Swiss people

Last updated

Schweizer / Suisses / Svizzeri / Svizzers
Total population
c.8–9 million(2016) [lower-alpha 1]
Swiss people around the world.svg
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 6.4 million(2019) [1]
Swiss abroad
0.8 million(2016) [2]
Swiss ancestry
c.1.5 million [3]
Flag of France.svg  France 220,730
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 89,390
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 82,192
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 81,075
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 60,000
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 51,895
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 40,280
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 34,971
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 25,168
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 25,148
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 19,433
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 19,000
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 15,816
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 15,321
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 9,132
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 8,000
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 5,366
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 5,489
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1,714
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 1,000
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 1,000
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 1,000
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1,000
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 1,000
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 1,000
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 1,000
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1,000
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 1,000
Swiss German, Swiss Standard German
Swiss French
Swiss Italian
Roman Catholicism and Protestantism
(mainly Swiss Reformed) [4]
Related ethnic groups
Liechtensteiners, Germans, Austrians, French and Italians

The Swiss (German : die Schweizer, French : les Suisses, Italian : gli Svizzeri, Romansh : ils Svizzers) are the citizens of Switzerland [lower-alpha 2] or people of Swiss ancestry.


The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. [5] About 11% of citizens live abroad (0.8 million, of whom 0.6 million hold multiple citizenship). About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union (0.46 million). The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada.

Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, and the Swiss are not usually considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy ( Eidgenossenschaft ) or Willensnation ("nation of will", "nation by choice", that is, a consociational state), a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term.

The demonym Swiss (formerly in English also Switzer) and the name of Switzerland, ultimately derive from the toponym Schwyz , have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century. [6]

Ethno-linguistic composition

Man and woman of Entlebuch (Gabriel Lory, early 19th century) CH-NB - Luzern, Entlebuch Trachten Entlebuch - Collection Gugelmann - GS-GUGE-LORY-E-28.tif
Man and woman of Entlebuch (Gabriel Lory, early 19th century)
Farmers of Champery, Valais (1904 photograph) Bauerinnen ausChampery inHosen.jpg
Farmers of Champery, Valais (1904 photograph)

The ethno-linguistic composition of the territories of modern Switzerland includes the following components:

The core Eight Cantons of the Swiss Confederacy were entirely Alemannic-speaking, and German speakers remain the majority. However, from as early as the 15th century, parts of French-speaking Vaud and Italian-speaking Ticino were acquired as subject territories by Berne and Uri, respectively. The Swiss Romandie was formed by the accession of French-speaking Geneva and Neuchâtel and the partly francophone Valais and Bernese Jura (formerly part of the Prince-Bishopric of Basel) to the Restored Swiss Confederacy in 1815. Romansh was formerly considered a group of Italian dialects, but Switzerland declared Romansh a national language in 1938 in reaction to the fascist Italian irredentism at the time.

Switzerland experience significant immigration from Italy in the very late 19th and early 20th century, such that in 1910 that accounted for some 10% of the Swiss population. This immigration was halted by the Great Depression and WWII. It restarted after the war ended. As elsewhere in Western Europe, immigration to Switzerland has increased dramatically since the 1960s, so that a large proportion of the resident population of Switzerland are now not descended or only partially descended from the core ethno-linguistic groups listed above. As of 2011, 37% of total resident population of Switzerland had immigrant background. [8] As of 2016, the most widely used foreign languages were English, Portuguese, Albanian, Serbo-Croatian and Spanish, all named as a "main language" by more than 2% of total population (respondents could name more than one "main language"). [9]

Cultural history and national identity

Landsgemeinde by Wilhelm Balmer and Albert Welti (1907-1914); an idealized National Romantic depiction of Swiss population and society. Welti Landsgemeinde3 1912.jpg
Landsgemeinde by Wilhelm Balmer and Albert Welti (19071914); an idealized National Romantic depiction of Swiss population and society.
Official photo of the Federal Council (2008), idealized depiction of multi-ethnic Swiss society. Bundesrat der Schweiz 2008 Teil 1.JPG
Official photo of the Federal Council (2008), idealized depiction of multi-ethnic Swiss society.

The Swiss populace historically derives from an amalgamation of Gallic or Gallo-Roman, Alamannic and Rhaetic stock. Their cultural history is dominated by the Alps, and the alpine environment is often cited as an important factor in the formation of the Swiss national character. [11] For example, the "Swiss illness", the condition of Swiss mercenaries pining for their mountainous native home, became prototypical of the medical condition of nostalgia ("homesickness") described in the 17th century.

