Foreign relations of Panama

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Panama's foreign relations are conventional in outlook, with Panama being especially aligned with United States since the 1989 US invasion to topple the regime of General Manuel Noriega. The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, and social development through U.S. and international agencies.

Manuel Noriega Panamanian head of state

Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno was a Panamanian politician and military officer who was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989. He had longstanding ties to United States intelligence agencies; however, he was removed from power by the U.S. invasion of Panama.

Contents

Diplomatic relations list

Countries with diplomatic relations with Panama Diplomatic relations of Panama.svg
Countries with diplomatic relations with Panama

Panama has established diplomatic relations with following countries: [1]

#CountryDate
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 13 November 1903
2Flag of France.svg  France 18 November 1903
3Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 21 November 1903
4Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 29 December 1903
5Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 15 January 1904
6Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 3 February 1904
7Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 7 April 1904
8Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 10 April 1904
9Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 6 May 1904
10Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 10 May 1904
11Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 21 May 1904
12Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 28 October 1904
13Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 7 January 1904
14Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 18 September 1907
15Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 15 February 1908
16Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 1 March 1908
17Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 2 March 1908
18Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 3 March 1908
19Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 9 April 1908
20Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 1908
21Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 9 March 1909
22Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 5 November 1920
23Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China
2 January 192212 June 2017
12 June 2017
24Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 29 May 1923
Flag of the Vatican City.svg  Holy See 21 September 1923
25Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 9 July 1924
26Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 25 January 1937
27Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 17 March 1937
28Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 3 July 1937
29Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 30 July 1937
30Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 31 July 1937
31Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 13 December 1938
32Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 28 August 1942
33Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 31 October 1942
34Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 11 October 1945
35Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 30 April 1946
Flag of the Order of St. John (various).svg  Sovereign Order of Malta 2 August 1948
36Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 14 April 1950
37Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 17 December 1951
38Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 26 March 1953
39Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 18 October 1955
40Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 17 May 1956
41Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 21 February 1958
42Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 11 August 1961
43Flag of India.svg  India 1 July 1962
44Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 30 September 1962
45Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 18 August 1966
46Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 17 August 1967
47Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 7 November 1967
48Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 1 April 1971
49Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 5 October 1971
50Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 5 June 1972
51Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 9 February 1973
52Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 16 March 1973
53Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 29 March 1973
54Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 29 March 1973
55Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 29 March 1973
56Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 15 August 1973
57Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 28 September 1973
58Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau 16 October 1973
59Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 20 February 1974
60Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 18 November 1974
61Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 7 January 1975
62Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 27 February 1975
63Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 17 August 1975
64Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 28 August 1975
65Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 17 February 1976
66Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 19 February 1976
67Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 19 February 1976
68Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 8 March 1976
69Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 23 March 1976
70Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 8 June 1976
71Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 18 June 1976
72Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 15 February 1977
73Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 20 August 1978
74Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 27 March 1979
75Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 1 May 1979
76Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 13 May 1981
77Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 1 December 1981
78Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar 15 July 1982
79Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 6 August 1982
80Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 20 August 1982
81Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 3 March 1983
82Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 15 February 1984
83Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 12 November 1985
84Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 27 August 1987
85Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 13 September 1988
86Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 16 February 1989
87Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 19 February 1989
88Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 24 February 1989
89Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 1 May 1991
90Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 19 November 1992
91Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 19 November 1992
92Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechia 15 February 1993
93Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 15 February 1993
94Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 15 February 1993
95Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 9 March 1993
96Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 22 March 1993
97Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 21 May 1993
98Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 21 May 1993
99Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 24 July 1993
100Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 7 February 1994
101Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 25 February 1994
102Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 22 March 1994
103Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 24 May 1994
104Flag of Laos.svg  Laos 9 September 1994 [2]
105Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 10 January 1995
106Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 13 January 1995
107Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 6 April 1995
108Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 10 May 1995
109Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia 10 July 1995
110Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 28 July 1995
111Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 15 February 1996
112Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 5 March 1996
113Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 28 March 1996
114Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 12 July 1996
115Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 16 July 1996
116Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 27 September 1996
117Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 7 August 1998
118Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 22 October 1998
119Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 18 November 1998
120Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 4 June 1999
121Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 12 February 2001
122Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 14 February 2001
123Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 8 February 2002
124Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 18 April 2002
125Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 3 May 2002
126Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino 22 January 2004
127Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 31 March 2004
128Flag of Benin.svg  Benin 20 September 2005
129Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 17 July 2006
130Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 15 June 2007
131Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 29 May 2008
132Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 29 June 2009 [3]
133Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 29 July 2009
134Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana 15 December 2009
135Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 15 December 2009
136Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 22 November 2010
137Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 14 August 2011
138Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 3 January 2012
139Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 17 January 2012
140Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 13 March 2012
141Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 18 April 2012
142Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands 11 September 2012
143Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 9 November 2012 [4]
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 27 August 2013 [5]
144Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 15 January 2015 [6]
145Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 28 July 2015 [7]
146Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast 29 April 2016 [8]
147Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 26 May 2018 [9]

