Islamophobia in the United States

Last updated
Anti-Muslim protest in Ohio Anti-Muslim protestors (26713858473).jpg
Anti-Muslim protest in Ohio

Islamophobia in the United States can be described as the affective distrust and hostility towards Muslims, Islam, and those perceived as following the religion and or appear as members of the religion and its associative groups. [1] This social aversion and bias is facilitated and perpetuated by violent and uncivilized stereotypes portrayed in various forms of American media networks and political platforms that result in the marginalization, discrimination, and exclusion of the Muslims and Muslim perceived individuals. [2] Media and politicians capitalize on public fear and distrust of Muslims through laws that specifically target Muslims, while the media emphasizes Muslim religious extremism in association with violent activity. [1]

Islamophobia is the fear, hatred of, or prejudice against the Islamic religion or Muslims generally, especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism. The meaning of the term continues to be debated, and some view it as problematic.


Advocacy groups like Center for American Progress explain that this social phenomenon is not new, but rather, has increased its presence in American social and political discourse over the past ten to fifteen years. They cite that several organizations donate large amounts of money to create the "Islamophobia megaphone". [2] CAP defines the megaphone analogy as "a tight network of anti- Muslim, anti- Islam foundations, misinformation experts, validators, grass root organizations, religious rights groups and their allies in the media and in politics" who work together to misrepresent Islam and Muslims in the United States. [2] As a result of this network, Islam is now one of the most stigmatized religions, with only 37 percent of Americans having a favorable opinion of Islam, according to a 2010 ABC News/ Washington Post poll. [3] This biased perception of Islam and Muslims manifests itself into the discrimination of racially perceived Muslims in the law and media, and is conceptually reinforced by the Islamophobia network.

The Center for American Progress (CAP) is a public policy research and advocacy organization which presents a liberal viewpoint on economic and social issues. It has its headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Criticism of Islam has existed since Islam's formative stages. Early written disapproval came from Christians and Jews as well as from some former Muslims such as Ibn al-Rawandi. Later the Muslim world itself suffered criticism. Western criticism has grown in the 21st century especially after the September 11 attacks and other terrorist incidents. As of 2014, about a quarter of the world's countries and territories (26%) had anti-blasphemy and anti-apostasy laws or policies, of which 13 nations, all of which were Muslim majority nations, had the death penalty for apostasy.

A report from the University of California Berkeley and the Council on American–Islamic Relations estimated that $206 million was funded to 33 groups whose primary purpose was "to promote prejudice against, or hatred of, Islam and Muslims" in the United States between 2008 and 2013, with a total of 74 groups contributing to Islamophobia in the United States during that period. [4] This has been referred to as the "Islamophobia industry" by scholars Nathan Lean and John Esposito. [5]

Council on American–Islamic Relations American Muslim advocacy group

The Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) is a Muslim civil rights and advocacy group. It is headquartered on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., with regional offices nationwide. Through civil rights actions, media relations, civic engagement, and education, CAIR promotes social, legal and political activism among Muslims in America.

John Esposito writer and professor of Islamic studies

John Louis Esposito is University Professor, Professor of Religion & International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He was also the Founding Director of the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding at Georgetown.

In employment

In hiring

A 2013 Carnegie Mellon University study found that, nationally, Muslims had "13% fewer callbacks" than Christians after submitting identical job applications to the same establishments. [6] The study also concluded that discrepancies between callbacks for Muslims and Christians were larger "in counties with a high fraction of Republican voters," with Christians getting almost four times as many return calls in these constituencies. On the other hand, there was no discernible hiring discrimination against Muslims in Democratic counties. [7] Biases were larger on the state level, with Christians getting more than seven times as many callbacks than Muslims in Republican states. Democratic states, once again, showed "no significant callback biases." The study added that "employers in older counties are significantly less likely to call back the Muslim candidate compared to the Christian candidate" [8]

Carnegie Mellon University private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private research university based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to form Carnegie Mellon University. With its main campus located 3 miles (5 km) from Downtown Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon has grown into an international university with over a dozen degree-granting locations in six continents, including campuses in Qatar and Silicon Valley, and more than 20 research partnerships.

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, a county is an administrative or political subdivision of a state that consists of a geographic region with specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs, respectively.

Republican Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

In the workplace

Protection against religious discrimination in the workplace is found in the context of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [9] Employees claim religious discrimination when it involves any of the following: disparate treatment, religious harassment, failure to reasonably accommodate religious beliefs, and retaliation against an applicant or employee who alleges religious discrimination. [9] Disparate treatment can be defined as someone receiving different treatment regarding recruitment, hiring, promotion, discipline, compensation because of their religion. [9] Religious Harassment involves employees who are forced to participate or abstain from religious practices if they want to stay employed. [9] Accommodation claims involve the employer's failure to reasonably accommodate any change to the work environment that would enable the employee to remain compliant with their religion. [10] Retaliation happens when an employer resorts to punitive action against an employee for seeking out religious accommodations, threatening or filing a claim, assisting in someone else filing for discrimination, or testifying in discrimination proceedings. [9]

Civil Rights Act of 1964 legislation

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It prohibits unequal application of voter registration requirements, and racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations.

After the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or EEOC reported that religion- based discrimination against Muslims had increase by nearly 250 percent. [11] Moreover, the number of discrimination claims made by Muslims over a four-year period, from 2001 to 2005, nearly doubled when compared with another 4-year period. [12]

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission United States government agency enforcing civil rights laws against workplace discrimination

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency that administers and enforces civil rights laws against workplace discrimination. The EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual's race, children, national origin, religion, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, and retaliation for reporting, participating in, and/or opposing a discriminatory practice.

