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politics and government of
The government of El Salvador is a presidential representative democratic republic.
El Salvador elects its head of state – the President of El Salvador – directly through a fixed-date general election whose winner is decided by absolute majority. If an absolute majority (50% + 1) is not achieved by any candidate in the first round of a presidential election, then a run-off election is conducted 30 days later between the two candidates who obtained the most votes in the first round. The presidential period is five years. Consecutive re-election is not permitted, though previously elected presidents may run for a second, non-consecutive term.
Salvadorans also elect a single-chamber, unicameral national legislature – the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador – composed of 84 members (deputies). They are elected by open-list proportional representation for three-year terms, with the possibility of immediate re-election. All 84 seats in the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of 14 multi-member constituencies (corresponding to El Salvador's 14 departments). They range from 3-16 seats each according to department population size.
El Salvador has a multi-party system. Two political parties, the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) have tended to dominate elections. ARENA candidates won four consecutive presidential elections until the election of Mauricio Funes of the FMLN in March 2009.
Geographically, the departments of the Central region, especially the capital and the coastal regions, known as departamentos rojos, or red departments, are relatively Leftist. The departamentos azules, or blue departments in the east, western and highland regions are relatively conservative.
National Congress (March)
|None||Presidential (March)||National Congress (March)|
|None||President and vice president||None|
|National Congress||All seats||None||All seats||None|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||All positions||None||All positions||None|
National Congress (June)
National Congress (June)
|National Congress||1 May||None||1 May||None|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||1 May||None||1 May||None|
|Nationalist Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista)||870,418||39.76%||33|
|Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional)||804,760||36.76%||31|
|Grand Alliance for National Unity (Alianza por la Unidad Nacional)||210,101||9.6%||11|
|National Coalition (Concertación Nacional)1||157,074||7.18%||74|
|Party of Hope (Partido de la Esperanza)2||60,486||2.76%||14|
|Democratic Change (Cambio Democrático)||46,838||2.14%||1|
|National Liberal Party (Partido Nacional Liberal)||14,379||0.66%||0|
|People's Party (Partido Popular)||10,952||0.50%||0|
|1Compared to National Conciliation Party in 2009.|
2Compared to Christian Democratic Party in 2009.
3Five independent candidates. Percentage and votes are cumulative.
4A MP from Chalatenango that won, ran on a joint CN and PES ticket and got 17,072 votes, or 0.78% (counted here for CN).
Source: Supreme Electoral Tribunal
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Salvador Sánchez Cerén||Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front||1,315,768||48.93||1,495,815||50.11|
|Norman Quijano||Nationalist Republican Alliance||1,047,592||38.96||1,489,451||49.89|
|Antonio Saca||Unity Movement||307,603||11.44|
|René Rodriguez Hurtado||Salvadoran Progressive Party||11,314||0.42|
|Óscar Lemus||Salvadoran Patriot Fraternity||6,659||0.25|
|Nayib Bukele||Grand Alliance for National Unity||1,434,856||53.10|
|Carlos Calleja||Nationalist Republican Alliance||857,084||31.72|
|Hugo Martínez||Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front||389,289||14.41|
|Invalid or blank votes||31,186||–|
Politics of El Salvador takes place in land a framework of A presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of El Salvador is both head of state and head of government, and of an Executive power is exercised by the government.
The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front is one of the two major political parties in El Salvador.
The president of El Salvador, officially known as the president of the Republic of El Salvador, is the head of state and head of government of El Salvador. He is also, by Constitutional Law, the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of El Salvador. The office was created in the Constitution of 1841. From 1821 until 1841, the head of state of El Salvador was styled simply as Head of State.
A presidential election was held in El Salvador on Sunday, 21 March 2004. The Salvadoran people elected a new president, together with his vice-president, for a five-year term.
The Nationalist Republican Alliance is a conservative, right-wing political party of El Salvador. It was founded on 30 September 1981 by retired Salvadoran soldier Roberto D'Aubuisson and businesswoman Mercedes Gloria Salguero Gross. It defines itself as a political institution constituted by "Salvadorans who defend the democratic, republican, and representative system of government, the social market economy system and nationalism".