Bilateral relations

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 11 August 1961 [1] See Canada–Panama relations
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2 January 1909 [1] See China–Panama relations

Panama established a diplomatic relationship with the Qing Dynasty in 1909. After the Xinhai Revolution, Panama recognized the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), and has retained diplomatic ties with the ROC. In 2009, after President Ricardo Martinelli took office, Panama wished to switch diplomatic relations from the ROC to the People's Republic of China (PRC), but this was rejected by the PRC government based on violation of PRC's viewpoint on the One-China policy. Martinelli reaffirmed its commitment to Taiwan in the diplomatic arena, clearing doubts he could establish official ties with PRC; he also thanked the Taiwanese for cooperation and expressed the hope that cooperation and investments would intensify. "Panama reaffirms its determination to strengthen diplomatic ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan), as well as strengthening trade ties with the People's Republic of China (PRC)," said Foreign Minister Juan Carlos Varela, at a meeting in the Council of Taiwan Affairs. [12] On June 12, 2017, President Juan Carlos Varela announced that Panama has established a diplomatic relationship with People's Republic of China, and Panama has severed diplomatic relationship with the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Flag of India.svg  India 1 June 1962 [1] See India–Panama relations

Panama is the first country in Central America where India established a resident embassy in 1973. Bilateral commercial and trade relations are steadily growing between India and Panama, with Panama seen as the gateway for expansion into Latin America. [13]

Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 27 August 2013 [5]

Panama officially recognised the independence of the Republic of Kosovo on 16 January 2009. [17] Kosovo and Panama established diplomatic relations on 27 August 2013, following the establishment of diplomatic relations Kosovo announced it would be opening an embassy in Panama and that this embassy would be Kosovo's 'gateway to Latin America'. [18]

Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 29 May 1923 [1] See Mexico–Panama relations
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 21 November 1903 [1] See Panama–Russia relations
  • Panama has an embassy in Moscow. [21]
  • Russia has an embassy in Panama city. [22]
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1 June 1979 [1] See Panama–Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic relations

Panama was the first Latin American country on recognizing the SADR in 1978, during the military rule of Omar Torrijos. [23] Panama also has the oldest Sahrawi embassy in Latin America. Relations are suspended from 20 November 2013.

Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2006 [1]
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 1953 [1]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1953. [25]
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries. [26]
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1995 [1]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 January 1995. [1] [27]
  • Panama opened an embassy in Pretoria in August 2000. [27]
  • South Africa is represented in Panama through its embassy in Lima, Peru. [27]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 30 September 1962 [1]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on Sep 30, 1962.

  • The Republic of Panama has an embassy in Seoul. [28]
  • The Republic of Korea has an embassy in Panama City. [29] [30] [31]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 10 May 1904 [1] See Panama–Spain relations
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 13 November 1903
3 April 1964 [1]
See Panama–United States relations

The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, and social development through U.S. and international agencies. Cultural ties between the two countries are strong, and many Panamanians go to the United States for higher education and advanced training. In 2007, the U.S. and Panama partnered to launch a regional health worker training center. The center provides training to community healthcare workers in Panama and throughout Central America. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality. There is also a rapidly growing enclave of American retirees in the Chiriqui Province in western Panama.

Multilateral relations

Coat of arms of Panama.svg
This article is part of a series on the
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Flag of Panama.svg Panamaportal

Panama is a member of the UN General Assembly (and most major UN agencies) and has served three terms in the UN Security Council. In November 2006, it was elected to serve a two-year term on the Security Council, beginning January 1, 2007. It maintains membership in several international financial institutions, including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the International Monetary Fund.

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group.

Inter-American Development Bank international organization

The Inter-American Development Bank is the largest source of development financing for Latin America and the Caribbean. Established in 1959, the IDB supports Latin American and Caribbean economic development, social development and regional integration by lending to governments and government agencies, including State corporations.

International Monetary Fund International organisation

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had SDR477 billion.

Panama is a member of the Organization of American States and was a founding member of the Rio Group. Although it was suspended from the Latin American Economic System — known informally both as the Group of Eight and the Rio Group — in 1988 due to its internal political system under Manuel Noriega, Panama was readmitted in September, 1994 as an acknowledgment of its present democratic credentials.

Organization of American States international organization

The Organization of American States, or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states. Headquartered in the United States capital Washington, D.C., the OAS's members are the 35 independent states of the Americas.

