List of heads of state of Panama

Last updated
President of the Republic of Panama
Presidente de la República de Panamá
Presidential Flag of Panama.svg
Presidential Standard
Coat of Arms of Panama.svg
Presidential Seal
Juan Carlos Varela (2014).jpg
Incumbent
Juan Carlos Varela

since 1 July 2014
Residence Palacio de las Garzas
Term length Five years
not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holder Manuel Amador Guerrero
Formation20 February 1904
Deputy Vice President of Panama
Website Presidencia de la República
Coat of arms of Panama.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Panama
Flag of Panama.svg Panamaportal

This article lists the heads of state of Panama since the short-lived first independence from the Republic of New Granada in 1840 and the final separation from Colombia in 1903.

Panama republic in Central America

Panama, officially the Republic of Panama, is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people.

Republic of New Granada former republic in South America and Central America between 1831–1858

The Republic of New Granada was a centralist republic consisting primarily of present-day Colombia and Panama with smaller portions of today's Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, and Brazil. It was created after the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia, with the secession of Ecuador and Venezuela and was formed by the departments of Boyaca, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, and Istmo, all parts of the present Republic of Colombia. except Istmo, which is part of present-day Panama). In November 1831, those departments created the Republic of New Granada, but nothing was established about a flag. Old flags were confirmed provisional by the National Convention of 17 December 1831. However, it is not clear what flag it was: Restrepo believes that it is the flag with two cornucopias of Gran Colombia. While new flags were discussed, some proposals were issued. On 9 May 1834, the national flag was adopted and was used until 26 November 1861, with the Gran Colombian colors in Veles' arrangement. The merchant ensign had the eight-pointed star in white.

Separation of Panama from Colombia

The separation of Panama from Colombia was formalized on 3 November 1903, with the establishment of the Republic of Panama. From the Independence of Panama from Spain in 1821, Panama had simultaneously declared independence from Spain and joined itself to the confederation of Gran Colombia through the Independence Act of Panama. Panama was always tenuously connected to the rest of the country to the south, owing to its remoteness from the government in Bogotá and lack of a practical overland connection to the rest of Gran Colombia. In 1840-1841, a short-lived independent republic was established under Tomás de Herrera. After rejoining Colombia following a 13-month independence, it remained a province which saw frequent rebellious flare-ups, notably the Panama crisis of 1885, which saw the intervention of the United States Navy.

Contents

Free State of the Isthmus (1840–1841)

Tomas Herrera Herrtoma.jpg
Tomás Herrera

A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

Tomás de Herrera President of New Grenada

Tomás José Ramón del Carmen de Herrera y Pérez Dávila was a Neogranadine statesman and general who in 1840 became Head of State of the Free State of the Isthmus, a short lived independent state which is located in what is now Panama. Tomás de Herrera also became President of the Republic of the New Granada in 1854 during the rebellion against the incumbent president José María Melo.

Republic of Panama (1903–present)

President of the Municipal Council of Panama and de facto President (1903)

Name
(Birth–Death)
PortraitTerm of Office
Demetrio H. Brid
(1859–1917)
Demetrio H. Brid.jpg 3 November 19034 November 1903

Members of the Provisional Government Junta (1903–1904)

Name
(Birth–Death)
PortraitTerm of Office
José Agustín Arango
(1841–1909)
Jose-Agustin-Arango.jpg 4 November 190320 February 1904
Tomás Arias
(1856–1932)
Tomas Arias p319.jpg
Federico Boyd
(1851–1924)
FBoyd4.jpg
Manuel Espinosa Batista
(1857–1919)
Manuel Espinosa Batista.jpg 9 November 19037 December 1903

Presidents of Panama (1904–present)

