United States foreign policy in the Middle East

Last updated
A U.S. Marine stands guard duty near a burning oil well in the Rumaila oil field, Iraq, April 2003 US Navy 030402-N-5362A-004 U.S. Army Sgt. Mark Phiffer stands guard duty near a burning oil well in the Rumaylah Oil Fields in Southern Iraq.jpg
A U.S. Marine stands guard duty near a burning oil well in the Rumaila oil field, Iraq, April 2003

United States foreign policy in the Middle East has its roots in the 18th century Barbary Wars in the first years of the United States of America's existence, but became much more expansive in the aftermath of World War II. American policy during the Cold War tried to prevent Soviet Union influence by supporting anti-communist regimes and backing Israel against Soviet-sponsored Arab countries. The U.S. also came to replace the United Kingdom as the main security patron of the Persian Gulf states in the 1960s and 1970s, to ensure a stable flow of Gulf oil. [1] The U.S. has diplomatic relations with all countries in the Middle East except for Iran, whose 1979 revolution against the US-backed reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi brought to power a staunchly anti-American government.


US influence in the Middle East has lessened in recent years since the Arab Spring protests. [2] Recent stated priorities of the U.S. government in the Middle East have included resolving the Arab–Israeli conflict and limiting the spread of weapons of mass destruction [3] among regional states.


U.S. naval officer Stephen Decatur boarding a Tripolitan gunboat during the First Barbary War, 1804 Decatur Boarding the Tripolitan Gunboat.jpg
U.S. naval officer Stephen Decatur boarding a Tripolitan gunboat during the First Barbary War, 1804

The United States' relationship with the Middle East prior to World War I was limited, although commercial ties existed even in the early 19th century. President Andrew Jackson established formal ties with the Sultan of Muscat and Oman in 1833. (The Sultan saw the U.S. as a potential balance to Britain's overwhelming regional influence.) Commercial relations opened between the U.S. and Persia in 1857, after Britain persuaded the Persian government not to ratify a similar agreement in 1851. [4]

Britain and France took control of most of the former Ottoman Empire after defeating it in World War I. They held mandates from the League of Nations. The United States refused to take any mandates in the region and was "popular and respected throughout the Middle East". [5] Indeed, "Americans were seen as good people, untainted by the selfishness and duplicity associated with the Europeans." [6] American Christian missionaries brought modern medicine and set up educational institutions all over the Middle East as an adjunct to their religious proselytizing. Moreover, the United States had provided the Middle East with highly skilled petroleum engineers. [7] Thus, there were some connections made between the United States and the Middle East before the Second World War. Other examples of cooperations between the U.S. and the Middle East are the Red Line Agreement signed in 1928 and the Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement signed in 1944. Both of these agreements were legally binding and reflected an American interest in control of Middle Eastern energy resources, mainly oil, and moreover reflected an American "security imperative to prevent the (re)emergence of a powerful regional rival". [8] The Red Line Agreement had been "part of a network of agreements made in the 1920s to restrict supply of petroleum and ensure that the major [mostly American] companies ... could control oil prices on world markets". [9] The Red Line agreement governed the development of Middle East oil for the next two decades. The Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement of 1944 was based on negotiations between the United States and Britain over the control of Middle Eastern oil. Below is shown what the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt had in mind for to a British Ambassador in 1944:

Persian oil ... is yours. We share the oil of Iraq and Kuwait. As for Saudi Arabian oil, it's ours. [10]

King Ibn Saud converses with President Franklin D. Roosevelt on board the USS Quincy, after the Yalta Conference in 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt with King Ibn Saud aboard USS Quincy (CA-71), 14 February 1945 (USA-C-545).jpg
King Ibn Saud converses with President Franklin D. Roosevelt on board the USS Quincy, after the Yalta Conference in 1945

On August 8, 1944, the Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement was signed, dividing Middle Eastern oil between the United States and Britain. Consequently, political scholar Fred H. Lawson remarks, that by the mid-1944, U.S. officials had buttressed their country's position on the peninsula by concluding an Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement that protected "all valid concession contracts and lawfully acquired rights" belonging to the signatories and established a principle of "equal opportunity" in those areas where no concession had yet been assigned. [11] Furthermore, political scholar Irvine Anderson summarises American interests in the Middle East in the late 19th century and the early 20th century noting that, "the most significant event of the period was the transition of the United States from the position of net exporter to one of net importer of petroleum." [12]

By the end of the Second World War, the United States had come to consider the Middle East region as "the most strategically important area of the world." [13] and "one of the greatest material prizes in world history," argues Noam Chomsky. [13] For that reason, it was not until around the period of World War II that America became directly involved in the Middle East region. At this time the region was going through great social, economic, and political changes and as a result, internally the Middle East was in turmoil. Politically, the Middle East was experiencing an upsurge in the popularity of nationalistic politics and an increase in the number of nationalistic political groups across the region, which was causing great trouble for the English and French colonial powers.