Religious harassment

In regards to religious harassment, studies show that, in general, these type of suits are increasing. [13] In the case of Zayed v. Apple Computers, an Arab Muslim woman sued Apple Inc. on the grounds of harassment, retaliation, defamation, and infliction of emotional distress based on religion, national origin, and gender. [14] Zayed had been employed as an at- will engineer since 1994, and stated that she had experienced dramatic changes in her work environment after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. [10] Zayed claimed that fellow employees began inquiring as to whether or not her religion encouraged Muslims to engage in suicide bombings. [10] Additionally, she stated that these same employees gave her malicious expressions, slammed her door, and expressed visible discontent and anger with Zayed after she expressed her disapproval with the war in Iraq. [10] Moreover, she also felt isolated when Apple put up red, white and blue ribbons on many employees' doors, but not on hers. [15] Soon after Zayed claimed that she felt marginalized and believed that she was wrongfully excluded from projects and career opportunities that were mostly given to white, non- Arab, colleagues. [15] Finally in 2004, Zayed chose to go on disability leave, stating that it was partly due to the stress she had been experiencing in response to the harsh treatment from her supervisors and coworkers. [10] But while on sick leave, Apple terminated Zayed. After her termination, Zayed decided to sue.

A former Muslim chaplain faced many years of anti-Muslim harassment because she was a Muslim and wore a hijab. When she worked at the New York state prison, her supervisor wanted her to leave her job. [16] The supervisor told the former chaplain that it's hard to respect women who cover their hair. [16] She was hired as a part-time Muslim chaplain at the Albion Correctional Facility in 2013 and resigned last year due to workplace conditions. [16] While she was working there, she was denied a change to her work schedule that would've allowed her to attend the Jumah prayers by coming to work early. [16] She was also refused to remove her shoes before entering the Muslim prayer area and denied access to prayer rugs. [16] While the former chaplain was being faced with harassment, she went to counseling services and was placed on anti-depressant medication to help her cope with stress. [16]

Disparate Treatment

In the case Al-Aqrabawi v. Pierce County, a Muslim man from Jordan had been educated as a physician abroad, but was only hired as a nursing assistant at a county mental health facility, to which the county originally stated that it was due to licensing issues. [10] In addition to this, the Plaintiff also experienced discriminatory comments by an LPN alluding to their suspicion that the Plaintiff was a terrorist. [10] The Plaintiff also claimed that a fellow coworkers said that "we have to send in our Phantoms and bomb their Mecca". [10] These comments, in conjunction, with discriminatory licensing practices, led to the plaintiff suing on behalf of claims of failure to promote, discrimination, and hostile environment. [10]

Religious accommodation

In regards to religious accommodation, a Muslim woman named Halla Banafa filed a discrimination claim after she didn't receive a job stocking merchandise at an Abercrombie Kids store in Milpitas, California because she wore the hijab. [17] According to EEOC, the manager decided against hiring the woman because she didn't fit the Abercrombie look, which would violate the company's "Look Policy". [18] This policy functions as an internal dress code that explicitly prohibits head coverings. [18] However, this is not the first time that Abercrombie has run into issues with their strict "Look Policy". In 2005, the company paid $40 million in a class- action suit involving African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos and women because Abercrombie "refused to recruit, hire, promote, and retain minorities because they didn't fit Abercrombie's 'All- American look'". [18]

In 2017, the government of New York City charged Pax Assist with discrimination after refusing requests by Muslims employees to change the times of their breaks to coincide with iftar. The company responded by saying "we don't care about Ramadan. We'll give you a break on our time, not your time." [19]

Religious retaliation

In the case Ibraheem v. Wackenhut Services, the black male Muslim claimed religious retaliation when he was fired after submitting an EEOC charge of discrimination and filing for a lawsuit involving claims about hostile work environments and religious discrimination. [20]

Muslim women in the United States

The existing discourse that positions Islam and western values against each other also underpins how the Americans perceive Muslim women in society. [21] Scholars assert that media, Islamophobic organizations, and politicians have played a tremendous role in depicting Muslim women as consistently endangered and subjugated by the alleged patriarchical nature of Islam. [21] In support of this presumption, many scholars conclude that women's status in Islam has a complex history, one that implies instances of male privilege and the relegation of women to a second class citizenry. [22] [21] [23]

One of these issues includes the rising controversy and questioning of the meaning behind veiling. [23] First and foremost, those who adhere to a feminist interpretation of the Qu'ran say that the conception of veiling is not monolithic in nature. [23] Rather, what constitutes veiling varies across regions. Some choose to wear a Niqab which refers to various materials that are used to cover a woman's face. [23] Others choose to wear long conservative skirts and dresses that cover most skin. [23] The hijab, which is usually worn around a woman's head, is also prevalent among various regions. [24] Furthermore, just as the definition of what constitutes veiling varies, so do the attitudes of those who choose to veil. [24]

Muslim women's health in the United States

Although empirical research on Muslim women's health in the United States is limited, sample studies provide insight into the experiences and health behaviors of American Muslim women. Recent studies on depression and experiences of stigma measured through heightened vigilance, [25] risk for non-communicable diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc.), [26] and contraception utilization [27] provide a scientific foundation for future research studies with Muslim women.

In education

At Columbus Manor school, a suburban Chicago elementary school where nearly half the student body is Muslim Arab American, school board officials have considered eliminating holiday celebrations after Muslim parents complained that their culture's holidays were not included. Local parent, Elizabeth Zahdan, said broader inclusion, not elimination, was the group's goal. "I only wanted them modified to represent everyone," the Chicago Sun-Times quoted her as saying. "Now the kids are not being educated about other people." [28] However, the district's superintendent, Tom Smyth, said too much school time was being taken to celebrate holidays already, and he sent a directive to his principals requesting that they "tone down" activities unrelated to the curriculum, such as holiday parties.

