|Demographics of El Salvador|
|Infant mortality rate||22.19/1,000|
|Life expectancy||73.44 years|
This article is about the demographic features of the population of El Salvador, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
El Salvador's population numbers 6.1 million. Ethnically, 86.3% of Salvadorans are mixed (mixed Indigenous Native American and European Spanish origin). Another 12.7% is of pure European descent, 1% are of pure indigenous descent, 0.16% are Black and others are 0.64%.
El Salvador's population was 6,420,746 in 2018, compared to 2,200,000 in 1950. In 2010 the percentage of the population below the age of 15 was 32.1%, 61% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 6.9% were 65 years or older.
|Year||Total population||Proportion per age group|
|Ages 0–14 (%)||Ages 15–64 (%)||Ages 65+ (%)|
|1950||2 200 000||42.7||53.3||4.0|
|1955||2 433 000||43.6||52.6||3.8|
|1960||2 773 000||45.1||51.1||3.7|
|1965||3 244 000||46.3||50.1||3.7|
|1970||3 736 000||46.4||49.9||3.6|
|1975||4 232 000||45.8||50.5||3.7|
|1980||4 661 000||45.2||50.9||3.9|
|1985||5 004 000||44.1||51.8||4.2|
|1990||5 344 000||41.7||53.7||4.6|
|1995||5 748 000||39.6||55.5||4.9|
|2000||5 959 000||38.3||56.2||5.5|
|2005||6 073 000||35.7||58.1||6.2|
|2010||6 218 000||32.1||61.0||6.9|
The migration rate accelerated during the period of 1979 to 1981, this marked the beginning of the civil unrest and the spread of political killings.The total impact of civil wars, dictatorships and socioeconomics drove over a million Salvadorans (both as immigrants and refugees) into the United States; Guatemala is the second country that hosts more Salvadorans behind the United States, approximately 110,000 Salvadorans according to the national census of 2010. in addition small Salvadoran communities sprung up in Canada, Australia, Belize, Panama, Costa Rica, Italy, Taiwan and Sweden since the migration trend began in the early 1970s. The 2010 U.S. Census counted 1,648,968 Salvadorans in the United States, up from 655,165 in 2000.
Out of the 6,408,111 people in El Salvador, 86.3% are Mestizo, 12.7% are of full European descent, 1% Indigenous, 0.8% Black, and 0.64% other.
86.3% of the population are mestizo, having mixed indigenous and European ancestry.In the mestizo population, Salvadorans who are racially European, especially Mediterranean, as well as Afro-Salvadoran, and the indigenous people in El Salvador who do not speak indigenous languages or have an indigenous culture, all identify themselves as being culturally mestizo.
According to the Salvadoran Government, about 1% of the population are of full or partial indigenous origin. The largest most dominant Native American groups in El Salvador are the Lenca people and Pipil people followed by small enclaves of Maya peoples: (Poqomam people/Chorti people), Cacaopera people, Xinca people, Alaguilac people, Mixe people, Mangue language people, as well as an Olmec past. (Pipil, located in the west and central part of the country, and Lenca, found east of the Lempa River). There are small populations of Cacaopera people in the Morazán Department and a few Ch'orti' people live in the department of Ahuachapán, near the border of Guatemala.
The number of indigenous people in El Salvador have been criticized by indigenous organizations and academics as too small and accuse the government of denying the existence of indigenous Salvadorans in the country.According to the National Salvadoran Indigenous Coordination Council (CCNIS) and CONCULTURA (National Council for Art and Culture at the Ministry of Education ), approximately 70,000 or 1 per cent of Salvadorian peoples are indigenous. Nonetheless, very few Amerindians have retained their customs and traditions, having over time assimilated into the dominant Mestizo/Spanish culture. The low numbers of indigenous people may be partly explained by historically high rates of old-world diseases, absorption into the mestizo population, as well as mass murder during the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising (or La Matanza) which saw (estimates of) up to 30,000 peasants killed in a short period of time. Many authors note that since La Matanza the indigenous in El Salvador have been very reluctant to describe themselves as such (in census declarations for example) or to wear indigenous dress or be seen to be taking part in any cultural activities or customs that might be understood as indigenous. Departments and cities in the country with notable indigenous populations include Sonsonate (especially Izalco, Nahuizalco, and Santo Domingo), Cacaopera, and Panchimalco, in the department of San Salvador.