No.President
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical Affiliation Election Notes
1 Manuel Amador Guerrero
(1833–1909)
Amador Guerrero, Manuel.jpg 20 February 190423 June 1907 [1] Conservative Party 1904
2 José Domingo de Obaldía
(1845–1910)
Jose Domingo de Obaldia.jpg 24 June 1907 [1] 27 December 1907 [1] National Liberal Party
(1) Manuel Amador Guerrero
(1833–1909)
Amador Guerrero, Manuel.jpg 29 December 1907 [1] 1 October 1908 Conservative Party
(2) José Domingo de Obaldía
(1845–1910)
Jose Domingo de Obaldia.jpg 1 October 19081 March 1910 National Liberal Party 1908 Died in office.
Carlos Antonio Mendoza
(1856–1916)
Carlos Antonio Mendoza.jpg 1 March 19101 October 1910 National Liberal Party Acting President.
Federico Boyd
(1851–1924)
FBoyd4.jpg 1 October 19105 October 1910 National Liberal Party Acting President.
Pablo Arosemena
(1836–1920)
Pabloarosemena.jpg 5 October 19101 October 1912 National Liberal Party Acting President.
3 Belisario Porras Barahona
(1856–1942)
Belisario Porras Barahona.gif 1 October 19121 October 1916 National Liberal Party 1912 First tenure.
4 Ramón Maximiliano Valdés
(1867–1918)
RMvaldes7.jpg 1 October 19163 June 1918 National Liberal Party 1916 Died in office.
Ciro Luis Urriola
(1863–1922)
8CiroU.jpg 3 June 19181 October 1918 National Liberal Party Acting President.
Pedro Antonio Díaz
(1852–1919)
Pedro Antonio Diaz.jpg 1 October 191812 October 1918 Conservative Party Acting President.
(3) Belisario Porras Barahona
(1856–1942)
Belisario Porras Barahona.gif 12 October 191830 January 1920 National Liberal Party 1918 Second tenure.
Ernesto Tisdel Lefevre
(1876–1922)
Ernesto Tisdel Lefevre.jpg 30 January 19201 October 1920 National Liberal Party Acting President.
(3) Belisario Porras Barahona
(1856–1942)
Belisario Porras Barahona.gif 1 October 19201 October 1924 National Liberal Party 1920 Third tenure.
5 Rodolfo Chiari
(1869–1937)
Rodolfo Chiari.jpg 1 October 19241 October 1928 National Liberal Party 1924
6 Florencio Harmodio Arosemena
(1872–1945)
Florencio Harmodio Arosemena.jpg 1 October 19283 January 1931 National Liberal Party 1928 Deposed in a coup d'état.
Harmodio Arias Madrid
(1886–1963)
No image.png 3 January 193116 January 1931 Independent Acting President.
7 Ricardo Joaquín Alfaro Jované
(1882–1971)
Ricardo J. Alfaro.jpg 16 January 19315 June 1932 National Liberal Party
8 Harmodio Arias Madrid
(1886–1963)
No image.png 5 June 19321 October 1936 National Revolutionary Party 1932
9 Juan Demóstenes Arosemena
(1879–1939)
No image.png 1 October 193616 December 1939 National Liberal Party 1936 Died in office.
Ezequiel Fernández
(1886–1946)
No image.png 16 December 193918 December 1939 National Revolutionary Party Acting President.
Augusto Samuel Boyd
(1879–1957)
No image.png 18 December 19391 October 1940 National Revolutionary Party Acting President.
10 Arnulfo Arias
(1901–1988)
Monumento a Arnulfo Arias Madrid..-.jpg 1 October 19409 October 1941 National Revolutionary Party 1940 First tenure.
Deposed in a coup d'état.
11 Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango
(1899–1969)
No image.png 9 October 194115 June 1945 Independent
Enrique Adolfo Jiménez
(1888–1970)
No image.png 15 June 19457 August 1948 National Liberal Party 1945 Provisional President.
12 Domingo Díaz Arosemena
(1875–1949)
No image.png 7 August 194828 July 1949 National Liberal Party 1948 Resigned after a heart attack, and died less than a month later.
13 Daniel Chanis Pinzón