In sport

In October 2019, a 16 years old athlete Muslim girl from Ohio was disqualified from a cross country race because of wearing Hijab. [29] Since 2016, Noor Alexandria Abukaram has played three high school sports while wearing a hijab. [29] However, she was told that she needed special permission to run in the race with a head covering. [29]

In airports

Since the terrorist attacks that occurred on 9/11, American airports have considered it their duty to act as the "front line of defense". Polls conducted in the United States also show that more than half of Americans support the policy of more extensive security checks for Arab and Muslim Americans in airports. [30] At the San Francisco International airport, a 12-year-old U.S. Squash Team player was forced to remove her hijab while boarding the plane. [31] The San Francisco Bay Area office said that the federal and state laws were violated when an Air Canada gate agent forced Fatima Abdelrahman to remove her hijab. [31] Abdelrahman was refused when she requested a private area and the presence of a female agent, so she can remove her hijab. [31]


Some publishers have noted the presence of Islamophobia during immigration proceedings. Nonetheless, such forms of xenophobia have been said to primarily affect the male members of the Muslim population. There have also been claims stating that such forms of xenophobia have enveloped the Arab community in the U.S., often resulting in deportations, revocations of visa, and dispiriting interrogations at American airports. [32] This purportedly occurs because Muslim women are seen as less of a threat than Muslim men. [33]

In politics

President George W. Bush signs the Patriot Act a few days after the 9/11 terrorist attacks Bush signs Patriot Act 2001.jpg
President George W. Bush signs the Patriot Act a few days after the 9/11 terrorist attacks

After the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, the President George W. Bush's administration passed sweeping, unprecedented legislation in response to the American public's demand for action. [34] After three days, Congress passed the law called the Authorization for the Use of Military force, giving President Bush the power to use the military in any way that seemed "appropriate or necessary towards unspecified states and non state actors." [35] Six weeks after 9/11, the PATRIOT ACT was passed, greatly expanding several government agencies' abilities to acquire information via searches, electronic surveillance, and wiretapping. [34] This same act also introduced searches that did not require the government to notify the private owner of a residence that they had been searched for up to 90 days. [35] Some scholars argue that the passage of laws like the Patriot Act was the government's way of capitalizing on a fearful American public by legalizing racially targeted policies. [36] A poll conducted shortly after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, echoes this line of argument when it found that about one-third of Americans thought it was acceptable to detain Arab Americans in camps reminiscent of the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. [37] A 2004 poll by Pew Research Center found that almost half of Americans were willing to exchange certain civil liberties for the cause of national security. [38]

The enforcement of the Patriot Act has far-reaching repercussions. It is widely believed to target Muslims, Middle Eastern and Arab-looking men. [39] According to the ACLU, the New York City Police Department has been spying on Muslim-American communities since 2002. [40] In this same report, the ACLU asserts that the NYPD has singled out Islamic associations, mosques, and businesses while not subjecting non-Islamic groups to this type of surveillance or scrutiny. [40] Enabled by the Patriot Act, the NYPD essentially mapped out the communities, introduced spies into the community to identify or collect evidence, and tracked individuals who Americanized their names. [40] The legalization of dismantlement of civil liberties for a group deemed inherently suspect has caused a cultural rift in the United States. [30]

As a supplement to the Patriot Act, the U.S. government instituted immigration policies such as the National Security Entry-Exit Registration System in 2002. [35] This policy targeted immigrants from 26 countries (25 of which are known as Muslim countries) and had them fingerprinted and registered upon entering the country. [35] People in the Justice Department who support this policy explain that it is based on intelligence data already collected to monitor terrorist organizations. [41] Even though the Justice Department claimed that the system is highly sensitive in its targets, it also stated that the system will track "all nationals of Iran, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, and Syria," even though none of the terrorists involved in the 9/11 attacks were from these countries. In spite of the money dedicated to the new homeland security paradigm after 9/11, [35] some have argued that these stricter immigration policies and expanded executive powers have not helped apprehend terrorists. [42] Of over 83,000 men who were registered, only about 13,000 of them were deemed dangerous enough to enter deportation proceedings, [42] and President Bush's Immigration and Naturalization Service commissioner James Ziglar stated that no one in the registry was ever charged and convicted of crimes associated with terrorism. [35]

The U.S. government also devoted resources to create the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in 2001. [35] Airport screening, once performed by private security firms chosen by the airlines, was now assigned to TSA. [35] The TSA was empowered to conduct random canine-assisted searches, implement more checkpoints, and place air marshals on thousands of international flights. The TSA holds the No-Fly List and the Automatic Selectee list, two controversial terrorism watch lists. The No-Fly List contains names of individuals who have been labeled as a threat to aviation across the United States. [43] Listed individuals are not allowed on commercial flights that will fly over or are destined to land in the United States or are managed by a U.S. airline. Although the No-Fly List and the Automatic Selectee List predate the 9/11 attacks, they were little used; there were only 16 names on the No-Fly list before 9/11. [44] The combined total of names on both lists rose to more than 20,000 by the end of 2004, [35] and 44,000 on the No-Fly List alone in 2006. [44] Scholars argue that these lists target millions of innocent people with characteristics that appear Middle Eastern, like ethnicity, skin color, language and clothing. [45] These government policies institutionalize racism against Muslims, especially those who are foreign-born. The foreign-born Muslims seeking air travel to the United States are depicted as potentially violent and religiously extremist. [34] U.S. citizen Muslims who fit the American caricature of a Muslim are also affected by these policies. A 2010 USA Today/Gallup poll revealed the prevalence of racist public sentiment, showing that about 60 percent of the American public favored ethnic profiling of Arabs regardless of U.S. citizenship. [46]

In the media

In the immediate months following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, an expected surge of media attention was devoted to American Muslims and Arabs. [47] Frequent news stories and discussions involved the issue of civil liberties that American Muslims were facing due to the increase in reports involving physical violence and assaults on Arabs and Muslims. [47] Despite the notable prejudice towards Arabs and Muslims after the terrorist attack, outlets like the New York Times printed opinion pieces discouraging the indiscriminate attribution of blame to one or more groups by the way of curtailing civil liberties and social freedoms. [47]

