Elections in Panama

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Coat of arms of Panama.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Panama

Panama elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president and the vice-president are elected on one ballot for a five-year term by the people. The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) has 71 members, elected for a five-year term in single-seat and multi-seat constituencies.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states.

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.

Contents

Political culture

Panama has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition". The usual reason for this arrangement is that no party on its own can achieve a majority in the parliament. A coalition government might also be created in a time of national difficulty or crisis to give a government the high degree of perceived political legitimacy or collective identity it desires while also playing a role in diminishing internal political strife. In such times, parties have formed all-party coalitions. If a coalition collapses, a confidence vote is held or a motion of no confidence is taken.

Schedule

Election

Position 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Type Presidential (May)
National Congress (May)
Gubernatorial (May)
None Presidential (May)
National Congress (May)
Gubernatorial (May)
President and
vice president
President and vice presidentNone President and vice president
National CongressAll seatsNone All seats
Provinces, cities and municipalitiesAll positionsNone All positions

Inauguration

Position 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Type Presidential (July)
National Congress (July)
Gubernatorial (July)
None Presidential (July)
National Congress (July)
Gubernatorial (July)
President and
vice president
1 JulyNone 1 July
National Congress1 JulyNone 1 July
Provinces, cities and municipalities1 JulyNone 1 July

Latest elections

CandidatePartyVotes%
Juan Carlos Varela Panameñista Party 724,76239.09
José Domingo Arias Democratic Change 581,82831.38
Juan Carlos Navarro Democratic Revolutionary Party 521,84228.14
Genaro López Broad Front for Democracy 11,1270.60
Juan JovanéIndependent10,8050.58
Esteban RodríguezIndependent2,2400.12
Gerardo BarrosoIndependent1,5980.09
Invalid/blank votes37,106
Total1,886,308100
Registered voters/turnout2,457,40176.76
Source: Election Tribunal

Past elections and Referendums

e    d  Summary of the 3 May 2009 Panamanian presidential election results
CandidatesPartiesVotes%
Ricardo Martinelli Democratic Change, Patriotic Union Party, Panameñista Party, Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement 952,333 59.97
Balbina Herrera Democratic Revolutionary Party, People's Party, Liberal Party 597,227 37.70
Guillermo Endara Fatherland's Moral Vanguard Party 36,867 2.33
Valid votes (turnout 73.99%)1,558,445 100.0
Blank votes 19,105 1.17
Invalid votes 30,976 1.89
Total votes 1,636,508 100.00
Source: Tribunal Electoral
e    d  Summary of the 3 May 2009 Panamanian National Assembly election results
AlliancesPartiesVotes%Seats
One Country for All Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) 537,426 35.7% 26
People's Party (PP) 55,598 3.7% 1
Liberal Party (PL) 18,111 1.2% 0
Alliance for Change Democratic Change (CD) 352,319 23.4% 14
Panameñista Party (PAN) 334,282 22.2% 22
Patriotic Union (UP) 85,609 5.7% 4
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA) 70,457 4.7% 2
Independents 35,793 2.4% 2
Moral Vanguard of the Fatherland (VMP) 14,760 1.0% 0
Valid votes (turnout 70.05%)1,504,355100.0%71
Source: Tribunal Electoral


e    d  Summary of the 2 May 2004 Panama presidential election results
CandidatesPartiesVotes%
Martín Torrijos New Fatherland (Democratic Revolutionary PartyPeople's Party coalition) 711,447 47.44
Guillermo Endara Solidarity Party 462,766 30.86
José Miguel Alemán Arnulfista Party 245,845 16.39
Ricardo Martinelli Democratic Change 79,595 5.31
Total (turnout 76.9%)1,499,072100.0
Ballot papers left blank 17,366 1.13
Spoiled ballot papers 21,276 1.38
Total votes 1,537,714
e    d  Summary of the 2 May 2004 National Assembly of Panama election results
PartiesVotes%Seats
Democratic Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Democrático)37.841
Arnulfista Party (Partido Arnulfista )19.217
Solidarity Party (Partido Solidaridad)15.79
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (Movimiento Liberal Republicano Nacionalista)8.64
Democratic Change (Cambio Democrático)7.43
People's Party (Partido Popular)6.01
National Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Nacional)5.23
Total (turnout 76.9 %) 78
Source: Source: Tribunal Electoral de Panama

See also

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References