(1892–1961)
No image.png 28 July 194920 November 1949 National Liberal Party
14 Roberto Francisco Chiari Remón
(1905–1981)
Roberto F. Chiari.jpg 20 November 194924 November 1949 National Liberal Party First tenure.
(10) Arnulfo Arias
(1901–1988)
Monumento a Arnulfo Arias Madrid..-.jpg 24 November 19499 May 1951 Panameñista Party Second tenure.
15 Alcibíades Arosemena
(1883–1958)
No image.png 9 May 19511 October 1952 Authentic Revolutionary Party
16 José Antonio Remón Cantera
(1908–1955)
Estatua de Jose Antonio Remon Cantera - Sede de la Policia Nacional de Panama (2012).jpg 1 October 19522 January 1955 National Patriotic Coalition 1952 Assassinated.
17 José Ramón Guizado
(1899–1964)
No image.png 2 January 195529 March 1955 National Patriotic Coalition
18 Ricardo Arias
(1912–1993)
No image.png 29 March 19551 October 1956 National Patriotic Coalition
19 Ernesto de la Guardia
(1904–1983)
No image.png 1 October 19561 October 1960 National Patriotic Coalition 1956
(14) Roberto Francisco Chiari Remón
(1905–1981)
Roberto F. Chiari 1962.jpg 1 October 19601 October 1964 National Liberal Party 1960 Second tenure.
20 Marco Aurelio Robles
(1908–1990)
No image.png 1 October 19641 October 1968 National Liberal Party 1964
(10) Arnulfo Arias
(1901–1988)
Monumento a Arnulfo Arias Madrid..-.jpg 1 October 196811 October 1968 Panameñista Party 1968 Third tenure.
Deposed in a coup d'état.
José María Pinilla Fábrega
(1919–1979)
No image.png 12 October 196818 December 1969 National Guard Chairman of the Provisional Junta.
21 Colonel
Bolívar Urrutia Parrilla
(1918–2005)
No image.png President.
22 Demetrio B. Lakas
(1925–1999)
No image.png 19 December 196911 October 1978 Independent 1972 Chairman of the Provisional Junta to 11 October 1972.
23 Aristides Royo
(born 1940)
Aristides Royo (6713987733) (cropped).jpg 11 October 197831 July 1982 Democratic Revolutionary Party 1978
24 Ricardo de la Espriella
(born 1934)
De-la-espriella-crop.jpg 31 July 198213 February 1984 Democratic Revolutionary Party
25 Jorge Illueca
(1918–2012)
No image.png 13 February 198411 October 1984 Independent
26 Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino
(born 1938)
Nicolas Ardito Barletta Vallarino.jpg 11 October 198428 September 1985 Democratic Revolutionary Party 1984
Eric Arturo Delvalle
(1937–2015)
No image.png 28 September 198526 February 1988 Republican Party Acting President.
Manuel Solís Palma
(1917–2009)
No image.png 26 February 19881 September 1989 Democratic Revolutionary Party Acting President.
Francisco Rodríguez
(born 1938)
No image.png 1 September 198920 December 1989 Democratic Revolutionary Party Provisional President.
Deposed in the US invasion.
27 Guillermo Endara
(1936–2009)
Guillermo Endara 1993.jpg 20 December 19891 September 1994 Panameñista Party 1989
28 Ernesto Pérez Balladares
(born 1946)
No image.png 1 September 19941 September 1999 Democratic Revolutionary Party 1994
29 Mireya Moscoso
(born 1946)
Mireya Moscoso.jpg 1 September 19991 September 2004 Panameñista Party 1999 Widow of Arnulfo Arias.
30 Martín Torrijos
(born 1963)
Panama.MartinTorrijos.01.jpg 1 September 20041 July 2009 Democratic Revolutionary Party 2004 Son of Omar Torrijos.
31 Ricardo Martinelli
(born 1951)
Ricardo Martinelli Presidente de Panama.jpg 1 July 20091 July 2014 Democratic Change 2009
32 Juan Carlos Varela
(born 1963)
Juan Carlos Varela (2014).jpg 1 July 2014Incumbent
(Term ends on 1 July 2019)
Panameñista Party 2014

Military (de facto) leaders of Panama (1968–1989)

Panama was from 1968–1989 de facto controlled by a military junta which appointed the nominal president, who himself had little power, while the junta and its leaders, while not official heads of state, exerted actual control over the country. Leaders of the junta were styled "Maximum Leader of the Panamanian Revolution".

A military junta is a government led by a committee of military leaders. The term junta comes from Spanish and Portuguese and means committee, specifically a board of directors. Sometimes it becomes a military dictatorship, though the terms are not synonymous.

No.Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficeMilitary AffiliationNotes
1 Brigadier-General
Omar Torrijos
(1929–1981)
Omar Torrijos 1977.jpg 11 October 196831 July 1981 National Guard Styled as Maximum Leader of the Panamanian Revolution from 1972.
Killed in an air crash.
2 Colonel
Florencio Flores Aguilar
(?–)
No image.png 31 July 19813 March 1982 National Guard
3 Colonel
Rubén Darío Paredes
(1931–)
No image.png 3 March 198212 August 1983 National Guard
4 General
Manuel Noriega
(1934–2017)
Noriega Portrait.jpg 12 August 198320 December 1989 National Guard
(until 29 September 1983.)
Styled as Maximum Leader of the National Liberation from 15 December 1983.
Deposed in the US invasion.
Panamanian Defense Forces

Timeline

Invalid image map generated by EasyTimeline
List of heads of state of Panama

Latest election

CandidatePartyVotes%
Juan Carlos Varela Panameñista Party 724,76239.09
José Domingo Arias Democratic Change 581,82831.38
Juan Carlos Navarro Democratic Revolutionary Party 521,84228.14
Genaro López Broad Front for Democracy 11,1270.60
Juan JovanéIndependent10,8050.58
Esteban RodríguezIndependent2,2400.12
Gerardo BarrosoIndependent1,5980.09
Valid votes1,854,20298.30
Invalid votes17,1620.91
Blank votes14,9440.79
Total votes1,886,308100.00
Registered voters/turnout2,457,40176.76
Source: Election Tribunal (100% of polling stations counted)

See also

Politics of Panama

The politics of Panama take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic with multi-party system, whereby the President of Panama is both head of state and head of government.

History of Panama aspect of history

The history of Panama is about the Isthmus of Panama region's long history that occurred in Central America, from Pre-Columbian cultures, during the Spanish colonial era, through independence and the current country of Panama.

Related Research Articles

Manuel Noriega Panamanian head of state

Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno was a Panamanian politician and military officer who was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989. He had longstanding ties to United States intelligence agencies; however, he was removed from power by the U.S. invasion of Panama.

Omar Torrijos Panamanian Dictator

Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera, more commonly known as Omar Torrijos, was the Commander of the Panamanian National Guard and the de facto dictator of Panama from 1968 to 1981. Torrijos was never officially the president of Panama, but instead held titles including "Maximum Leader of the Panamanian Revolution" and "Supreme Chief of Government." Torrijos took power in a coup d'état and instituted a number of social reforms and his regime was considered progressive.

A triumvirate is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs. The arrangement can be formal or informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this is rarely the case in reality. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader.

President of Nicaragua head of state and head of government of Nicaragua

The President of Nicaragua officially known as the President of the Republic of Nicaragua is the head of state of Nicaragua. The office was created in the Constitution of 1854. From 1825 until the Constitution of 1838, the head of state of Nicaragua was styled simply as Head of State, and from 1838 to 1854 as Supreme Director.

José Tomás Ovalle Chilean political figure, president

José Tomás Ovalle y Bezanilla was a Chilean political figure. He served twice as provisional president of Chile.

Juan Lindo President of Honduras and El Salvador

Juan Nepomuceno Fernández Lindo y Zelaya was a Conservative Central American politician, president of the Republic of El Salvador from 1841 to 1842 and of the Republic of Honduras from 1847 to 1852.