Other researchers like Brigitte Nacos and Oscar Torres- Reyna coded media dispositions on Islam and Muslims before and after 9/11. [47] Their studies concluded that before 9/11, about 25 percent of the pertinent articles taken from four different newspapers connoted positive sentiment towards Muslims. [47] Likewise, approximately 40 percent of the articles taken from the same newspapers expressed empathetic attitudes towards Muslims and Arabs alike. These same researchers argue that 9/11 terrorist attacks changed the way news media outlets (print or television) reported on Muslim Americans and Arabs. [47] They cite that because news media outlets selected Muslims and Arabs for interviews and discussions instead of their traditional authoritative sources, these minority groups became more visible to the American public. [47] This increased visibility, in conjunction with news items reporting public figures advocacy for increased understanding between Muslims and non- Muslims, echoed the heterogeneous nature of the religion. [37] Additionally, these pleas and visibility helped dispel the idea that Islam was a violent and hateful religion, temporarily debunking the myth that terrorism is intertwined with the Islamic faith. [37]

In totality, several opinion surveys reflected the impact of the shift in media coverage towards Muslim Americans and Arabs. [47] The surveys showed that the American public viewed American Muslims more favorably than they did prior to the 9/11 attacks. [47]

Article from the Guardian PatrickHaseldine3.jpg
Article from the Guardian

As time passed the immediate months post- 9/11, the news media outlets reflected a notable shift away from positive, supportive, and empathetic sentiments towards Muslim Americans and Arabs. [47] The next six months and the years after the attacks showed that, in addition to westernized media, American media outlets became increasingly critical of Muslim Americans. [47] Some attribute this notable shift to the silencing of voices that once advocated for Muslim Americans as peaceful individuals.

According to Media Tenor International, between 2007 and 2013, media outlets like NBC, Fox News, and CBS characterized Islam and the Muslim identity as one linked with violence and extremism. [48] Other studies conducted by LexisNexis Academic and CNN found that media outlets devoted more coverage to terrorist attacks involving Muslims, especially Muslims who were not born in the United States. [49] [50]

Author and researcher Nahid Afrose Kabir examined similar reporting on violent events. One event he studied was the Fort Hood shooting that occurred on November 5, 2009. Major Nidal Malik Hasan, who was identified as American born but held a Muslim background, shot and killed thirteen soldiers and wounded thirty more. [51] Some of the interviewees commented on how the news reporting of this event emphasized Hasan's Muslim background. [51] The same interviewees in this study compared the Virginia Tech shooting with the Fort Hood shooting in which a non- Muslim individual, Seung- Hui Cho, killed thirty- two people, but following news reports did not make a point to emphasize his religious or cultural ties. [51] Similarly, in various print media outlets, headlines alluded to the idea that the Fort Hood Shooting had ties to terrorist acts or other terrorist organizations. [51] Another incident that occurred in Times Square on May 2, 2010, provoked more anti- Muslim sentiment. [51] Faisal Shahzad made a bombing attempt that failed. [52] The Times subsequent reporting indicated that Pakistan's Tehrik- e- Taliban took credit for the failed attempt. [52] In the same report over the incident, Kabir noted that the Times report used this incident to further legitimize the wars in the Middle East, emphasizing the need to take out potential terrorists. [51] Kabir echoed Reem Bakker's sentiments, an interviewee in Kabir's study, that the failed attempt further ostracized the Muslim community. [51]

Hate crimes

A sign showing anti- Muslim rhetoric Anti-Muslim protestors (26713859273) crop.jpg
A sign showing anti- Muslim rhetoric

In general, the definition of a hate crime involves two elements that distinguish it from other illegal acts. [53] Namely, that the crime must be a criminal offense that is backed by a biased motivation. [53] This biased motivation is usually revealed when an individual targets an attack on an individual because of some immutable personal characteristic that is protected by law. [54] Hate crimes vary from assault, murder, damage to property, work place discrimination and housing discrimination. [54]

In 2000, the FBI reported 28 hate crime incidents against Muslim. [55] By the end of 2001, the number of hate crimes rose to 481. [55] Although the FBI finds that the number of anti- Muslim hate crimes has decreased since 2001, the incidence rate is still five times as much their 2000 rate, suggesting that the stereotypes that negatively link Muslims, extremism, and terrorism are still pervasive. [56] Some scholars suggest that the spike in hate crimes against Muslims in a post- 9/11 political climate is not surprising because of the phenomenon known as "vicarious retribution". [57] This phenomenon explains how when one member of a visibly identifiable group acts aggressively towards members of an out group, then the aggressor will also indirectly harm his or her fellow in group member. [57] In the context of Anti- Muslim hate crimes, the terrorist attacks on 9/11 transformed the way U.S. society would view Muslims and people of Arab descent. [56] Other experts also point out that anti- Muslim sentiment existed prior to the terrorist attacks, however, this sentiment was more or less overshadowed by other anti- minority group sentiments. [58] In contrast, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Arabs and Muslims were largely depicted as monolithic group of foreigners, extremists and terrorists [59]

Some publishers have opined that the increase in hate crimes against Muslims was an Islamophobic abuse with an ethnocentric trait. This is because many of its proponents do not distinguish between Arabs and Muslims and think all Arabs are Muslim by shapeshifting the Muslim faith into an ethnoreligion. [60] This is in contrast to decreasing hate crimes against other racial groups, such as blacks, Asians and Latinos with the exception of Jews. [60]

Ibrahim Hooper, the communications director at the Council on American-Islamic Relations attributes the spike in recent anti-Muslim attacks to the Charlie Hebdo shooting, as well as the coverage" 'radical Islam' on the news while not using the word "radical" for non-Muslim faiths. [61] [62] According to a report by CNN [63] and a survey from the Council on American–Islamic Relations there have been over 63 acts of vandalism and anti Muslim behavior in 2015 from January through December 3.


The Quba Islamic Institute in Houston, Texas, was set alight at 5am on the 13 February 2015. Some media reports described it as an Islamophobic attack [49] . [64]


Zohreh Assemi, an Iranian American Muslim owner of a nail salon in Locust Valley, New York, was robbed, beaten, and called a "terrorist" in September 2007 in what authorities call a bias crime. [65] Assemi was kicked, sliced with a boxcutter, and had her hand smashed with a hammer. The perpetrators, who forcibly removed $2,000 from the salon and scrawled anti-Muslim slurs on the mirrors, also told Assemi to "get out of town" and that her kind were not "welcomed" in the area. The attack followed two weeks of phone calls in which she was called a "terrorist" and told to "get out of town," friends and family said. [65]


A Muslim school in the Northeastern U.S. state of Rhode Island was vandalised with graffiti bearing "Now this is a Hate crime", indicating that the perpetrators were wary of the hateful nature. The incident was described by some media outlets as "Islamophobic". [66]

Contributors and organizations

In 2011 the Center for American Progress produced a report called Fear. Inc. The Roots of the Islamophobic Network in America, and asserted that an esteemed, elite, and wealthy group of conservative foundations and affluent donors were the engine behind the continuation of Islamophobia in law, private spheres, and general public sentiment towards Muslims and Arabs at large. [2] In this same report, they analyzed seven specific organizations that contributed almost $42.6 million in funding towards various organizations and think tanks that promoted Islamophobia. [2] Much of this money goes to the "misinformation experts". [2] These experts are people who spread the message that Islam is an inherently sinister and hostile religion that seeks to convert or destroy all non- Muslims, especially those residing in the United States. [2]

CAIR and Center for American Progress list ACT for America as anti- Islam hate group run by Brigitte Gabriel. [67] According to ACT's website, the organization views itself as the gatekeeper of national security for American borders, with over 750,000 members and 12,000 volunteer activists. [68] They state that their activities are geared towards educating citizens and elected officials to impact public policy and guard America for terrorism. [68] CAIR attributes anti- sharia law campaign with ACT in Oklahoma. [67] Additionally, CAIR asserts that ACT has ties with white national supremacy groups such as Vanguard America and Identity Europa. [67]

Robert Spencer is listed as a misinformation expert. [2] He contributes content to the blog known as 'Jihad Watch', which heavily funded by the David Horowitz Freedom Center Initiative and the Stop Islamization of America groups. [67] Smearcasting, an organization dedicated to accurate reporting, accused Spencer of only focusing on the violent verses and texts within the Islamic faith and deeming it as a representation of the faith as a whole. [67] Scholars and academic like Dr. Carl Kenan and William Kenan at UNC- Chapel Hill have also commented on how Spencer's beliefs regarding Islam have no foundation in any reputable academic work or in the religion itself. [67] According to the Jihad Watch website, they cite the purpose of the website is to inform non- Muslims all over the world that Islamic jihadists are attempting to destroy societies and impose Islamic law globally. [69]

Billboard advocates for Anti- Sharia laws in the United States Sharia-law-Billboard.jpg
Billboard advocates for Anti- Sharia laws in the United States

Center for American Progress's report in 2011 also cites the importance of political players in contributing to the spread of Islamophobia. [2] Peter King, a congressman who has served over ten- terms, held congressional hearings titled "Extent of Radicalization in the American Muslim Community and that Community's Response." [2] Despite the fact that most terrorist plots in the United States have been initiated by non-Muslims after 9/11, King has been cited as stating that 80-85 percent of mosques in the United States are controlled by Islamic fundamentalists. King attributed this statistic to Steven Emerson, from the Investigative Project on Terrorism, also known as viewing Islam as an inherently violent religion that is hostile to non-Muslims. [70] Other political players like Sue Myrick, an eight - term congresswoman from North Carolina, rely on the network of the experts who view Islam as inherently violent. [2] Sue Myrick wrote a foreword to a book titled Muslim Mafia: Inside the Secret Underworld That's Conspiring to Islamize America. [2] David Gaubatz, author of the book, served on David Yerushalmi's Society of Americans for National Existence, who advocated for a 20-year jail sentence to those who practiced Sharia law. [2] Center for American Progress asserts that Sue Myrick relies on Gaubatz's book for information regarding the Islamic faith. [2] In 2011, she chaired the House Intelligence Subcommittee on Terrorism, Human Intelligence, Analysis and Counterintelligence. [2]

Some commentators have criticized individual American New Atheists such as Sam Harris and Christopher Hitchens for making Islamophobic statements. [71] [72] [73] Commenting on Greenwald's response to Harris, Jerome Taylor, writing in The Independent , has stated that, "Like Chomsky, who has also been a vocal critic of New Atheism, he [Greenwald] blames writers like Harris for using their particularly anti-Islamic brand of rational non-belief to justify American foreign policies over the last decade. [74] [75] Two educators at universities in Utah have claimed that these American atheist activists invoke Samuel Huntington's 'clash of civilizations' theory to explain the current political contestation and that this forms part of a trend toward "Islamophobia [...] in the study of Muslim societies". [76] [ verification needed ]


Part of the study of Islamophobia has involved historians, scholars and educators writing about institutional violence against American Muslims and incitement of violence against foreign Muslims. [77] Edward Said in his book Orientalism describes how the West is taught about the East through a Westernized lens and that most of the East's history is written in Europe by European historians, instead of specialized scholars of Eastern history. [78] When applied, Orientalism serves as a way of using demeaning representations of the East to assert the cultural and political superiority of the West over inferior Muslims. [79]

See also

Related Research Articles

Religious intolerance is intolerance of another's religious beliefs or practices or lack thereof.

Hijab veil worn by Muslim women

A hijab in common English usage is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest. The term can refer to any head, face, or body covering worn by Muslim women that conforms to Islamic standards of modesty. Hijab can also refer to the seclusion of women from men in the public sphere, or it may denote a metaphysical dimension, for example referring to "the veil which separates man or the world from God."