History scholar Jack Watson explains that "Europeans could not hold these lands indefinitely in the face of Arab nationalism". [14] Watson then continues, stating that "by the end of 1946 Palestine was the last remaining mandate, but it posed a major problem". [15] In truth, this nationalistic political trend clashed with American interests in the Middle East, which were, as Middle East scholar Louise Fawcett argues, "about the Soviet Union, access to oil and the project for a Jewish state in Palestine". [16] Hence, Arabist Ambassador Raymond Hare described the Second World War, as "the great divide" in United States' relationship with the Middle East, because these three interests would later serve as a backdrop and reasoning for a great deal of American interventions in the Middle East and thus also come to be the cause of several future conflicts between the United States & the Middle East. [6]

Formation of Israel

In 1947, the U.S. and the Truman administration, under domestic political pressure, pushed for a solution and resolution on the Arab–Israeli conflict, and in May 1948 the new state of Israel came into existence. This process was not without its fights and loss of lives. Nevertheless, "the first state to extend diplomatic recognition to Israel was the United States; the Soviet Union and several Western nations quickly followed suit. No Arab state, however, recognized Israel." [17]

Syria: 1949

Syria became an independent republic in 1946, but the March 1949 Syrian coup d'état, led by Army Chief of Staff Husni al-Za'im, ended the initial period of civilian rule. Za'im met at least six times with CIA operatives in the months prior to the coup to discuss his plan to seize power. Za'im requested American funding or personnel, but it is not known whether this assistance was provided. Once in power, Za'im made several key decisions that benefitted the United States. He approved the Trans-Arabian Pipeline (TAPLINE), an American project designed to transport Saudi Arabian oil to Mediterranean ports. Construction of TAPLINE had been delayed due to Syrian intransigence. Za'im also improved relations with two American allies in the region: Israel and Turkey. He signed an armistice with Israel, formally ending the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and he renounced Syrian claims to Hatay Province, a major source of dispute between Syria and Turkey. Za'im also cracked down on local communists. However, Za'im's regime was short-lived. He was overthrown in August, just four and a half months after seizing power. [18] [19] [20] [21]

Mosaddeq and the Shah

Supporters of Mohammed Mosaddeq in 1952 Supportes of Mosaddegh.JPG
Supporters of Mohammed Mosaddeq in 1952

Opposed to foreign intervention in Iran and a keen nationalist, Mohammed Mosaddeq became the prime minister of Iran in 1951. Thus, when Mosaddeq was elected he chose to nationalize the Iranian oil industry, where previously British holdings had generated great profits for Britain through the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. Furthermore, prior to the nationalization of Iranian oil, Mosaddeq had also cut all diplomatic ties with Britain. [22] The Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was opposed to the nationalization of Iranian oil as he feared this would result in an oil embargo, which would destroy Iran's economy and thus, the Shah was very concerned with the effect of Mosaddeq's policies on Iran. Equally worried were workers in the Iranian oil industry, when they experienced the economic effect of the sanctions on Iranian oil exports which Mosaddeq's policies had resulted in, and riots were happening across Iran. [23]

Thus, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi asked Mosaddeq to resign, as was the Shah's constitutional right, but Mosaddeq refused, which resulted in national uprisings. The Shah, fearing for his personal security, fled the country but nominated General Fazlollah Zahedi as the new Prime Minister. Although General Fazlollah Zahedi was a nationalist, he did not agree with the Mosaddeq's lenient attitude towards the communist Tudeh party, which the United States had also become increasingly concerned with, fearing Soviet influence spreading in the Middle East. Therefore, in late 1952, the British government asked the U.S. administration for help with the removal of Mohammed Mosaddeq. President Harry S. Truman thought Mossadeq was a valuable bulwark against Soviet influence. [24] However, Truman left office in January 1953, and the new administration of Dwight Eisenhower shared British concern over Mossadeq. Allen Dulles, the director of the CIA, approved one million dollars on April 4, 1953, to be used "in any way that would bring about the fall of Mossadegh" [25] Consequently, after a failed attempt on August 15, "on August 19, 1953, General Fazlollah Zahedi succeeded [with the help of the United States and Britain] and Mossadegh was overthrown. The CIA covertly funneled five million dollars to General Zahedi's regime on August 21, 1953." [25]

