constitution. Under the federal constitution, there are no state bankruptcy courts. The bankruptcy laws are primarily contained in 11 U.S.C. 101, et seq. The Bankruptcy Code underwent a substantial amendment in 2005 with the "Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005", often referred to as "BAPCPA". The Bankruptcy Code provides for a set of federal bankruptcy exemptions, but each states is allowed is choose whether it will "opt in" or "opt out" of the federal exemptions. In the event that a state opts out of the federal exemptions, the exemptions are provided for the particular exemption laws of the state with the application with certain federal exemptions.
Cayman Islands bankruptcy law is principally codified in five statutes and statutory instruments: