1098

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
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Years:
1098 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1098
MXCVIII
Ab urbe condita 1851
Armenian calendar 547
ԹՎ ՇԽԷ
Assyrian calendar 5848
Balinese saka calendar 1019–1020
Bengali calendar 505
Berber calendar 2048
English Regnal year 11  Will. 2   12  Will. 2
Buddhist calendar 1642
Burmese calendar 460
Byzantine calendar 6606–6607
Chinese calendar 丁丑(Fire  Ox)
3794 or 3734
     to 
戊寅年 (Earth  Tiger)
3795 or 3735
Coptic calendar 814–815
Discordian calendar 2264
Ethiopian calendar 1090–1091
Hebrew calendar 4858–4859
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1154–1155
 - Shaka Samvat 1019–1020
 - Kali Yuga 4198–4199
Holocene calendar 11098
Igbo calendar 98–99
Iranian calendar 476–477
Islamic calendar 491–492
Japanese calendar Jōtoku 2
(承徳2年)
Javanese calendar 1002–1003
Julian calendar 1098
MXCVIII
Korean calendar 3431
Minguo calendar 814 before ROC
民前814年
Nanakshahi calendar −370
Seleucid era 1409/1410 AG
Thai solar calendar 1640–1641
Tibetan calendar 阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1224 or 843 or 71
     to 
阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1225 or 844 or 72
Baldwin of Boulogne entering Edessa. Baldwin of Boulogne entering Edessa in Feb 1098.JPG
Baldwin of Boulogne entering Edessa.

Year 1098 ( MXCVIII ) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Contents

Events

By place

First Crusade

  • February 9 Battle of the Lake of Antioch: The Crusaders under Bohemond I defeat a Seljuk relief force (some 12,000 men) led by Sultan Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan of Aleppo. Bohemond gathers 700 knights, and marches in the night to ambush the Seljuk Turks at the Lake of Antioch (modern Turkey). After several successful cavalry charges the Crusaders rout the Seljuk army, forcing Radwan to retreat back to Aleppo. [1]
  • March 10 Baldwin of Boulogne enters Edessa, and is welcomed as liberator by the Armenian clergy. The local population massacres the Seljuk garrison and officials – or force them to flee. Baldwin is acknowledge as their ruler (or doux ). He assumes the title of count and establishes the first crusader state. Baldwin marries Arda of Armenia, daughter of Lord Thoros of Marash, and consolidates his conquered territory. [2]
  • June 3 Siege of Antioch: The Crusaders under Bohemond I capture Antioch after a 8-month siege. He established secret contact with Firouz, an Armenian guard who controlled the "Tower of the Two Sisters". He opened the gates and Bohemond entered the city. Thousands of Christians are massacred along with Muslims. Bohemond is named Prince of Antioch (under protest) and creates the Principality of Antioch. [3]
  • June 5 Battle of Antioch: Emir Kerbogha, ruler ( atabeg ) of Mosul, arrives at Antioch with an Seljuk army (35,000 men) to relieve the city. He lays siege to the Crusaders who has just captured the city themselves (although they do not have full control of it). A Byzantine relief force led by Emperor Alexios I Komnenos turns back after Count Stephen of Blois convinces them that the situation in Antioch is hopeless. [4]
  • June 28 Following the Holy Lance discovery by Peter Bartholomew in Antioch, the Crusaders under Bohemond I (leaving only 200 men) sorties from the city and defeats the Seljuk army. Kerbogha is forced to withdraw to Mosul, the garrison in the citadel surrenders to Bohemond personally (who raises his banner above the city) and the Crusaders occupy Antioch. The Crusade is delayed for the rest of the year. [5]
  • July 14 Donation of Altavilla: Bohemond I grants commercial privileges and the right to use warehouses (fondaco) to the Republic of Genoa. This marks the beginning of Italian merchant settlements in the Levant. [6]
  • August 1 Adhemar of Le Puy (or Aimar), French bishop and nominal leader of the First Crusade, dies during an epidemic (probably typhus). With this, Rome's direct control over the Crusade effectively ends.
  • August Fatimid forces under Caliph Al-Musta'li recapture Jerusalem and occupy Palestine. The Crusaders threaten the borders of the Fatimid Caliphate which already has lost the Emirate of Sicily (see 1091).
  • December 12 Siege of Ma'arra: The Crusaders capture the city of Ma'arra after a month's siege and massacre part of the population. Short of supplies, the army is accused of widespread cannibalism.