This CIA operation, often referred to as Operation Ajax and led by CIA officer Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., ensured the return of the Shah on August 22, 1953. [23]

The Suez Crisis

President Eisenhower press conference about the crisis, 9 August 1956

Although accepting large sums of military aid from the United States in 1954, by 1956 Egyptian leader Nasser had grown tired of the American influence in the country. The involvement that the U.S. would take in Egyptian business and politics in return for aid, Nasser thought "smacked of colonialism." [26] Indeed, as political scholar B.M. Bleckman argued in 1978, "Nasser had ambivalent feelings toward the United States. From 1952 to 1954 he was on close terms with U.S. officials and was viewed in Washington as a promising moderate Arab leader. The conclusion of an arms deal with the USSR in 1955, however, had cooled the relationship between Cairo and Washington considerably, and the Dulles-Eisenhower decision to withdraw the offer to finance the Aswan High Dam in mid-1956 was a further blow to the chances of maintaining friendly ties. Eisenhower's stand against the British, French and Israeli attack on Egypt in October 1956 created a momentary sense of gratitude on the part of Nasser, but the subsequent development of the Eisenhower Doctrine, so clearly aimed at 'containing' Nasserism, undermined what little goodwill existed toward the United States in Cairo." [27] "The Suez Crisis of 1956 marked the demise of British power and its gradual replacement by USA as the dominant power in the Middle East." [28] The Eisenhower Doctrine became a manifestation of this process. "The general objective of the Eisenhower Doctrine, like that of the Truman Doctrine formulated ten years earlier, was the containment of Soviet expansion." [29] Furthermore, when the Doctrine was finalized on March 9, 1957, it "essentially gave the president the latitude to intervene militarily in the Middle East ... without having to resort to Congress." [30] indeed as, Middle East scholar Irene L. Gerdzier explains "that with the Eisenhower Doctrine the United States emerged "as the uncontested Western power ... in the Middle East." [31]


Meanwhile, in Jordan nationalistic anti-government rioting broke out and the United States decided to send a battalion of marines to nearby Lebanon prepared to intervene in Jordan later that year. Douglas Little argues that Washington's decision to use the military resulted from a determination to support a beleaguered, conservative pro-Western regime in Lebanon, repel Nasser's pan-Arabism, and limit Soviet influence in the oil-rich region. However Little concludes that the unnecessary American action brought negative long-term consequences, notably the undermining of Lebanon's fragile, multi-ethnic political coalition and the alienation of Arab nationalism throughout the region. [32] To keep the pro-American King Hussein of Jordan in power, the CIA sent millions of dollars a year of subsidies. In the mid-1950s the U.S. supported allies in Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia and sent fleets to be near Syria. [33] However, 1958 was to become a difficult year in U.S. foreign policy; in 1958 Syria and Egypt were merged into the "United Arab Republic", anti-American and anti-government revolts started occurring in Lebanon, causing the Lebanese president Chamoun to ask America for help, and the very pro-American King Feisal the 2nd of Iraq was overthrown by a group of nationalistic military officers. [34] It was quite "commonly believed that [Nasser] ... stirred up the unrest in Lebanon and, perhaps, had helped to plan the Iraqi revolution." [35]

The Six-Day War and Black September

In June 1967 Israel fought with Egypt, Jordan, and Syria in the Six-Day War. As a result of the war, Israel captured the West Bank, Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula. The U.S. supported Israel with weapons and continued to support Israel financially throughout the 1970s. On September 17, 1970, with U.S. and Israeli help, Jordanian troops attacked PLO guerrilla camps, while Jordan's U.S.-supplied air force dropped napalm from above. The U.S. deployed the aircraft carrier Independence and six destroyers off the coast of Lebanon and readied troops in Turkey to support the assault.

