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politics and government of
Panama elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president and the vice-president are elected on one ballot for a five-year term by the people. The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) has 71 members, elected for a five-year term in single-seat and multi-seat constituencies.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.
Panama has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition". The usual reason for this arrangement is that no party on its own can achieve a majority in the parliament. A coalition government might also be created in a time of national difficulty or crisis to give a government the high degree of perceived political legitimacy or collective identity it desires while also playing a role in diminishing internal political strife. In such times, parties have formed all-party coalitions. If a coalition collapses, a confidence vote is held or a motion of no confidence is taken.
|Type|| Presidential (May)|
National Congress (May)
|None|| Presidential (May)|
National Congress (May)
|President and vice president||None||President and vice president|
|National Congress||All seats||None||All seats|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||All positions||None||All positions|
|Type|| Presidential (July)|
National Congress (July)
|None|| Presidential (July)|
National Congress (July)
|1 July||None||1 July|
|National Congress||1 July||None||1 July|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||1 July||None||1 July|
|Juan Carlos Varela||Panameñista Party||724,762||39.09|
|José Domingo Arias||Democratic Change||581,828||31.38|
|Juan Carlos Navarro||Democratic Revolutionary Party||521,842||28.14|
|Genaro López||Broad Front for Democracy||11,127||0.60|
|Source: Election Tribunal|
|Ricardo Martinelli||Democratic Change, Patriotic Union Party, Panameñista Party, Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement||952,333||59.97|
|Balbina Herrera||Democratic Revolutionary Party, People's Party, Liberal Party||597,227||37.70|
|Guillermo Endara||Fatherland's Moral Vanguard Party||36,867||2.33|
|Valid votes (turnout 73.99%)||1,558,445||100.0|
|Source: Tribunal Electoral|
|One Country for All||Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD)||537,426||35.7%||26|
|People's Party (PP)||55,598||3.7%||1|
|Liberal Party (PL)||18,111||1.2%||0|
|Alliance for Change||Democratic Change (CD)||352,319||23.4%||14|
|Panameñista Party (PAN)||334,282||22.2%||22|
|Patriotic Union (UP)||85,609||5.7%||4|
|Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA)||70,457||4.7%||2|
|Moral Vanguard of the Fatherland (VMP)||14,760||1.0%||0|
|Valid votes (turnout 70.05%)||1,504,355||100.0%||71|
|Source: Tribunal Electoral|
|Martín Torrijos||New Fatherland (Democratic Revolutionary Party–People's Party coalition)||711,447||47.44|
|Guillermo Endara||Solidarity Party||462,766||30.86|
|José Miguel Alemán||Arnulfista Party||245,845||16.39|
|Ricardo Martinelli||Democratic Change||79,595||5.31|
|Total (turnout 76.9%)||1,499,072||100.0|
|Ballot papers left blank||17,366||1.13|
|Spoiled ballot papers||21,276||1.38|
|Democratic Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Democrático)||37.8||41|
|Arnulfista Party (Partido Arnulfista )||19.2||17|
|Solidarity Party (Partido Solidaridad)||15.7||9|
|Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (Movimiento Liberal Republicano Nacionalista)||8.6||4|
|Democratic Change (Cambio Democrático)||7.4||3|
|People's Party (Partido Popular)||6.0||1|
|National Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Nacional)||5.2||3|
|Total (turnout 76.9 %)||78|
|Source: Source: Tribunal Electoral de Panama|
The politics of Panama take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic with multi-party system, whereby the President of Panama is both head of state and head of government.
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