Francisco da Costa Gomes, ComTE, GOA was a Portuguese military officer and politician, the 15th President of the Portuguese Republic.

Gabriel Valencia President of Mexico

Gabriel Valencia (1799–1848) was a Mexican soldier in the early years of the Republic. From December 30, 1845 to January 2, 1846 he served as interim president of Mexico.

José Tomás Boves Spanish general

José Tomás Boves, was a royalist caudillo of the llanos during the Venezuelan War of Independence, particularly remembered for his use of brutality and atrocities against those who supported Venezuelan independence. Though nominally pro-Spanish, Boves showed little deference to any superior authority and independently carried out his own military campaign and political agenda.

Government Junta of Chile, was the political structure established to rule Chile following the defeat of the Liberal army at the Battle of Ochagavía. It ruled the country until February 18, 1830, when Francisco Ruiz-Tagle assumed as the new Acting President.

The War of the Supremes was a civil conflict in Republic of the New Granada from 1839 to 1841 caused by the ambitions of various regional leaders (gamonales) to seize power and depose President José Ignacio de Márquez. It was called the War of the Supremos because of the participation of General José María Obando and other revolutionary gamonales who called themselves jefes supremos.

Juan Carlos Varela 37th president of Panama

Juan Carlos Varela Rodríguez is a Panamanian politician and the President of Panama since 2014. Varela was Vice-President of Panama from 2009 to 2014, and Minister of Foreign Relations from July 2009 to August 2011. He was President of the Panameñistas, the third-largest political party in Panama, from 2006 to 2016.

José María Alfaro Zamora Head of State, President and Vice President of Costa Rica

José María Alfaro Zamora was the Costa Rican Head of State between the periods of 1842 and 1844 as well as 1846 and 1847 and President of Costa Rica between May 1 and May 8, 1847.

Roberto Borge Angulo Governor of Quintana Roo

Roberto Borge Angulo is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He served the 7th Governor of Quintana Roo(2011-2016). After the end of his term he was declared a criminal by the Mexican Government due to proven crimes of corruption during his time as governor. Roberto Borge was arrested in June 5, 2017 at an Airport in Panama.

Centralist Republic of Mexico unitary political regime established in Mexico in 1835

The Centralist Republic of Mexico, or in the anglophone scholarship, the Central Republic, was officially the Mexican Republic. It was a unitary political regime established in Mexico on October 23, 1835, under a new constitution known as the Seven Laws after the repeal of the federalist Constitution of 1824. Mexican conservatives attributed the political chaos of the federal era to the empowerment of states over the federal government, participation of non-elite men in the political system through universal male suffrage, rebellions, and economic stagnation to the weakness of the federal government. Conservative elites saw the solution to the problem as abolishing the federal system and creating a centralized one, reminiscent of the colonial era. Federalism had given a range of powers to Mexican states, their legislatures and municipalities. It was favored by the states outside the center of Mexico. Those favoring a centralized state were the conservative urban elites. Mexican conservatives saw federalism as a failure and Mexico not prepared for such a system. They considered the ideal form of government as a centralized, administrative republic, with the states losing power to the central government. Conservatives with the support of the Mexican army created the Central Republic, which lasted eleven years, 1835–46. The unitary regime was formally established on December 30, 1836, with the enactment of the Siete Leyes. However, the Seven Laws proved unworkable and were abandoned four and a half years later, and replaced by a military dictatorship under Antonio López de Santa Anna. On August 22, 1846, acting President José Mariano Salas issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824 and, with this, the return to federalism.

Independence Act of Panama

The Declaration of Independence of Panama is the document through which Panama declared its independence from the Spanish Empire on 28 November 1821. It was proclaimed in the Cathedral plaza of Panama City after a council of leaders had met and drafted twelve points calling for severing Panama's relationship with the Spanish Crown and joining with the newly formed Republic of Gran Colombia.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 ".:: SomosPanama.com ::". archive.org. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2018.