The American interventions in the years before the Iranian revolution have all proven to be based in part on economic considerations, but more so have been influenced and led by the international Cold War context. [36]

Iran–Iraq War

Support for Iraq

Support for Iran

Saudi Arabia

President Obama with King Salman of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, 27 January 2015 President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama walk with King Salman of Saudi Arabia at Erga Palace in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Jan. 27, 2015.jpg
President Obama with King Salman of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, 27 January 2015

Saudi Arabia and the United States are strategic allies, [37] [38] [39] but relations with the U.S. became strained following September 11 attacks. [40]

In March 2015, President Barack Obama declared that he had authorized U.S. forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a "Joint Planning Cell" with Saudi Arabia. [41] The report by Human Rights Watch stated that US-made bombs were being used in attacks indiscriminately targeting civilians and violating the laws of war. [42]

Afghanistan and Pakistan

Afghanistan and Pakistan, though situated in South Asia, are considered part of the Greater Middle East. U.S. intervention in both Afghanistan and Pakistan started with the Carter Administration after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The relations of the U.S. with Afghanistan and Pakistan have been closely tied to the War on terrorism that has happened there. American policy has been instrumental in coordinating the ongoing conflicts in Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. In recent times, political situations of both countries have been bracketed under a single theater of operations, denoted by the newly coined American term "AfPak." [43]

Iraq (2003–present)

Libya (2011–present)

Syria (2011–present)


President Donald Trump and President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey in October 2017 President Donald J. Trump and President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey at the United Nations General Assembly (36747065034).jpg
President Donald Trump and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey in October 2017

Coup attempt (2016)

On 15 July 2016, a coup d'état was attempted in Turkey by a faction within the Turkish Armed Forces against state institutions, including, but not limited to the government and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.

The Turkish government accused the coup leaders of being linked to the Gülen movement, which is designated as a terrorist organization by the Republic of Turkey and led by Fethullah Gülen, a Turkish businessman and cleric who lives in Pennsylvania, United States. Erdoğan accuses Gülen of being behind the coup—a claim that Gülen denies—and accused the United States of harboring him. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan accused the head of United States Central Command, chief General Joseph Votel [44] of "siding with coup plotters," (after Votel accused the Turkish government of arresting the Pentagon's contacts in Turkey). [45]

American allies

Autonomous provinces
Factions and Organizations

Hostile/sore relations


InfoboxHez.PNG  Hezbollah [49]


Protest against U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, March 2018 Bin Salman - the Butcher of Yemen.jpg
Protest against U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, March 2018

See also

Related Research Articles

Middle East Region encompassing Western Asia and North Africa

The Middle East is a geopolitical term that refers to a region spanning the vast majority of Western Asia and all of Egypt. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions.

Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian stated policy is focused on co-operation with the oil-exporting Gulf States, the unity of the Arab world, Islamic strength and solidarity, and support for the United Nations (UN). In practice, the main concerns in recent years have been relations with the US, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Iraq, the perceived threat from the Islamic Republic of Iran, the effect of oil pricing, and using its oil wealth to increase the influence of Islam. Saudi Arabia contributes large amounts of development aid to Muslim countries. From 1986 to 2006, the country donated £49 billion in aid.

The Eisenhower Doctrine was a policy enunciated by Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 5, 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East". Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, a Middle Eastern country could request American economic assistance or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression. Eisenhower singled out the Soviet threat in his doctrine by authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism." The phrase "international communism" made the doctrine much broader than simply responding to Soviet military action. A danger that could be linked to communists of any nation could conceivably invoke the doctrine.

1953 Iranian coup détat British–American coup that deposed a democratically-elected Iranian prime minister

The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953. It was orchestrated by the United States and the United Kingdom. The clergy also played a considerable role.

History of the Middle East Aspect of history

Home to one of the Cradles of Civilization, the Middle East—interchangeable with the Near East—has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations. This history started from the earliest human settlements, continuing through several major pre- and post-Islamic Empires through to the nation-states of the Middle East today.

Kermit Roosevelt Jr.

Kermit Roosevelt Jr. was an American intelligence officer who served in the Office of Strategic Services during and following World War II. Roosevelt went on to establish American Friends of the Middle East and then played a lead role in the Central Intelligence Agency's efforts to overthrow Mohammad Mosaddegh, the Majlis-appointed leader of Iran, in August 1953.