Islamic Human Rights Commission non-profit organisation based in London

The Islamic Human Rights Commission (IHRC) is a non-profit organisation based in London. Its stated mission is to "work with different organisations from Muslim and non-Muslim backgrounds, to campaign for justice for all peoples regardless of their racial, confessional or political background." The group is based in London and was established in 1997. The organisation, since 2007, has consultative status with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Hussein Yusuf Kamal Ibish is a Senior Resident Scholar at The Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington. He was a Fellow at the former American Task Force on Palestine. He has a Ph.D. in Comparative literature from the University of Massachusetts Amherst and is active in advocacy for Arab causes in the United States. He is a weekly columnist for NOW Lebanon. He describes himself as an agnostic from the Muslim-American community.

The article describes the state of race relations and racism in the Middle East. Racism is widely condemned throughout the world, with 174 states parties to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination by April 8, 2011. In different countries, the forms that racism takes may be different for historic, cultural, religious, economic or demographic reasons.

Pamela Geller blogger, author, political activist, and commentator

Pamela Geller is an American political activist, blogger and commentator who is known for her anti-Muslim views and activism.

Islamophobia in Australia Hostility or prejudice towards Islam or Muslims in Australia

Islamophobia in Australia is highly speculative, affective distrust and hostility towards Muslims, Islam, and those perceived as following the religion. This social aversion and bias is often facilitated and perpetuated in the media through the stereotyping of Muslims as violent and uncivilised. Various Australian politicians and political commentators have capitalised on these negative stereotypes and this has contributed to the marginalization, discrimination, and exclusion of the Muslim community.

Islamophobia in the media refers to the occurrence or perception that media outlets tend to cover Muslims or Islam-related topics in a negative light. Islamophobia is defined as "Intense dislike or fear of Islam, esp. as a political force; hostility or prejudice towards Muslims".

Islamophobia in Canada refers to set of discourses, behaviours and structures which express feelings of anxiety, fear, hostility and rejection towards Islam or Muslims in Canada. Members of the Sikh, Christian Arab, Jewish Arab and Hindu communities have all reported incidents of harassment which, while intended towards Muslims, was traumatic and broader in its scope than just Muslims.

Islamophobia in the United Kingdom refers to a set of discourses, behaviours and structures which express feelings of anxiety, fear, hostility and rejection towards Islam or Muslims in the United Kingdom. Islamophobia can manifest itself through discrimination in the workforce, negative coverage in the media, and violence against Muslims.

Islamophobia in China refers to the set of discourses, behaviours and structures which express feelings of anxiety, fear, hostility and rejection towards Islam and/or Muslims in China. Islamophobia can manifest itself through discrimination in the workforce, negative coverage in the media, and violence against Muslims.

Islamophobia in Sweden refers to the set of discourses, behaviours and structures which express feelings of anxiety, fear, hostility and rejection towards Islam and/or Muslims in Sweden. Historically, attitudes towards Muslims in Sweden have been mixed with relations being largely negative in the early 16th century, improving in the 18th century, and declining once again with the rise of Swedish nationalism in the early 20th century. According to Jonas Otterbeck, a Swedish historian of religion, attitudes towards Islam and Muslims today have improved but "the level of prejudice was and is still high." Islamophobia can manifest itself through discrimination in the workforce, prejudiced coverage in the media, and violence against Muslims.

Islamophobia in Norway refers to the set of discourses, behaviours and structures which express feelings of anxiety, fear, hostility and rejection towards Islam and/or Muslims in Norway. Islamophobia can manifest itself through discrimination in the workforce, negative coverage in the media, and violence against Muslims.

Hijabophobia form of discrimination

Hijabophobia is a type of religious and cultural discrimination against Muslim women. The discrimination has had manifestations in public, working and educational places.

The portrayal of Arabs in film is a topic of controversy. It refers to the way that Arabs are written as film characters in both Arab films as well as foreign (non-Arab) films, and the way in which Arabs portray themselves as well as how “the other” portrays Arabs. These portrayals often depict an ethnocentric perception of Arabs rather than an authentic and realistic depiction of Arabic cultures, religions, dialects, as well as custom and traditions. Key issues that will be explored in this article are subtopics such as how Arabs are identified in mainstream Hollywood film, how Arabs self-represent themselves in their own film, with examples from Egyptian cinema, Palestinian cinema, as well as Syrian cinema. This article will also explore subtopics such as the portrayal of Arab women in film, the portrayal of Arabs post 9/11, the portrayal of Arabs in animated film, as well as positive portrayals and negative portrayals of Arabs, etc.

Islamophobia in Italy

Islamophobia is characterised by a dislike against the religion of Islam and those perceived to be following the religion, typically fuelled by fear and hatred and sustained through the evolving stereotype of the Muslim identity. It has become increasingly common and widespread throughout the world, in particular since the September 11 attacks in the United States, however it existed in society before this. In Europe, there has been an increase in cultural tensions between national majorities and marginalised Muslim countries, as shown by the results of the 2009 elections in the European Parliament with a large vote toward anti-immigration. Within Italy, there is a large Islamic presence of approximately 1.25 million people, stemming from the widespread migration and settlement that began in the 1970s, in particular from North Africa. The Islamic population of Italy increasingly faces challenges when it comes to their position in society, with the increasing cultural hostility that stems from the growing presence of Islamophobia. The intensity of Islamophobia in Italy is enhanced by the historical religious structure of the state – which is heavily based on the Catholic Church.

As of 2018 Poland exhibits one of the highest rates of Islamophobia in Europe. Since the Muslim community in Poland is small the situation has been described as "Islamophobia without Muslims".


