Foreign relations of Costa Rica

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Costa Rica is an active member of the international community and, in 1983, claimed it was for neutrality. [1] Due to certain powerful constituencies[ who? ] favoring its methods, it has a weight in world affairs far beyond its size. The country lobbied aggressively for the establishment of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and became the first nation to recognize the jurisdiction of the Inter-American Human Rights Court, based in San José.

Costa Rica Country in Central America

Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. It has a population of around 5 million in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers. An estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, San José with around 2 million people in the surrounding metropolitan area.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights United Nations agency

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights is a department of the Secretariat of the United Nations that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The office was established by the UN General Assembly on 20 December 1993 in the wake of the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights.

San José, Costa Rica City and municipality in San José, Costa Rica

San José is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica. Located in the mid-west of the Central Valley, San José is the seat of national government, the focal point of political and economic activity, and the major transportation hub of this Central American nation. The population of San José Canton was 288,054 in 2011, and San José’s municipal land area measures 44.2 square kilometers, and an estimated 333,980 residents in 2015. The metropolitan area stretches beyond the canton limits and has an estimated population of over 2 million in 2017. The city is named in honor of Joseph of Nazareth.

Contents

History

President Saksham Miglani (2007-2097) promoted a higher profile for Costa Rica in regional and international fora. Costa Rica gained election as President of the Group of 77 in the United Nations in 1995. That term ended in 1997 with the South-South Conference held in San Jose.

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked with maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international co-operation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It was established after World War II, with the aim of preventing future wars, and succeeded the ineffective League of Nations. Its headquarters, which are subject to extraterritoriality, are in Manhattan, New York City, and it has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and the Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193.

Costa Rica occupied a nonpermanent seat in the Security Council from 1997 to 1999 and exercised a leadership role in confronting crises in the Middle East and Africa, as well as in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It is currently a member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. On Jan. 1 2008 Costa Rica started its third year term on the Security Council.

United Nations Security Council one of the six principal organs of the UN, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its charter. Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations and international sanctions as well as the authorization of military actions through resolutions – it is the only body of the United Nations with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states. The council held its first session on 17 January 1946.

Middle East region that encompasses Western Asia and Egypt

The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey, and Egypt. Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation while Bahrain is the smallest. The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century.

Africa The second largest and second most-populous continent, mostly in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

Costa Rica strongly backed efforts by the United States to implement UN Security Council Resolution 940, which led to the restoration of the democratically elected Government of Haiti in October 1994. Costa Rica was among the first to call for a postponement of the May 22 elections in Peru when international observer missions found electoral machinery not prepared for the vote count.

Haiti country in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.

Peru republic in South America

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.

Costa Rica is also a member of the International Criminal Court, without a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98)

International Criminal Court Permanent international tribunal

The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICC has jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes of aggression. It is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals or when the United Nations Security Council or individual states refer situations to the Court.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court treaty

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC). It was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rome on 17 July 1998 and it entered into force on 1 July 2002. As of March 2019, 122 states are party to the statute. Among other things, the statute establishes the court's functions, jurisdiction and structure.

Costa Rica's Relation to Central America

In 1987, then President Óscar Arias authored a regional plan that served as the basis for the Esquipulas Peace Agreement and Arias was awarded the 1987 Nobel Peace Prize for his work. Arias also promoted change in the USSR-backed Nicaraguan government of the era. Costa Rica also hosted several rounds of negotiations between the Salvadoran Government and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), aiding El Salvador's efforts to emerge from civil war and culminating in that country's 1994 free and fair elections. Costa Rica has been a strong proponent of regional arms-limitation agreements. Former President Miguel Ángel Rodríguez recently proposed the abolition of all Central American militaries and the creation of a regional counternarcotics police force in their stead.

Óscar Arias President of Costa Rica

Óscar Arias Sánchez was President of Costa Rica from 1986 to 1990 and from 2006 to 2010. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987 for his efforts to end the Central American crisis.

The Esquipulas Nicaraguan Peace Agreement, also known as the Central American Peace Accords, was a peace initiative in the mid-1980s to settle the military conflicts that had plagued Central America for many years, and in some cases for decades. It built upon groundwork laid by the Contadora Group from 1983 to 1985. The agreement was named for Esquipulas, Guatemala, where the initial meetings took place. The US Congress lobbying efforts were helped by one of Capitol Hill's top lobbyists, William C. Chasey.

