Foreign relations of Guatemala

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Guatemala's major diplomatic interests are regional security and increasingly, regional development and economic integration.

Guatemala republic in Central America

Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. Guatemala is a representative democracy; its capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City.

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Bilateral relations

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 29 June 1998

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 June 1998.

Flag of Australia.svg  Australia 7 January 1993

There are four Australia–Guatemala bilateral treaties extended to Australia by the British Empire. Guatemala has an embassy in Canberra, Australia. [1] The Australian embassy in Mexico has consular responsibility for Guatemala. [2] Trade between the two countries is A$32 Million. [3]

Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 11 September 1993See Belize-Guatemala relations

Guatemala has a longstanding claim to a large portion of Belize. The territorial dispute caused problems with the United Kingdom and later with Belize following its 1981 independence from the UK. In December 1989 Guatemala sponsored Belize for permanent observer status in the Organization of American States (OAS). In September 1991 Guatemala recognized Belize's independence and established diplomatic ties, while acknowledging that the boundaries remained in dispute. In anticipation of an effort to bring the border dispute to an end in early 1996, the Guatemalan Congress ratified two long-pending international agreements governing frontier issues and maritime rights.

In early 2000 the Guatemalan Foreign Ministry proposed a border settlement that would transfer more than half of Belize's territory to Guatemala. Following a spate of border incidents, both sides agreed during talks under OAS auspices in November 2000 to confidence-building measures to reduce tensions. They followed that with an agreement on opening substantive discussions on the dispute. Both Guatemala and Belize are participating in the confidence-building measures, including the Guatemala-Belize Language Exchange Project.

In September 2010 the Guatemalan Congress overwhelmingly gave its approval for a referendum to be held to give the people of Guatemala a say in whether or not that country’s claim to Belize should be taken to the International Court of Justice for final resolution. Under the special agreement (compromis) signed in December 2008 by Belize and Guatemala it was agreed that if the people of both nations approved, by way of a simultaneous referendum on the same day, that the dispute would proceed to the ICJ. The outcome of any ruling handed down by the ICJ will be final and binding, regardless of in whose favor the ruling is handed down.

Flag of Canada.svg  Canada 1961
  • Canada has an embassy in Guatemala City. [4]
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal. [5]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China (Taiwan)1902
Guatemala Diplomat Antonio Roberto Castellanos Lopez and ROC President Tsai Ing-wen in Taiwan. Cai Ying Wen Zong Tong Jie Jian Gua Di Ma La Zhu Wei Ye Na Lian He Guo Chang Ren Dai Biao Qia Si Di Ye Nuo Si Kang Li .jpg
Guatemala Diplomat Antonio Roberto Castellanos Lopez and ROC President Tsai Ing-wen in Taiwan.

Guatemala maintains official relations with the Republic of China (ROC).

Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 1821
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Guatemala City. [6]
  • Guatemala has an embassy in San Salvador. [7]
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 1 May 1992
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 May, 1992. [8]
  • Both countries are full members of Organization of American States and Association of Caribbean States.
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 1821
Flag of India.svg  India 16 May 1972See Guatemala-India relations
  • India maintains an embassy in Guatemala City. [10]
  • Guatemala has an embassy in New Delhi.
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 19 May 1948 [11]
Dinner hosted by Israeli Ambassador to Guatemala Joshua Shai, in honor of President of Guatemala Enrique Peralta Azurdia, at his residence in Guatemala, 1964. Ambassador of Israel to Guatemala Joshua N Shai 1964.jpg
Dinner hosted by Israeli Ambassador to Guatemala Joshua Shai, in honor of President of Guatemala Enrique Peralta Azurdia, at his residence in Guatemala, 1964.
  • Israel maintains an embassy in Guatemala City. [12]
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Jerusalem.
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1838See Guatemala–Mexico relations

Diplomatic relations between Mexico and Guatemala began in 1838 after the dissolution of the Federal Republic of Central America.

Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 19 April 1945See Guatemala-Russia relations
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Guatemala City. [15]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 24 October 1962

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Republic of Guatemala started on 24 October 1962. [16]

  • Guatemala has an embassy in Seoul, South Korea. [17]
  • South Korea has an embassy in Guatemala City. [18]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1838See Guatemala–Spain relations
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Madrid. [19]
  • Spain has an embassy in Guatemala City. [20]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1830See Guatemala-United States relations

Relations between the United States and Guatemala traditionally have been close, although at times strained by human rights and civil-military issues. U.S. policy objectives in Guatemala include:

The United States, as a member of "the Friends of Guatemala", along with Colombia, Mexico, Spain, Norway, and Venezuela, played an important role in the UN-moderated peace accords. The United States strongly supported the six substantive and three procedural accords, which, along with the signing of the December 29, 1996 final accord, form the blueprint for profound political, economic, and social change. To that end, the U.S. government committed over $500 million to support peace implementation since 1997.