In early modern Switzerland, the Swiss Confederacy was a pact between independent states within the Holy Roman Empire. The populations of the states of Central Switzerland considered themselves ethnically or even racially separate: Martin Zeiller in Topographia Germaniae (1642) reports a racial division even within the canton of Unterwalden, the population of Obwalden being identified as "Romans", and that of Nidwalden as "Cimbri" (viz. Germanic), while the people of Schwyz were identified as of Swedish ancestry, and the people of Uri were identified as "Huns or Goths". [12]

Modern Switzerland is atypical in its successful political integration of a multiethnic and multilingual populace, and is often cited as a model for new efforts at creating unification, as in the European Union's frequent invocation of the Swiss Confederate model. [13] Because the various populations of Switzerland share language, ethnicity, and religion not with each other but with the major European powers between whom Switzerland during the modern history of Europe found itself positioned, a policy of domestic plurality in conjunction with international neutrality became a matter of self-preservation. [14] Consequently, the Swiss elites during the period of the formation of nation states throughout Europe did not attempt to impose a national language or a nationalism based on ethnicity, instead pushing for the creation of a civic nation grounded in democratic ideology, common political institutions, and shared political ritual. Political allegiance and patriotism was directed towards the cantons, not the federal level, where a spirit of rivalry and competition rather than unity prevailed. C. G. Jung advanced the view that this system of social order was one of a "chronic state of mitigated civil war" which put Switzerland ahead of the world in a civilizatory process of "introverting" warlike aggression. [15] A similar view is attributed to Gottfried Keller, who is cited to the effect that the Swiss Confederacy could not exist without the endemic rivalry between cantons. [16]

From the 19th century there were conscious attempts to foster a federal "Pan-Swiss" national identity that would replace or alleviate the cantonal patriotisms. Among the traditions enlisted to this end were federal sharpshooting competitions or tirs, because they were one of the few recognized symbols of pan-Swiss identity prior to the creation of the 1815 Confederation and because they traditionally involved men from all levels of society, including the peasants, who in Romantic nationalism had become ideologically synonymous with liberty and nationhood. [17] An additional symbol of federal national identity at the federal level was introduced with the Swiss national holiday in 1889. The bonfires associated with the national holiday have become so customary since then that they have displaced the Funken traditions of greater antiquity.

Identification with the national symbolism relating to the Old Swiss Confederacy was especially difficult for the cantons which had been joined to the Helvetic Republic in 1798 without any prior membership in the Swiss Confederacy, and which were given the status of Swiss cantons only after the end of the Napoleonic era. These specifically include Grisons, Valais, Ticino, Vaud and Geneva. St. Gallen is a special case in a different sense, being a conglomerate of various historical regions created in 1803; in this case, patriotism may attach itself even to sub-cantonal entities, such as the Toggenburg. Similarly, due to the historical imperialism of the canton of Berne, there is considerable irredentism within the Bernese lands, most visibly in the Bernese Jura but to a lesser extent also in parts of the Bernese Oberland such as Hasli.

Citizenship and naturalization

Swiss citizenship is still primarily citizenship in one of the Swiss cantons, and the naturalization of foreign citizens is the privilege of the cantons. No Swiss passports were issued prior to 1915, more than 60 years after the establishment of the modern Swiss Confederation. Prior to 1915, citizens held passports issued by their cantons, the Confederation being considered as a federation of the cantons, not a state composed of natural persons as its citizens.

The Swiss Constitution of 1848 regulated certain rights that the cantons were required to grant to citizens of other cantons, such as the right of residence (in the case of naturalized citizens after a period of five years). [18] The Swiss Constitution of 1874, which remained in force (with revisions) until 1999, defined Swiss citizenship as inherited from cantonal citizenship: Jeder Kantonsbürger ist Schweizer Bürger ("every citizen of a canton is a Swiss citizen"). [19] In the preamble to the current Swiss Constitution of 1999, a "Swiss People" (Schweizervolk) is invoked alongsides "the Cantons" as sovereign entity, and article 1 reads "The People and the Cantons [...] form the Swiss Confederation." Article 37 still defines Swiss citizenship as inherited from communal and cantonal citizenship: "Any person who is a citizen of a commune and of the Canton to which that commune belongs is a Swiss citizen." [20]