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Related Research Articles

Adhemar of Le Puy 11th-century French bishop and crusader

Adhemarde Monteil was one of the principal figures of the First Crusade and was bishop of Puy-en-Velay from before 1087. He was the chosen representative of Pope Urban II for the expedition to the Holy Land. Remembered for his martial prowess, he led knights and men into battle and fought beside them, particularly at the Battle of Dorylaeum and Siege of Antioch. Adhemar is said to have carried the Holy Lance in the Crusaders’ desperate breakout at Antioch on 28 June 1098, in which superior Islamic forces under the atabeg Kerbogha were routed, securing the city for the Crusaders. He died in 1098 due to illness.

The 1090s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1090, and ended on December 31, 1099.

1099 Calendar year

Year 1099 (MXCIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

The 1100s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1100, and ended on December 31, 1109.

1111 Calendar year

Year 1111 (MCXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

1097 Calendar year

Year 1097 (MXCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1103 Calendar year

Year 1103 (MCIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1102 Calendar year

Year 1102 (MCII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1105 Calendar year

Year 1105 (MCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

1108 Calendar year

Year 1108 (MCVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

First Crusade Crusade from 1095 to 1099 that captured Jerusalem and established the Crusader States

The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The initial objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Islamic rule. These campaigns were subsequently given the name crusades. The earliest initiative for the First Crusade began in 1095 when the Byzantine Emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, requested military support from the Council of Piacenza in the Byzantine Empire's conflict with the Seljuk-led Turks. This was followed later in the year by the Council of Clermont, during which Pope Urban II supported the Byzantine request for military assistance and also urged faithful Christians to undertake an armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

Godfrey of Bouillon French noble, a leader of the First Crusade and first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1060-1100)

Godfrey of Bouillon was a French nobleman and one of the pre-eminent leaders of the First Crusade. He was the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1099 to 1100. He apparently avoided using the title of king, choosing instead that of princeps. Older scholarship is more fond of another title, that of "advocatus of the Holy Sepulchre", a secondary title probably used by Godfrey, which is still also preferred by the Catholic Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.

Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse Count of Tripoli

Raymond IV, sometimes called Raymond of Saint-Gilles or Raymond I of Tripoli, was a powerful noble in southern France and one of the leaders of the First Crusade (1096–99). He was the Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Margrave of Provence from 1094, and he spent the last five years of his life establishing the County of Tripoli in the Near East.

Kerbogha

Kerbogha was Atabeg of Mosul during the First Crusade and was renowned as a soldier.

County of Edessa Crusader state in the 12th century

The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century. Its seat was the city of Edessa.

Principality of Antioch Crusader state formed by Bohemond of Taranto

The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, and the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date.

Siege of Antioch first Crusade siege, 1097-1098

The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. The first siege, by the crusaders against the Muslim-held city, lasted from 21 October 1097 to 2 June 1098. Antioch lay in a strategic location on the crusaders' route to Palestine. Supplies, reinforcements and retreat could all be controlled by the city. Anticipating that it would be attacked, the Muslim governor of the city, Yaghi-Siyan, began stockpiling food and sending requests for help. The Byzantine walls surrounding the city presented a formidable obstacle to its capture, but the leaders of the crusade felt compelled to besiege Antioch anyway.

Tancred, Prince of Galilee Italo-Norman leader of the First Crusade (1075-1112)

Tancred was an Italo-Norman leader of the First Crusade who later became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch. Tancred came from the house of Hauteville and had a great-grandfather with the same name.

March from Antioch to Jerusalem during the First Crusade

The First Crusade march down the Mediterranean coast, from recently taken Antioch to Jerusalem, started on 13 January 1099. During the march the Crusaders encountered little resistance, as local rulers preferred to make peace with them and furnish them with supplies rather than fight, with a notable exception of the aborted siege of Arqa. On 7 June, the Crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuks by the Fatimids only the year before.

Timeline of the Principality of Antioch

The timeline of the Principality of Antioch is a chronological list of events of the history of the Principality of Antioch.

References

  1. Abels, Richard Philip; Bernard S. Bachrach (2001). The Normans and their adversaries at war. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. p. 92. ISBN   0-85115-847-1.
  2. Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades, p. 134. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN   978-0-674-02387-1.
  3. Rickard, J. "Antioch, crusader siege of, 21 October 1097-3 June 1098" . Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  4. Andrew Roberts (2011). Great Commanders of the Medieval World (454–1582), p. 121. ISBN   978-0-85738-589-5.
  5. Rickard, J. "Battle of the Orontes, 28 June 1098 (First Crusade)" . Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  6. Benvenuti, Gino (1985). Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. p. 34. ISBN   88-8289-529-7.
  7. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 56–58. ISBN   0-7126-5616-2.
  8. Siecienski, Anthony Edward (2010). The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy. Oxford University Press. pp. 117–118. ISBN   9780195372045.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)