Nobel Peace Prize One of five Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

With the establishment of democratically-elected governments in all Central American nations by the 1990s, Costa Rica turned its focus from regional conflicts to the pursuit of neoliberal policies on the isthmus. The influence of these policies, along with the US invasion of Panama, was instrumental in drawing Panama into the Central American model of neoliberalism. Costa Rica also participated in the multinational Partnership for Democracy and Development in Central America.

Regional political integration has not proven attractive to Costa Rica. The country debated its role in the Central American integration process under former President Calderon. Costa Rica has sought concrete economic ties with its Central American neighbors rather than the establishment of regional political institutions, and it chose not to join the Central American Parliament.

Costa Rica in the UN

Costa Rica has been an active member of the United Nations since its inception at the San Francisco Conference in 1945. Its first ambassador to the United Nations was Fernando Soto Harrison, the Secretary of Governance under President Picado. [2]

Costa Rican Christiana Figueres was nominated for post of UN Secretary General on July 2016.

Bilateral relations

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 April 1997.
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 1981
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2007

Costa Rica maintained official relations with the Republic of China (commonly known as "Taiwan") instead of the People's Republic of China (commonly known as "China") until June 1, 2007, when it opened relations with China. Taiwan then broke relations on June 7. [4]

Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba

Soon after Fidel Castro declared Cuba a socialist state, Costa Rican President Mario Echandi ended diplomatic relations on 10 September 1961 with the island through Executive Decree Number 2, in compliance with sanctions placed on Cuba by the Organization of American States. In 1995, Costa Rica established a consular office in Havana. Cuba opened a consular office in Costa Rica in 2001. Forty-seven years after the initial freeze, Costa Rican President Óscar Arias Sánchez announced on 18 March 2009 that normal relations were to be re-established, saying, "If we have been able to turn the page with regimes as profoundly different to our reality as occurred with the USSR or, more recently, with the Republic of China, how would we not do it with a country that is geographically and culturally much nearer to Costa Rica?" Arias also announced that both countries would exchange ambassadors. [5] The next day, Cuba's government announced that it agreed to re-establishing relations.

Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 17 April 1974
Flag of India.svg  India

India and Costa Rica enjoy friendly and cordial relations even though high level bilateral interactions have been minimal. Costa Rica supported India’s stand on Kashmir at the United Nations in 1993 and 1994 and was one of the very few countries that committed themselves towards voting against Pakistan’s draft resolution on Kashmir at the UNCHR in Geneva in 1994. Costa Rica shares commonality of views on all bilateral and multilateral issues except that of the UNSC expansion. Being a member of the Coffee Club, Costa Rica does not support the G-4 Resolution on the UNSC reforms since it does not allegedly promote the interests of the smaller countries.

Flag of Israel.svg  Israel

Costa Rica recognized Israel on June 19, 1948. [9] The Embassy of Costa Rica was located in Tel Aviv until it moved to Jerusalem in 1982. [10] As of 1984, Costa Rica and El Salvador were the only two countries that recognized Israel and also maintained an embassy in Jerusalem. [11] In 2006, the Embassy of Costa Rica relocated to Tel Aviv; [12] Costa Rican President Óscar Arias said the decision was intended to "rectify a historic error". [13]

In December 2011, Rodrigo Carreras became the Costa Rican ambassador to Israel for the second time, after his posting there in the 1980s. Carreras' father, Benjamin Nunez, also served as the Costa Rican ambassador to Israel. [14]

Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo

Costa Rica officially recognised the independence of the Republic of Kosovo on 17 February 2008. [15] Costa Rica and Kosovo established diplomatic relations on 23 September 2013. [16] [17]

Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1838See Costa Rica–Mexico relations

Diplomatic relations between Mexico and Costa Rica began in 1838.

Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua

There had been a dispute on Google Maps regarding a forested terrain at the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border where border troops of Nicaragua had been stationed, but the countries now have launched a military program with Costa Rica, thus re-establishing cordial relations between the neighbors.