As Swiss citizenship is entirely based on jus sanguinis , the place of origin rather than the place of birth is recorded in identity documents. As Swiss citizenship is tied to the cantonal citizenship associated with the "place of origin" (Heimatort or Bürgerort "home commune, commune of citizenship"), a citizen's place of origin is inherited from his or her father (from the mother if born out of wedlock or if the father holds no citizenship). The significance of the place of origin outside of the naturalization procedure has been gradually abolished in the early 21st century. Since 2012, the municipality or canton of a citizen's place of origin is no longer responsible for providing social welfare to that citizen. [21] Since 2013, a woman no longer acquires the place of origin of her husband upon marriage. [22]

While the cantons are responsible for naturalization, federal Swiss nationality law regulates minimal requirements necessary for naturalization. These requirements were significantly reduced in a 2018 revision of the law, allowing naturalization after a minimal period of residence of ten years, and in certain cases as little as five years (naturalization of spouses and children of Swiss citizens; years of residence at ages 8 to 18 count double). A further requirement is that the applicant be "well integrated" and "familiar with life in Switzerland", and must have both oral and written competence in one of the national languages of Switzerland. [23] The federal law just specifies minimal requirements for naturalization, and cantons are free to introduce more stringent requirements. [24] In practice, the cantons delegate the actual procedure of naturalization to the communes.

With 25% of the population resident aliens, Switzerland has one of the highest ratios of non-naturalized inhabitants in Europe (comparable to the Netherlands; roughly twice the ratio of Germany). In 2003, 35,424 residents were naturalized, a number exceeding net population growth. Over the 25-year period of 1983 to 2007, 479,264 resident foreigners were naturalized, yearly numbers rising gradually from below 10,000 (0.1%) in the 1980s to above 40,000 (0.6%) in the 2000s. [25] Compare the figure of 0.2% (140,795) in the United Kingdom (2004). [26]


The genetic composition of the Swiss population is similar to that of Central Europe in general. Switzerland is on one hand at the crossroads of several prehistoric migrations, while on the other hand the Alps acted as a refuge in some cases. Genetic studies found the following haplogroups to be prevalent:

See also


  1. Collectively the 7 million citizens plus the estimated figure of 1.5 million non-citizens abroad with self-reported Swiss ancestry.
  2. The term is sometimes extended to include the descendants of Swiss emigrant, see e.g. "Swiss". New Oxford American Dictionary . Conversely, being born in Switzerland does not give an individual Swiss citizenship automatically (there are three levels of alien citizens status in Switzerland), so that there are numerous second generation legal aliens who are technically "natives of Switzerland" without being considered Swiss.

Related Research Articles

Romansh language Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden)

Romansh is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the Swiss canton of the Grisons (Graubünden). Romansh has been recognized as a national language of Switzerland since 1938, and as an official language in correspondence with Romansh-speaking citizens since 1996, along with German, French and Italian. It also has official status in the canton of the Grisons alongside German and Italian and is used as the medium of instruction in schools in Romansh-speaking areas. It is sometimes grouped by linguists with Ladin and Friulian as the Rhaeto-Romance languages, though this is disputed.

Switzerland Country in Central Europe

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a landlocked country situated at the confluence of Western, Central, and Southern Europe. It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities based in Bern. Switzerland is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. It is geographically divided among the Swiss Plateau, the Alps, and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi). Although the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities and economic centres are located, among them Zürich, Geneva, and Basel. These cities are home to several offices of international organisations such as the headquarters of FIFA, the UN's second-largest Office, and the main building of the Bank for International Settlements. The main international airports of Switzerland are also located in these cities.

Swiss German Dialect of the German language

Swiss German is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland. Occasionally, the Alemannic dialects spoken in other countries are grouped together with Swiss German as well, especially the dialects of Liechtenstein and Austrian Vorarlberg, which are closely associated to Switzerland's.

Demographics of Switzerland National demographics

This article about the demographics of Switzerland features the population of the Swiss Confederation, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Languages of Switzerland Overview of the languages spoken in Switzerland

The four national languages of Switzerland are German, French, Italian and Romansh. German, French and Italian maintain equal status as official languages at the national level within the Federal Administration of the Swiss Confederation, while Romansh is used in dealings with people who speak it. In some situations, Latin is used, particularly as a single language to denote the country.

Grisons Largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland

The Grisons, Graubünden or Grigioni, more formally the Canton of the Grisons or the Canton of Graubünden, is one of the twenty-six cantons of Switzerland. It has eleven regions, and its capital is Chur. The German name of the canton, Graubünden, translates as the "Grey Leagues", referring to the canton's origin in three local alliances, the Three Leagues. The other native names also refer to the Grey League. The Alpine ibex is the canton's heraldic symbol.