Schafik Jorge Handal was a Salvadoran politician. Born in Usulután, he was the son of Palestinian immigrants from the town of Bethlehem.
The National Coalition Party is a nationalist political party in El Salvador. Until 2011 it was known as the National Conciliation Party. It was the most powerful political party in the country during the 1960s and 1970s, and was closely associated with the Salvadoran military. Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo, a candidate of the National Conciliation Party, was elected president in 1962, and the next three presidents were also from the party. After the 1979 coup the party declined in influence but continued to exist.
The Christian Democratic Party is a Christian democratic party in El Salvador. After being officially disbanded by the Supreme Court in 2011, it continued to work under the name of Party of Hope, before re-taking its original name in 2012.
The 2003 Salvadoran legislative election took place in El Salvador on 16 March 2003 to elect 84 deputies to the Legislative Assembly for a term of three years. The main opposition party, the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), won the most seats in election at 31. However the governing Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) won enough seats to continue in government with the Party of National Conciliation (PCN).
Elvia Violeta Menjívar Escalante is a Salvadoran politician affiliated with the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front. She has been Minister of Health and Social Welfare since 1 June 2014. She is the former mayor of San Salvador.
Salvador Sánchez Cerén was President of El Salvador between 1 June 2014 and 1 June 2019. He took office on 1 June 2014, after winning the 2014 presidential election as the candidate of the left-wing Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). He previously served as Vice President from 2009 to 2014. He was also a guerrilla leader in the Civil War and is the first ex-rebel to serve as president.
The government of El Salvador is a presidential representative democratic republic. The seat of the federal government is in San Salvador.
The Grand Alliance for National Unity is a political party in El Salvador. The party established itself on 16 January 2010 and was recognized by the Supreme Electoral Court of El Salvador on 19 May of the same year. GANA is a conservative and centre-right party. Nevertheless, it almost always forms a parliamentary coalition with the major leftist Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN).
Legislative and local elections were held in El Salvador on 11 March 2012 to choose 84 members of the legislative assembly and 262 mayors. The election was carried out by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. The opposition Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) narrowly defeated the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) and its ally Grand Alliance for National Unity (GANA).
Norman Noel Quijano González is a Salvadoran politician and former Mayor of San Salvador, under the Nationalist Republican Alliance ticket, serving from May 1, 2009 until his resignation on August 15, 2013 in order to run as a presidential candidate. He was succeeded by Gloria Calderón de Oñate while the presidential campaign was taking place. After the election, he returned to the mayor office to resume his duties.
General elections were held in Uruguay on 26 October 2014, alongside a constitutional referendum. As no presidential candidate received an absolute majority in the first round of voting, a runoff took place on 30 November. Primary elections to determine each party's presidential candidate had been held on 1 June.
Presidential elections were held in El Salvador on February 2, 2014, with a second round held on March 9 since no candidate won an outright majority. The primary candidates were Vice-President Salvador Sánchez Cerén of the FMLN, San Salvador Mayor Norman Quijano of ARENA, and Former President Antonio "Tony" Saca. Saca represented GANA, the National Conciliation Party, and the Christian Democratic Party in the UNIDAD coalition. Incumbent President Mauricio Funes is ineligible to run for a consecutive second term. Sánchez Cerén and Quijano emerged as the contestants in the runoff held on March 9 in which Sánchez Cerén was declared the victor.
Nayib Armando Bukele Ortez is a Salvadoran politician and businessman who became the 46th and current President of El Salvador after winning the 2019 election. He took office on 1 June 2019. Nayib Bukele ran as the candidate of the centre-right GANA party and became the first president since José Napoleón Duarte (1984–1989) to not have been elected as the candidate of one of the country's two major political parties, the FMLN and ARENA.
Ernesto Luis Muyshondt García-Prieto is a Salvadoran businessman, politician and member of the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) party. He has served as the Mayor of San Salvador, the capital and largest city in El Salvador, since May 1, 2018. He was previously a deputy of the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador from 2015 until 2018.