Rio Group

The Rio Group (G-Rio) was a permanent association of political consultation of Latin America and Caribbean countries, created in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on December 18, 1986 with the purpose of creating a better political relationship among the countries. It was succeeded in 2011 by the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States

Latin American Economic System organization founded in 1975 to promote economic cooperation and social development between Latin American and the Caribbean countries

The Latin American and the Caribbean Economic System, officially known as Sistema Económico Latinoamericano y del Caribe (SELA), is an organization founded in 1975 to promote economic cooperation and social development between Latin American and the Caribbean countries. In the early 1990s, its representatives consisted of members from 28 countries and took part in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations, which led to a new global agreement on restrictions on trade and established the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Panama is also one of the founding members of the Union of Banana Exporting Countries and belongs to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. Panama is a member of the Central American Parliament (PARLACEN) as well as the Central American Integration System (SICA). Panama joined its six Central American neighbors at the 1994 Summit of the Americas in signing the Alliance for Sustainable Development known as the Conjunta Centroamerica-USA or CONCAUSA to promote sustainable economic development in the region.

The Union of Banana Exporting Countries was a cartel of Central and South American banana exporting countries established in 1974, inspired by OPEC. Its aim was to achieve better remuneration from the North American banana trade oligopoly, which consisted of three US companies. UPEB's proposal of an export tax was undermined by the U.S. oligopoly bribing Honduran and Italian officials. The UPEB cartel collapsed when bribes became public. What is referred to as the Bananagate scandal paved the way for the U.S. Congress to create the 1977 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission is an international commission responsible for the conservation and management of tuna and other marine resources in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

Central American Parliament international parliament

The Central American Parliament, also known as PARLACEN, is the political institution and parliamentary body of the Central American Integration System (SICA). Its headquarters are in Guatemala City.

Panama is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98).

International Criminal Court Permanent international tribunal

The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes of aggression. The ICC is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals or when the United Nations Security Council or individual states refer situations to the Court. The ICC began functioning on 1 July 2002, the date that the Rome Statute entered into force. The Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as the ICC's foundational and governing document. States which become party to the Rome Statute, for example by ratifying it, become member states of the ICC. As of March 2019, there are 124 ICC member states.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court treaty

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC). It was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rome on 17 July 1998 and it entered into force on 1 July 2002. As of March 2019, 124 states are party to the statute. Among other things, the statute establishes the court's functions, jurisdiction and structure.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "RELACIONES DIPLOMÁTICAS DE LA REPÚBLICA DE PANAMÁ" (PDF). p. 195. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  2. "List of states which the Lao PDR has established diplomatic relations since 1950" (PDF). MFA of Laos. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  3. "Decrees establishing diplomatic relations with Panama, Venezuela" . Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  4. "Formal diplomatic relations list" (PDF). Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  5. 1 2 "Panamá puerta de entrada de Kosovo a América Latina" (in Spanish). 27 August 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  6. "Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Republic of Panama sign agreement on establishment of diplomatic relations". 15 January 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  7. "Turkmenistan, Panama establish diplomatic relations". 28 July 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  8. "Diplomatic Relations Between Cote D'Ivoire and Panama as of 29 Apr. 2016". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  9. "Panama establishes diplomatic relations with Tajikistan". 26 May 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  10. Embassy of Canada in Panama City (in English, French and Spanish)
  11. Embassy of Panama in Ottawa (in English and Spanish)
  12. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/05/12/wikileaks-china-rejects-panama-wish-ties/
  13. "India-Panama Relations" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs . Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  14. Indian Embassy in Panama
  15. Indian mission in Panama
  16. Panama Embassy in India
  17. Panama recognised independent state of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 2009-01-16
  18. Panamá puerta de entrada de Kosovo a América Latina, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la República de Panamá, 2013-08-27 (in Spanish)
  19. Embassy of Mexico in Panama City (in Spanish)
  20. Embassy of Panama in Mexico City (in Spanish) Archived November 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  21. Embassy of Panama in Moscow (in Spanish)
  22. Embassy of Russia in Panama City (in Russian and Spanish)
  23. Panamá y la república Saharaui
  24. 1 2 3
  25. https://search.naver.com/search.naver?where=nexearch&sm=top_sug.pre&fbm=1&acr=1&acq=%EC%A3%BC%ED%95%9C%ED%8C%8C%EB%82%98&qdt=0&ie=utf8&query=%EC%A3%BC%ED%95%9C+%ED%8C%8C%EB%82%98%EB%A7%88+%EB%8C%80%EC%82%AC%EA%B4%80
  26. http://pan.mofa.go.kr/worldlanguage/america/pan/main/index.jsp
  27. http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24568.jsp?menu=m_30_30
  28. https://www.premiercasa.com/en/panama/panama-guide/korean-embassy-panama-relations
  29. Embassy of Panama in Madrid (in Spanish)
  30. Embassy of Spain in Panama City (in Spanish)
  31. Embassy of Panama in Washington, DC
  32. Embassy of the United States in Panama City (in English and Spanish)

30. Embassy of Japan in Panama