Democracy in the Middle East and North Africa Overview of the role and situation of democracy in the Middle East and North Africa

According to The Economist Group's Democracy Index 2020 study, Israel is the only democratic country in the Middle East, while Tunisia is the only democracy in North Africa. The level of democracy in nations throughout the world published by Freedom House, a U.S.-based, U.S. government-funded advocacy organization, and in various other freedom indices, report the Middle Eastern and North African countries with the highest scores are Israel, Tunisia, Turkey, Lebanon, Morocco, Jordan and Kuwait. Countries that are occasionally classified as partly democratic are Egypt, Iran, and Iraq. The remaining countries of the Middle East are categorized as authoritarian regimes, with the lowest scores held by Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

MENA Middle East and North Africa region

MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa. It is alternatively called the WANA. The MENA acronym is often used in academia, military planning, disaster relief, media planning as a broadcast region, and business writing. Moreover, the region shares a number of cultural, economic and environmental similarities across the countries; for example, some of the most extreme impacts of climate change will be felt in the region.

Arab League–Iran relations Bilateral relations

Arab League–Iran relations refer to political, economic and cultural relations between the mostly Shia Persian country of Iran and the mostly Sunni Muslim and Arab organization Arab League.

Economy of the Middle East Overview of the economy of the Middle East

The economy of the Middle East is very diverse, with national economies ranging from hydrocarbon-exporting rentiers to centralized socialist economies and free-market economies. The region is best known for oil production and export, which significantly impacts the entire region through the wealth it generates and through labor utilization. In recent years, many of the countries in the region have undertaken efforts to diversify their economies.

Foreign relations of the Arab League

The Arab League was founded in 1945, has 25 members and four observer members: Brazil, Eritrea, India and Venezuela.

Dual containment was an official US foreign policy aimed at containing Ba'athist Iraq and Revolutionary Iran. The term was first officially used in May 1993 by Martin Indyk at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy and officially announced on February 24, 1994 at a symposium of the Middle East Policy Council by Indyk, who was the senior director for Middle East Affairs of the National Security Council (NSC).

The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has had a long history of involvement in Iraq. Although the CIA was not directly involved in the 1963 Ba'athist coup that ousted Abd al-Karim Qasim, it had been plotting to remove Qasim from mid-1962 until his overthrow, developing contacts with Iraqi opposition groups including the Ba'ath Party and planning to "incapacitate" a high-ranking member of Qasim's government with a poisoned handkerchief. After the 1968 Ba'athist coup appeared to draw Iraq into the Soviet sphere of influence, the CIA colluded with the then-monarchial government of Iran to destabilize Iraq by arming Kurdish rebels. Beginning in 1982, the CIA began providing Iraq intelligence during the Iran–Iraq War. The CIA was also involved in the failed 1996 coup against Saddam Hussein.

Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations Bilateral relations

Saudi Arabia and Turkey relationship have always fluctuated between cooperation and alliance to enmity and distrust. Since the 19th century, the two nations have always had a complicated relationship. While Turkey and Saudi Arabia are major economic partners, the two have a tense political relationship, deemed from the historic enmity.

Raymond Arthur Hare was a United States diplomat who was Director General of the United States Foreign Service from 1954 to 1956 and Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs from 1965 to 1966.

The Middle East has been a region of geopolitical and economic significance to the world far before American involvement in the area. This was largely because the “Middle East contained or bordered on the land bridges, passageways, and narrows – the Sinai isthmus, the Caucuses, the Strait of Gibraltar, the Dardanelles, Bab el Mandeb, and the Strait of Hormuz – and the sheltered seas – the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf – that provided the best routes connecting the different extremities of the vast Eurasian/African continent.” The value of being a prominent player in the region was therefore obvious to the United States as well as to several other Western powers including Great Britain and France. In addition to its pivotal geographic location in the world, the abundance of oil in the Middle East has probably played the biggest role in issues of foreign policy and international relations. The United States needed Middle Eastern oil and Middle Eastern nations needed Western capital and technology. This mutually beneficial but dependent relationship would forge strong alliances but also be the cause of harsh conflicts.

Saudi Arabia–Syria relations Bilateral relations

Saudi Arabia–Syria relations refer to diplomatic and economic relations between Saudi Arabia and Syria. Diplomatic ties between these two countries of the Middle East have long been strained by the major events in the region. Relations between Saudi Arabia and Syria deteriorated further following the Syrian Civil War and Saudi Arabia's numerous calls for Bashar al-Assad to be removed from power. Saudi Arabia cut off relations with Syria after they decided to close its embassy in Damascus and expel the Syrian ambassador in 2012.