Canton of Schwyz Canton of Switzerland

The canton of Schwyz is a canton in central Switzerland between the Alps in the south, Lake Lucerne to the west and Lake Zürich in the north, centered on and named after the town of Schwyz.

Cantons of Switzerland Member states of the Swiss Confederation

The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte. Two important periods in the development of the Old Swiss Confederacy are summarized by the terms Acht Orte and Dreizehn Orte.

Canton of Bern Canton of Switzerland

The canton of Bern or Berne is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital city is Bern. The bear is the heraldic symbol of the canton, displayed on a red-yellow background.

Alemannic German Group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family

Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish, is a group of High German dialects. The name derives from the ancient Germanic tribal confederation known as the Alemanni.

Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy

The Old Swiss Confederacy began as a late medieval alliance between the communities of the valleys in the Central Alps, at the time part of the Holy Roman Empire, to facilitate the management of common interests such as free trade and to ensure the peace along the important trade routes through the mountains. The Hohenstaufen emperors had granted these valleys reichsfrei status in the early 13th century. As reichsfrei regions, the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden were under the direct authority of the emperor without any intermediate liege lords and thus were largely autonomous.

Emmen, Switzerland Municipality in Switzerland in Lucerne

Emmen is a village and municipality in the district of Hochdorf in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. The municipality Emmen consists of the village Emmen, the town Emmenbrücke, and several hamlets.

Romandy French-speaking part of Switzerland

Romandy is the French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2018, about 2.1 million people, or 25.1% of the Swiss population, lived in Romandy. The majority of the romand population lives in the western part of the country, especially the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva, Vaud and the Lower Valais.

Highest Alemannic German

Highest Alemannic is a branch of Alemannic German and is often considered to be part of the German language, even though mutual intelligibility with Standard German and other non-Alemannic German dialects is very limited. Highest Alemannic dialects are spoken in alpine regions of Switzerland: In the Bernese Oberland, in the German-speaking parts of the Canton of Fribourg, in the Valais and in the Walser settlements. In the West, the South and the South-East, they are surrounded by Romance languages; in the North, by High Alemannic dialects. In the Swiss canton of Graubünden (Grisons) only the Walser exclaves in the Romansh part and the Prättigau, Schanfigg and Davos are Highest Alemannic; the Rhine Valley with Chur and Engadin are High Alemannic.

The Swiss Confederation comprises the 26 cantons of Switzerland.

Tarasp Former municipality of Switzerland in Graubünden

Tarasp is a former municipality in the district of Inn in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Its eleven settlements are situated within the Lower Engadin valley along the Inn River, at the foot of the Sesvenna Range. On 1 January 2015 the former municipalities of Ardez, Guarda, Tarasp, Ftan and Sent merged into the municipality of Scuol.

Old Swiss Confederacy Confederation of cantons from 1291–1798 that was a predecessor state of the Helvetic Republic

The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy was a loose confederation of independent small states initially within the Holy Roman Empire. It is the precursor of the modern state of Switzerland.

Romansh people Ethnic group

The Romansh people are a Romance ethnic group, the speakers of the Romansh language, native to the Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden).

Italian Grisons Italian and Lombard-speaking parts of Switzerland

The Italian Grisons or Italian Grigioni is the region of the Canton of Grisons, Switzerland, where Italian and Lombard are spoken.

German-speaking Switzerland Part of Switzerland

The German-speaking part of Switzerland comprises about 65 percent of Switzerland.