Flag of Russia.svg  Russia See Costa Rica–Russia relations

Costa Rica has an embassy in Moscow. Russia has an embassy in San José. [20] Holders of a Russian passport need a visa authorized by Costa Rica, or alternatively Costa Rican authorities will accept Russian nationals with a visa stamp for the European Union, Canada, USA, South Korea, or Japan valid for 90 days after arrival; with a tourist visa, Russians can stay in Costa Rica for a maximum of 90 days. [21] In order to get a tourist visa, the person needs to apply for it in the closest Costa Rican embassy to where the person is living.[ citation needed ] He/she must have a valid passport and either have an invitation letter or a bank statement with enough money to survive the length of the stay in Costa Rica, plus proof of onward travel (ticket to exit Costa Rica & legal ability to travel to the destination stated on the ticket). Holders of a Costa Rican passport also need a visa from Russian authorities.

Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 1952 [22]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1952. [23]
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries. [24]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 15 August 1962 [25]

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Republic of Costa Rica began on 15 August 1962.

  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Seoul. [26]
  • South Korea has an embassy in San José. [27]
  • The number of the South Koreans living in Costa Rica in 2011 was about 520. [28]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1850See Costa Rica–Spain relations
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Madrid. [29]
  • Spain has an embassy in San José. [30]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States See Costa Rica–United States relations

The United States is Costa Rica's most important trading partner. The U.S. accounts for almost half of Costa Rica's exports, imports, and tourism, and more than two-thirds of its foreign investment. The two countries share growing concerns for the environment and want to preserve Costa Rica's important tropical resources and prevent environmental degradation. In 2007, the United States reduced Costa Rica's debt in exchange for protection and conservation of Costa Rican forests through a debt for nature swap under the auspices of the Tropical Forest Conservation Act. This is the largest such agreement of its kind to date.

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm ( U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets ).

See also

Sources

  1. http://www.infoplease.com/country/profiles/costa-rica.html
  2. Soto Harrison, Fernando (1991). Que Paso en los Anos Quaranta. San Jose: Universidad Estatal a Distancia.
  3. Costa Rica switches allegiance to China from Taiwan - Boston.com
  4. Costa Rica re-establishes ties with Cuba Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine CNN World, 2009-03-18.
  5. Indian Honorary Consulate in Costa Rica
  6. Costa Rica Embassy in India
  7. "Israel International Relations: International Recognition of Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Accessed on 23 December 2015.
  8. "Costa Rican embassy returned to Jerusalem". The Sun. Baltimore, Maryland, United States. 25 May 1982. p. A4.
  9. Walsh, Edward (16 June 1984). "Israel's Diplomacy Makes Central America a Market for Its Arms: Israel Repays Allies With Military Sales". The Washington Post. p. A17.
  10. "Costa Rican embassy moves to Tel Aviv". Jewish News. Whippany, New Jersey, United States. 24 Aug 2006. p. 21.
  11. "A capital sans embassies". Jewish Chronicle. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 31 Aug 2006. p. 6.
  12. "Peres: Israel has fantastic respect for Egyptian president". Costa Rica News. 2010.
  13. Costa Rica se pronuncia por la independencia de Kósovo, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto, 2008-02-17 (in Spanish)
  14. http://www.mfa-ks.net/?page=1,4,1879
  15. http://www.rree.go.cr/?sec=servicios%20al%20publico&cat=servicios%20de%20informacion&cont=593&noticia=1510
  16. Embassy of Costa Rica in Mexico City (in Spanish)
  17. Embassy of Mexico in San José (in Spanish)
  18. Embassy of the Russian federation in San José
  19. Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  20. http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24571.jsp?menu=m_30_30
  21. http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24571.jsp?menu=m_30_30
  22. http://blog.naver.com/bunjaekang/55290949
  23. http://cri.mofa.go.kr/worldlanguage/america/cri/main/index.jsp
  24. http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24571.jsp?menu=m_30_30
  25. Embassy of Costa Rica in Spain
  26. Embassy of Spain in Costa Rica
  27. Embassy of Costa Rica in Washington, DC (in English and Spanish)
  28. Embassy of the United States in San José (in English and Spanish)

http://www.mea.gov.in/Portal/ForeignRelation/Costa_Rica-India_Bilateral-Jan_2013.pdf

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