  1. 1 2 Khan, Fazal Rahim; Iqbal, Zafar; Gazzaz, Osman B.; Ahrari, Sadollah (Spring 2012). "Global Media Image of Islam and Muslims and the Problematics of a Response Strategy". Islamic Studies. 51 (1): 5–25. JSTOR   23643922.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Wajahat, Ali; Clifton, Eli; Duss, Matthew; Fang, Lee; Keyes, Scott; Shakir, Faiz (August 2011). Fear, Inc. The Roots of the Islamophobia Network in America. Washington D.C.: Center for American Progress.
  3. "ABC News/Washington Post Poll: Views of Islam", ABC News, available at
  4. "Funding fear of Muslims: $206m went to promoting 'hatred', report finds". The Guardian . June 20, 2016.
  5. Lean, Nathan (2012). The Islamophobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims. Pluto Press. p. 66.
  6. Acquisti & Fong 2012, p. 3.
  7. Acquisti & Fong 2012, p. 4.
  8. Acquisti & Fong 2012, p. 22.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Ghumman, Sonia; Ryan, Ann Marie; Barclay, Lizabeth A.; Markel, Karen S. (2013-12-01). "Religious Discrimination in the Workplace: A Review and Examination of Current and Future Trends". Journal of Business and Psychology. 28 (4): 439–454. doi:10.1007/s10869-013-9290-0. ISSN   0889-3268.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Malos, Stan (2010-12-01). "Post-9/11 Backlash in the Workplace: Employer Liability for Discrimination against Arab- and Muslim- Americans Based on Religion or National Origin". Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal. 22 (4): 297–310. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1007/s10672-009-9132-4. ISSN   0892-7545.
  11. "Workplace Discrimination Against Muslims | On Labor". On Labor. 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  12. Choudhury, C.A. (2008). "Terrorists and Muslims: the construction, performance, and regulation of Muslim identities in the post 9/11 United States". Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion. 11: 1–32.
  13. Deschenaux, J (2011). "Nontraditonal workplace harassment lawsuits increasing" . Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  14. Zayed v. (2006). Apple computers. F.Supp.2d, WL 889571 (2006).
  15. 1 2 Carthen, Tony Matthew, "Ethnic Names, Resumes, and Occupational stereotypes: Will D'Money Get the Job?" (2014). Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects. Paper 359.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Khan, Aysha (14 August 2019). "Former Muslim chaplain alleges workplace discrimination at New York prison". Religion News Service. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  17. LeVine, Marianne (1 June 2015). "Supreme Court rules against Abercrombie in hijab case". Politico . Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  18. 1 2 3 "Abercrombie & Fitch Sued For Religious Discrimination". Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  19. Kochman, Ben (26 January 2017). "City charges Queens wheelchair service company discriminated against Muslim employees during Ramadan". New York Daily News . Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  20. "Court Upholds Religious Discrimination, Retaliation, and Hostile Work Environment Claims By Muslim Man". Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  21. 1 2 3 Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck; Smith, Jane I. (2014). The Oxford handbook of American Islam. Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, 1935-, Smith, Jane I. New York. ISBN   9780199862634. OCLC   872139298.
  22. Hammer, Julianne (2010). American Muslim Women, Religious Authority, and Activism: More than a Prayer. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 Jon., Armajani (2004). Dynamic Islam : liberal Muslim perspectives in a transnational age. New York: University Press of America. ISBN   978-0761829676. OCLC   57308565.
  24. 1 2 Read, Jen'Nan Ghazal; Bartkowski, John P. (2000). "To Veil or Not to Veil? A Case Study of Identity Negotiation among Muslim Women in Austin, Texas". Gender and Society. 14 (3): 395–417. doi:10.1177/089124300014003003.
  25. Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine R. (May 2017). "Muslim Women's Experiences with Stigma, Abuse, and Depression: Results of a Sample Study Conducted in the United States". Journal of Women's Health. 26 (5): 435–441. doi:10.1089/jwh.2016.5886. PMID   28263695.
  26. Budhwani, Henna; Borgstede, Seth; Palomares, Aarin L.; Johnson, Roman B.; Hearld, Kristine R. (8 October 2018). "Behaviors and Risks for Cardiovascular Disease Among Muslim Women in the United States". Health Equity. 2 (1): 264–271. doi:10.1089/heq.2018.0050. ISSN   2473-1242. PMC   6179134 . PMID   30310874.
  27. Budhwani, Henna; Anderson, Jami; Hearld, Kristine R. (5 January 2018). "Muslim Women's use of contraception in the United States". Reproductive Health. 15 (1): 1. doi:10.1186/s12978-017-0439-6. ISSN   1742-4755. PMC   5756427 . PMID   29304829.
  28. Citation Needed
  29. 1 2 3 Stack, Liam (24 October 2019). "Muslim Student Athlete Disqualified From Race for Wearing Hijab". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  30. 1 2 Chandrasekhar, Charu (2003). "Flying while Brown: Federal Civil Rights Remedies to Post -9/11 Racial Profiling of South Asians". Asian American Law Journal. 10 (2): 222. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  31. 1 2 3 "Civil rights group: Airline forced girl, 12, to remove hijab". AP NEWS. 20 September 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  32. Figueroa, Tiffani B. "All Muslims are Like That: How Islamophobia is Diminishing Americans' Right to Receive Information." Hofstra L. Rev. 41 (2012): 467.
  33. Elia, Nada. "Islamophobia and the" privileging" of Arab American women." NWSA Journal 18.3 (2006): 155-161.
  34. 1 2 3 Ali, Yaser (August 2012). "Shariah and Citizenship- How Islamophobia Is Creating a Second- Class Citizenry in America". California Law Review. 100 (4): 1027–1068. JSTOR   23249826.
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1964-, Thomas, Jeffrey L. (2015). Scapegoating Islam : intolerance, security, and the American Muslim. Santa Barbara, California. ISBN   9781440830990. OCLC   895731420.
  36. Platt, Tony; O'Leary, Cecilia (2003). "Race, Security & Social Movements". Social Justice. 30 (1 (91)): 5–21. JSTOR   29768164.