The Syrian Crisis of 1957 was a period of severe diplomatic confrontations during the Cold War that involved Syria and the Soviet Union on one hand, and the United States and its allies, including Turkey and the Baghdad Pact, on the other.

Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict Indirect conflict between Iran and Saudi Arabia

The Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict, sometimes also referred to as the Middle Eastern Cold War, is the ongoing struggle for influence in the Middle East and surrounding regions between Iran and Saudi Arabia. The two countries have provided varying degrees of support to opposing sides in nearby conflicts, including the civil wars in Syria and Yemen. The rivalry also extends to disputes in Bahrain, Lebanon, Qatar, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Morocco, as well as broader competition in North and East Africa, parts of South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, the Balkans, and the Caucasus.

Qatar–Saudi Arabia diplomatic conflict

The Qatar–Saudi Arabia diplomatic conflict refers to the ongoing struggle for regional influence between Qatar and Saudi Arabia (KSA), both of which are members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Qatar–Saudi Arabia relations have been especially strained since the beginning of the Arab Spring, that left a power vacuum both states sought to fill, with Qatar being supportive of the revolutionary wave and Saudi Arabia opposing it. Both states are allies of the United States, and have avoided direct conflict with one another.


  1. "An Agent-Based Model of the Acquisition of U.S. Client States" (PDF). University of Washington. 2003.
  2. Jenkins, Brian Michael (September 16, 2013). "Ten Reasons America's Influence Has Fallen in the Middle East". Slate Magazine.
  3. Hunt, Jonathan (April 15, 2017). "How Weapons of Mass Destruction Became 'Red Lines' for America". The Atlantic.
  4. Fain, W. Taylor (2008-06-15). American Ascendance and British Retreat in the Persian Gulf Region. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 17–18. ISBN   978-0-230-60151-2 . Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  5. Fawcett, L., (2005) The International Relations of the Middle East, UK: Oxford University Press, p. 284
  6. 1 2 Fawcett, L. (2005) The International Relations of the Middle East UK: Oxford University Press p 285
  7. Rugh, W. A. (2005) American Encounters with Arabs: The Soft Power of U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Middle East U.S.: Praeger Publishers Inc. ISBN   978-0-275-98817-3 pp 25–26
  8. Le Billon, P., El Khatib, F. (March 2004) "From free oil to 'freedom oil': terrorism, war and U.S. Geopolitics in the Persian Gulf", Geopolitics, Volume 9, Issue 1 p. 109
  9. Review (Winter 1982): "State Power and Industry Influence: American Foreign Oil Policy in the 1940s", International Organization 36, no. 1 p. 168
  10. Yergin, D (1991) The Prize: The Epic quest for Oil, Money and Power New York: Simon and Schuster p 401
  11. Lawson, F. H. (Aug., 1989) "The Iranian Crisis of 1945–1946 and the Spiral Model of International Conflict" International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3 p. 310
  12. Anderson, Irvine.(1981) Aramco, The United States, and Saudi Arabia. Princeton University Press. p. 36
  13. 1 2 Chomsky, Noam (January/February 2005) "Imperial Presidency", Canadian Dimension, Vol. 39, No. 1 p. 8
  14. Watson, J. B. (1981) Success in Twentieth century World Affairs since 1919 Norwich: John Murray (Publishers) Ltd p. 295
  15. Watson, J. B. (1981), Success in Twentieth Century World Affairs since 1919, Norwich: John Murray (Publishers) Ltd p. 295
  16. Fawcett, L. (2005), International Relations of the Middle East UK: Oxford University Press, p. 284
  17. McWilliams, W, C, Piotrowski, H, (6th ed.)(2005) The World since 1945: A History of International Relations U.S. Lynne Rienner Publishers p 154
  18. Douglas Little (1990). "Cold War and Covert Action: The United States and Syria, 1945–1958". Middle East Journal. 44 (1).
  19. "1949–1958, Syria: Early Experiments in Cover Action, Douglas Little, Professor, Department of History, Clark University" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-09.