Violent criminal activity continues to be a problem in Guatemala, including murder, rape, and armed assaults. In recent years the number of violent crimes reported by U.S. citizens has steadily increased, though the number of Americans traveling to Guatemala has increased.

Most U.S. assistance to Guatemala is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) offices for Guatemala. USAID/Guatemala's current program builds on the gains of the peace process that followed the signing of the peace accords in December 1996, as well as on the achievements of its 1997–2004 peace program. The current program works to advance U.S. foreign policy objectives by focusing on Guatemala's potential as Central America's largest economy and trading partner of the United States, but also recognizes the country's lagging social indicators and widespread poverty. The three areas of focus for USAID/Guatemala's program are modeled after the Millennium Challenge Account areas—ruling justly, economic freedom, and investing in people.

Multilateral relations

The Central American Ministers of Trade meet on a regular basis to work on regional approaches to trade issues. In March 1998, Guatemala joined its Central American neighbors in signing a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA). In 2000 it joined Honduras and El Salvador in signing a free trade agreement with Mexico, which went into effect in 2001. Guatemala also originated the idea for, and is the seat of, the Central American Parliament (PARLACEN).

Central America central geographic region of the Americas

Central America is located on the southern tip of North America, or is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas, bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The combined population of Central America has been estimated to be 41,739,000 and 42,688,190.

Trade and Investment Framework Agreement

A Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) is a trade pact that establishes a framework for expanding trade and resolving outstanding disputes between countries.

Honduras republic in Central America

Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America. In the past, it was sometimes referred to as "Spanish Honduras" to differentiate it from British Honduras, which later became modern-day Belize. The republic of Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Fonseca, and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea.

Guatemala participates in several regional groups, particularly those related to the environment and trade. For example, US President Clinton and the Central American presidents signed the CONCAUSA (Conjunto Centroamerica-USA) agreement at the Summit of the Americas in December 1994. CONCAUSA is a cooperative plan of action to promote clean, efficient energy use; conserve the region's biodiversity; strengthen legal and institutional frameworks and compliance mechanisms; and improve and harmonize environmental protection standards.

Efficient energy use Energy efficiency

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. Installing LED lighting, fluorescent lighting, or natural skylight windows reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs. Improvements in energy efficiency are generally achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production process or by application of commonly accepted methods to reduce energy losses.

Illicit drugs: Guatemala is a transit country for cocaine shipments; minor producer of illicit opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; active eradication program in 1996 effectively eliminated the cannabis crop; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (cocaine shipments).

Cocaine chemical compound

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.

Illegal drug trade global black market

The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws.

See also

Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute

The Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute is an unresolved binational territorial dispute between the states of Belize and Guatemala, neighbours in Central America. The territory of Belize has been claimed in whole or in part by Guatemala since 1821.

Visa requirements for Guatemalan citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Guatemala. As of 9 October 2018, Guatemalan citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 137 countries and territories, ranking the Guatemalan passport 37th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.

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References

  1. "Search results". protocol.dfat.gov.au. Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  2. "Guatemala". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  3. http://dfat.gov.au (PDF). Dept Foreign Affairs and Trade http://dfat.gov.au/trade/resources/Documents/guat.pdf . Retrieved 6 July 2017.Missing or empty |title= (help); External link in |website= (help)
  4. Embassy of Canada in Guatemala
  5. Embassy of Guatemala in Canada
  6. Embassy of El Salvador in Guatemala (in Spanish)
  7. Embassy of Guatemala in El Salvador (in Spanish)
  8. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-07-16.
  9. Embassy of Guatemala in Honduras (in Spanish)
  10. Indian Embassy in Guatemala
  11. http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1950_14_Israel.pdf
  12. http://embassies.gov.il/guatemala/Pages/default.aspx
  13. Embassy of Mexico in Guatemala City (in Spanish).
  14. Embassy of Guatemala in Mexico City (in Spanish).
  15. Embassy of the Russian Federation in Guatemala City
  16. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea-Latin America and Caribbean
  17. 알짜 유럽여행 정보 노리터 : 네이버 블로그
  18. Embajada de la República de Corea en Guatemala
  19. Embassy of Guatemala in Spain (in Spanish)
  20. Embassy of Spain in Guatemala (in Spanish)
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