Some 12.7% of Salvadorans are white. This population is mostly made up of ethnically Spanish people, while there are also Salvadorans of French, German, Swiss, English, Irish, and Italian descent. A majority of Central European settlers in El Salvador arrived during World War II as refugees from the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Switzerland. In northern departments like the Chalatenango Department, it is well known that residents in the area are of pure Spanish descent;[ citation needed ] settling in the region that is now Chalatenango in the late 18th century. The governor of San Salvador, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet, ordered families from northern Spain (Galicia and Asturias) to settle the area to compensate for the lack of indigenous people to work the land; it is not uncommon to see people with blond hair, fair skin, and blue or green eyes in municipalities like Dulce Nombre de María, La Palma, and El Pital. The majority of Salvadorans of Spanish descent possess Mediterranean racial features: olive skin and dark hair and eyes (black or dark brown), and they identify themselves as mestizo, like mentioned above.
There is a significant Arab population (of about 100,000);mostly from Palestine (especially from the area of Bethlehem), but also from Lebanon. Salvadorans of Palestinian descent numbered around 70,000 individuals, while Salvadorans of Lebanese descent is around 25,000. There is also a small community of Jews who came to El Salvador from France, Germany, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey.
The history of the Arabs in El Salvador dates back to the end of the 20th century, because of religious clashes, which induced many Palestinians, Lebanese, Egyptians and Syrians to leave the land where they were born, in search of countries where they at least lived in An atmosphere of relative peace. There were also other reasons of a subjective nature, based on the hope of success, of achieving success and fortune and obtaining recognition from others.
Arab immigration in El Salvador began at the end of the 20th century in the wake of the repressive policies applied by the Ottoman Empire against Maronite Catholics. Several of the destinations that the Lebanese chose at that time were in countries of the Americas, including El Salvador. This resulted in the Arab diaspora residents being characterized by forging in devoutly Christian families and very attached to their beliefs, because in these countries they can exercise their faith without fear of persecution, which resulted in the rise of Lebanese-Salvadoran, Syrian-Salvadoran and Palestinian-Salvadoran communities in El Salvador.
Currently the strongest community is the Palestinian (70,000 descendants), followed by the Lebanese settled in San Salvador with more than 27,000 direct descendants, mostly (95%) Catholic and Orthodox Christians. The slaughter of Lebanese and Palestinian Arab Christians at the hands of Muslims, initiated the first Lebanese migration to El Salvador.
Inter-ethnic marriage in the Lebanese community with Salvadorans, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most have only one father with Lebanese nationality and mother of Salvadoran nationality. As a result, some of them speak Arabic fluently. But most, especially among younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language and Arabic as a second.
During the war between Israel and Lebanon in 1948 and during the Six Day War, thousands of Lebanese left their country and went to El Salvador. First they arrived at La Libertad, were they comprised half of the economic activity of immigrants.
Lebanon had been an iqta of the Ottoman Empire. Although the imperial administration, whose official religion was Islam, guaranteed freedom of worship for non-Muslim communities, and Lebanon in particular had a semi-autonomous status, the situation for practitioners of the Maronite Catholic Church was complicated, since they had to cancel exaggerated taxes and suffered limitations for their culture. These tensions were expressed in a rebellion in 1821 and a war against the Druze in 1860. The hostile climate caused many Lebanese to sell their property and take ships in the ports of Sidon, Beirut and Tripoli heading for the Americas.
Statistically in El Salvador, there are about 120,000 Arabs, of Lebanese, Syrian, Egyptian and Palestinian ancestry. In the case of these Arab-Salvadorans, although not all the families arrived together, they were the ones that lead the economy in the country.
In 1939, the Arab community based in San Salvador organized and founded the "Arab Youth Union Society"
Pardo is the term that was used in colonial El Salvador to describe a tri-racial Afro-Mestizo person of Indigenous, European, and African descent. Afro-Salvadorans are the descendants of the African population that were enslaved and shipped to El Salvador to work in mines in specific regions of El Salvador. They have mixed into and were naturally bred out by the general Mestizo population, which is a combination of a Mestizo majority and the minority of Pardo people, both of whom are racially mixed populations. Thus, there remains no significant extremes of African physiognomy among Salvadorans like there is in the other countries of Central America. A total of only 10,000 African slaves were brought to El Salvador over the span of 75 years, starting around 1548, about 25 years after El Salvador's colonization. El Salvador is the only country in Central America that does not have English Antillean (West Indian) or Garifuna populations of the Caribbean, but instead had older colonial African slaves that came straight from Africa. This is the reason why El Salvador is the only country in Central America not to have a caribbeanized culture, and instead preserved its classical Central America culture.[ citation needed ]
The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.