  1. "Bevölkerungsbestand am Ende des 2. Quartal 2019" [Recent monthly and quarterly figures: provisional data](XLS) (official statistics) (in German, French, and Italian). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO), Swiss Confederation. 19 September 2019. 1155-1500. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  2. "Auslandschweizerstatistik 2016" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 20 April 2018.: total: 775k, single citizenship: 205k. Geographical distribution: Europe: 482k (France: 201k, Germany: 89k, Italy 52k); Americas: 185k (USA 81k, Canada 40k); Oceania 81k; Asia: 54k; Africa: 22k.
  3. Swiss Americans: 917k ±20k (Results – Community Survey 2013 Archived 2020-02-12 at , includes 80k Swiss citizens with residence in the US) Swiss Canadian: 147k (26k "single ethnic", 121k "multi-ethnic" responses; includes 40k Swiss citizens with residence in Canada) ( "Ethnic Origin, 2011 National Household Survey". Statistics Canada.) Swiss Argentine: 300k (Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto de la República Argentina. "La emigración suiza a la Argentina (Swiss emigration to Argentina)" (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2014.). Swiss Chilean: 100k (actual supera los 100.000 ciudadanos, la mayor de América Latina" Archived 2014-10-16 at the Wayback Machine ) Swiss Brazilian: 80k (História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos - From Nova Friburgo to Fribourg in writing: Swiss colonization seen by the immigrants. Swiss Australian: 12k by birth, 29k by ancestry (2011 census).
  4. Ständige Wohnbevölkerung ab 15 Jahren nach Religionszugehörigkeit . Swiss Central Statistical Office 2015 Report. N.b.: the report contains data of the statistical analyses of the years 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015.
  5. 916k out of 5,293k of permanent residents of Switzerland aged 15 and over ( "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung ab 15 Jahren nach doppelter Staatszugehörigkeit (2016)" (in German). Retrieved 20 April 2018.) plus 570k out of 775k Swiss abroad ( "Auslandschweizerstatistik 2016" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 20 April 2018.).
  6. "Schwyz". New Oxford American Dictionary .
  7. Minahan, James (2000). One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 545. ISBN   0313309841. The Romands are a distinct Romance people
  8. "Population résidante permanente de 15 ans et plus, ventilée selon le statut migratoire et le canton". Office fédéral de la statistique. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  9. Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Hauptsprachen 2016, BFS, 28 February 2018.
  10. Painting commissioned for the chamber of the Council of States in the Federal Palace (see de:Die Landsgemeinde ).
  11. "Some landscapes were highlighted because they were considered essential in the building of the nation and the shaping of its culture. This was most obvious in Switzerland where the Swiss character was forged by the daily confrontation with the difficult mountainous environment of the Alps. Lunn (1963) suggests that the wonderful scenery gave those who inhabited it an opportunity to develop a sense of dignity and grandeur." Niamh Moore, Yvonne Whelan, Heritage, memory and the politics of identity: new perspectives on the cultural landscape, Ashgate Publishing, 2007, ISBN   978-0-7546-4008-0, p. 88.
  12. Ferdinand Vetter, Ueber die Sage von der Herkunft der Schwyzer und Oberhasler aus Schweden und Friesland , Bern 1877, 10f.
  13. Hartley-Moore (2007)
  14. Kohn 1956:15–20
  15. Frank McLynn, Carl Gustav Jung (1997), ISBN   978-0-312-15491-2, chapter 1. "Jung advanced the paradox that the tolerable social order in Switzerland was a result of having `introverted' war; Switzerland was ahead of the rest of the world in that it was in a chronic state of mitigated civil war and did not direct its aggression outwards."
  16. Hartley-Moore (2007:213f.): "Localized equivalents of nationalist symbols were also essential to the creation of Swiss civil society. Rather than allowing a centralized federal government to force assimilation to a national ideal, Swiss policy nourished individual characteristics of different regional and language groups" throughout the country. In the Swiss model, pride in local identity is to some degree synonymous with loyalty to the larger state; national identity is nurtured through local 'patriotism.' As Gottfried Keller argued in the nineteenth century, 'Without cantons and without their differences and competition, no Swiss federation could exist'."
  17. Hartley-Moore (2007), citing Kohn 1956:78.
  18. Constitution of 1848 Art. 43. The requirement of adherence to a Christian confession in the 1848 version was dropped in 1866.
  19. Constitution of 1874, Art. 43.
  20. Authoritative German Archived 2010-10-24 at the Wayback Machine , French Archived 2011-02-20 at the Wayback Machine and Italian as well as non-authoritative Romansh and English Archived 2016-06-21 at the Wayback Machine texts of Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation of 18 April 1999 (SR 101)
  21. Daniel Friedli, Der Heimatort wird irrelevant, NZZ 8 January 2012.
  22. Swiss nationality law, Art. 161 ZGB.
  23. Regular naturalisation Facilitated naturalisation
  24. "Naturalisation: on ne devient pas Suisse partout de la même façon | 24 heures". 22 March 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  25. "Bundesamt für Migration" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
  26. Persons Granted British Citizenship, 2004 (pdf) Archived 2009-03-26 at the Wayback Machine
  27. Associated with the Paleolithic (Cro-Magnon); forming a small local maximum, Archived October 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  28. Associated with the Neolithic revolution
  29. Archived August 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  30., together with Northern Italy forming a local I1c minimum Archived May 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  31. Archived August 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  32. Exhibiting a gradient of decreasing frequency east to west, shared with Germany and Northern Italy, Archived October 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  33. Archived May 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  34. UPF.Edi Archived June 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  35. Swiss Review, Secretariat for the Swiss Abroad (2010), p. 13.