  37. 1 2 3 Considine, Craig (2017-08-26). "The Racialization of Islam in the United States: Islamophobia, Hate Crimes, and "Flying while Brown"". Religions. 8 (9): 165. doi:10.3390/rel8090165.
  38. Cluck, Andrea Elizabeth. "Islamophobia in the post-9/11 United States: causes, manifestations, and solutions." Master's thesis, Truman State University, 2012. August 2012. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  39. Pitt, Cassady . "U.S. Patriot Act and Racial Profiling: Are There Consequences of Discrimination?" Michigan Sociological Review 25:53-69. Accessed September 26, 2017. JSTOR. Keyword: Patriot Act.
  40. 1 2 3 "Factsheet: The NYPD Muslim Surveillance Program". American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2017-11-24.
  41. Hassan, Salah D. (Fall 2002). "Arabs, Race, and the Post- September 11 National Security State". Middle East Report. 224 (224): 16–21. JSTOR   1559418.
  42. 1 2 Hing, Bill Ong (Spring 2006). "Misusing Immigration Policies in the name of Homeland Security". The New Centennial Review. 6 (1): 195–224. doi:10.1353/ncr.2006.0018. JSTOR   41949511.
  43. Boccabella, John. "Profiling the Anti- Terrorism Act: Dangerous and Discriminatory in the Fight Against Terrorism." Appeal: Review of Current Law and Law Reform 9: 1-15. Accessed September 26, 2017.
  44. 1 2 Kroft, Steve (5 October 2006). "Unlikely Terrorists On No Fly List". Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  45. Cainkar, Louise (October 2002). "No Longer Invisible: Arab and Muslim Exclusion After September 11". Middle East Report Online. 32: 22–29.
  46. Jadallah, Dina (Fall 2010). "State Power and the Constitution of the Individual: Racial Profiling of Arab Americans". Arab Studies Quarterly. 32 (4): 218–237. JSTOR   41858635.
  47. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Lebens., Nacos, Brigitte (2007). Fueling our fears : stereotyping, media coverage, and public opinion of Muslim Americans. Torres-Reyna, Oscar, 1968-. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN   978-0742539839. OCLC   70284380.
  48. Media Tenor International. 2011. A New Era for Arab-Western Relations – Media analysis. New York: Media Tenor.
  49. 1 2 Nur, Nushrat (2019-03-16). "No terrorist can ever change what my mosque means to me". The Tempest. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
  50. Kearns, Erin M.; Betus, Allison; Lemieux, Anthony (2017-03-13). "Analysis | Yes, the media do underreport some terrorist attacks. Just not the ones most people think of". Washington Post. ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved 2017-11-24.
  51. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Afrose, Kabir, Nahid (2013). Young American Muslims : dynamics of identity. Edinburgh. ISBN   9780748669936. OCLC   929853704.
  52. 1 2 Abouzeid, Rania; Waraich, Omar (2010-05-04). "The Times Square Suspect's Pakistan Connection". Time. ISSN   0040-781X . Retrieved 2017-11-24.
  53. 1 2 "Hate Map". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  54. 1 2 "Bias against Muslims | OSCE - ODIHR". Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  55. 1 2 "Hate Crime Stats - 2001 (pdf)". FBI. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  56. 1 2 Disha, Illir; Cavendish, James; King, Ryan (February 2011). "Historical Events and Spaces of Hate: Hate Crimes against Arabs and Muslims in Post- 9/11 America". Social Problems. 58 (1): 21–46. doi:10.1525/sp.2011.58.1.21.
  57. 1 2 Lickel, Brian; Miller, Norman (2006). "Vicarious Retribution: The Role of Collective Blame in Intergroup Aggression". Personality and Social Psychology Review. 10 (4): 372–390. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_6. PMID   17201594.
  58. Akram, Susan (2002). "Race, Civil Rights, and Immigration Law after September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims". NYU Annual Survey of American Law. 59: 298–356.
  59. Gerstenfeld, Phyllis (2002). "A Time to Hate: Situational Antecedents of Intergroup Bias". Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy. 2: 61–67. doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2002.00027.x.
  60. 1 2 Disha, Cavendish and King, "Historical Events and Spaces of Hate: Arabs and Muslims in Post-9/11 America", Social Problems
  61. "Hate Crimes and Hate Speech" Colin Daleida, Mashable, February 17, 2015.
  62. "The Islamophobia Stirred Up By Abbott and Bolt" Julian Burnside, The Guardian, February 27, 2015.
  63. "Threats, harassment, vandalism at mosques reach record -". CNN. Retrieved 2015-12-12.
  64. Nasheman. "US: Houston Muslim school burned down in what investigators say is likely an arson attack". Nasheman.
  65. 1 2 "MUSLIM BIZ GAL BEATEN". New York Post. 16 September 2007.
  66. "US: Nonprofit Muslim School Vandalized in Rhode Island".
  67. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Same Hate, New Target" (PDF). CAIR. CAIR. Retrieved November 23, 2017.
  68. 1 2 "About Us". ACT for America. Retrieved 2017-11-24.
  69. "Why Jihad Watch?". 2013-11-20. Retrieved 2017-11-24.
  70. Michael, George (2010-01-01). "Steven Emerson: Combating Radical Islam". Middle East Quarterly.
  71. Unholy war: Atheists and the politics of Muslim-baiting, First Press, Apr 3, 2013
  72. Sam Harris, the New Atheists, and anti-Muslim animus, Glen Greenwald, The Guardian, April 3, 2013
  73. Scientific racism, militarism, and the new atheists, Murtaza Hussain, Aljazeera, April 2, 2013
  74. Atheists Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens and Sam Harris face Islamophobia backlash, Jerome Taylor, The Independent, April 12, 2013.
  75. Emilsen, William (August 2012). "The New Atheism and Islam". The Expository Times. 123 (11): 521–528. doi:10.1177/0014524612448737.
  76. Jacoby, Wade; Yavuz, Hakan (April 2008). "Modernization, Identity and Integration: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Islam in Europe". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs . 28 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1080/13602000802080486.(subscription required)
  77. Garner, Steve and Saher Selod, "The Racialization of Muslims: Empirical Studies of Islamophobia", Critical Sociology 41.1
  78. Said, Edward. "Orientalism". Vintage Books, New York (1978): pp. 17.
  79. Rath, Sura, "Post/past-'Orientalism' Orientalism and Its Dis/re-orientation", Comparative American Studies 2