|CBR*||CDR*||NC*||TFR*||IMR*||Life expectancy |
|Life expectancy |
|Life expectancy |
|1950-1955||108 000||48 000||61 000||46.7||20.6||26.1||6.30||147||45.1||43.4||46.8|
|1955-1960||125 000||46 000||78 000||47.8||17.8||30.0||6.60||132||49.3||47.2||51.5|
|1960-1965||144 000||47 000||97 000||47.7||15.5||32.3||6.76||119||53.0||50.5||55.7|
|1965-1970||156 000||47 000||109 000||44.8||13.5||31.3||6.43||109||55.6||52.6||58.9|
|1970-1975||168 000||49 000||119 000||42.1||12.3||29.8||5.95||100||57.0||53.2||61.2|
|1975-1980||177 000||52 000||124 000||39.7||11.8||27.9||5.46||91||57.0||51.9||62.7|
|1980-1985||174 000||55 000||119 000||36.1||11.4||24.7||4.80||77||56.9||50.6||64.2|
|1985-1990||171 000||44 000||126 000||33.0||8.6||24.4||4.20||56||63.1||57.4||69.1|
|1990-1995||169 000||37 000||132 000||30.5||6.8||23.8||3.73||38||68.0||63.3||72.9|
|1995-2000||161 000||38 000||123 000||27.5||6.6||20.9||3.30||27||69.2||64.4||73.9|
|2000-2005||133 000||75 000||94 000||22.0||6.4||15.6||2.60||23||70.2||65.4||74.9|
|2005-2010||127 000||90 000||87 000||20.7||6.5||14.2||2.35||21||71.3||66.5||75.9|
|* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)|
|Average population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||TFR|
Structure of the population (May 2007 census):
|Total||2 719 371||3 024 742||5 744 113||100|
|0-4||283 272||272 621||555 893||9.68|
|5-9||349 150||335 577||684 727||11.92|
|10-14||359 523||346 824||706 347||12.30|
|15-19||298 384||302 181||600 565||10.46|
|20-24||228 001||258 541||486 542||8.47|
|25-29||206 963||250 927||457 890||7.97|
|30-34||178 400||223 849||402 249||7.00|
|35-39||156 514||196 633||353 147||6.15|
|40-44||132 218||171 413||303 631||5.29|
|45-49||109 957||142 165||252 122||4.39|
|50-54||95 275||120 459||215 734||3.76|
|55-59||81 718||101 357||183 075||3.19|
|60-64||68 207||83 657||151 864||2.64|
|65-69||55 781||69 376||125 157||2.18|
|70-74||43 449||54 008||97 457||1.70|
|75-79||33 658||42 326||75 984||1.32|
|80-84||20 401||26 469||46 870||0.82|
|85+||18 500||26 359||44 859||0.78|
|0-14||991 945||955 022||1 946 967||33.89|
|15-64||1 555 637||1 851 182||3 406 819||59.31|
|65+||171 789||218 538||390 327||6.80|
Structure of the population (July 2011; 4stimates based on the 2007 census trends):
|Total||2 925 284||3 290 858||6 216 143||100|
|0-4||309 786||296 430||606 216||9.75|
|5-9||308 052||294 483||602 535||9.69|
|10-14||362 232||348 111||710 343||11.43|
|15-19||352 598||350 791||703 389||11.32|
|20-24||276 109||305 559||581 668||9.36|
|25-29||209 615||261 340||470 955||7.58|
|30-34||180 198||235 412||415 609||6.69|
|35-39||168 638||219 197||387 835||6.24|
|40-44||149 955||194 952||344 907||5.55|
|45-49||127 846||167 719||295 565||4.75|
|50-54||108 714||140 978||249 692||4.02|
|55-59||93 682||119 911||213 593||3.44|
|60-64||78 899||100 625||179 525||2.89|
|65-69||65 846||82 450||148 295||2.39|
|70-74||52 993||66 934||119 928||1.93|
|75-79||38 678||49 603||88 281||1.42|
|80+||41 443||56 363||97 806||1.57|
|0-14||980 070||939 024||1 919 094||30.87|
|15-64||1 746 254||2 096 484||3 842 738||61.82|
|65+||198 960||255 350||454 310||7.31|
Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.
Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
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