  20. Gendzier, Irene L. (1997). Notes from the Minefield: United States Intervention in Lebanon and the Middle East, 1945–1958. Columbia University Press. p. 98. ISBN   9780231140119 . Retrieved February 13, 2012. Recent investigation ... indicates that CIA agents Miles Copeland and Stephen Meade ... were directly involved in the coup in which Syrian colonel Husni Za'im seized power. According to then former CIA agent Wilbur Eveland, the coup was carried out in order to obtain Syrian ratification of TAPLINE.
  21. Gerolymatos, André (2010). Castles Made of Sand: A Century of Anglo-American Espionage and Intervention in the Middle East. Thomas Dunne books (MacMillan). ISBN   9781429913720 . Retrieved February 13, 2012. Miles Copeland, formerly a CIA agent, has outlined how he and Stephen Meade backed Zaim, and American archival sources confirm that it was during this period that Meade established links with extremist right-wing elements of the Syrian army, who ultimately carried out the coup.
  22. Dionisi, D, J(2005) American Hiroshima: The reasons why and a call to strengthen America's Democracy, Canada: Trafford Publishing, ISBN   1-4120-4421-9, pp 30–38
  23. 1 2 Immerman, R. H., Theoharis, A. G. (2006) The Central Intelligence Agency: Security under Scrutiny U.S.: Greenwood Press, ISBN   0-313-33282-7, p. 314
  24. "Mohammad Mosaddeq and the 1953 Coup in Iran". National Security Archive. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  25. 1 2 Dionisi, D, J(2005) American Hiroshima: The reasons why and a call to strengthen America's Democracy, Canada: Trafford Publishing, ISBN   1-4120-4421-9, p. 40
  26. Lesch, D, W(ed.) (2003) The Middle East and the United States: A Historical and Political Reassessment U.S.: Westview Press, p. 94
  27. Bleckman B, M, Kaplan, S, S (1978) Force without War: U.S. Armed Forces As a Political Instrument U.S.: The Brookings Institution p 249
  28. Attie, C. C. (2004) Struggle in the Levant, Kings Lynn: The Centre for Lebanese Studies, Oxford p 1
  29. Attie, Struggle in the Levant, p. 109
  30. Attie, Struggle in the Levant, p. 110
  31. Gettleman, M, E, Schaar, S (2003) The Middle East and Islamic World Reader, U.S.: Grove Press p. 248
  32. Douglas Little, "His finest hour? Eisenhower, Lebanon, and the 1958 Middle East crisis." Diplomatic History 20.1 (1996): 27-54.
  33. Stephen Ambrose, The Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy, 1938–1980 (1980) p. 463
  34. Eisenhower, White House Years, vol. 2: Waging Peace 1956–1961 (1965) p. 268
  35. R. Louis Owen, A Revolutionary year: The Middle East in 1958 (2002) p. 2
  36. Watson, J. B. (1981) Success in Twentieth century World Affairs since 1919 Norwich: John Murray (Publishers) Ltd p. 301
  37. "How strained are US-Saudi relations?". BBC News. 20 April 2016.
  38. "Old friends US and Saudi Arabia feel the rift growing, seek new partners". Asia Times. 2 May 2016.
  39. "Gulf allies and 'Army of Conquest". Al-Ahram Weekly. 28 May 2015.
  40. Madawi Al-Rasheed (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. p. 233. ISBN   978-0-521-74754-7.
  41. "Saudi Arabia launches air attacks in Yemen". The Washington Post. 25 March 2015.
  42. "Saudi airstrikes in Yemen violate laws of war, rights group says". mcclatchydc. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  43. Terry H. Anderson, Bush's Wars (Oxford University Press; 2011) on Iraq and Afghanistan, 2001–2011
  44. "Department of Defense Press Briefing by Pentagon Press Secretary Peter" . Retrieved 2016-09-14.
  45. "U.S. general denies involvement in Turkish coup attempt". Reuters. 2016-07-29. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
  46. Cyprus although a member of the European Union, is sometimes categorized as a Middle Eastern due to its geographical location
  47. Gall, Carlotta; Ewing, Jack (August 10, 2018). "Tensions Between Turkey and U.S. Soar as Trump Orders New Sanctions". New York Times.
  48. Gall, Carlotta (August 4, 2018). "Turkey's Erdogan Orders Retaliatory Sanctions Against American Officials". NYTimes.com.
  49. "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". July 12, 2006. Archived from the original on July 12, 2006.

Further reading