|Prime Minister of Cuba |
Primer Ministro de Cuba
|Status||Head of government|
|Member of|| Council of Ministers,|
Council of State
|Nominator||President of Cuba|
|Appointer||National Assembly of People's Power|
|Term length||Five years|
|Formation||10 October 1940|
|First holder||Carlos Saladrigas Zayas|
The Prime Minister of Cuba (Spanish : Primer Ministro de Cuba), officially known as the President of the Council of Ministers (Spanish : Presidente del Consejo de Ministros de Cuba) between 1976 and 2019, is the head of government of Cuba and the chairman of the Council of Ministers (cabinet). The Prime Minister is the third-highest office in Cuba, after the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba and the President of Cuba, and the second-highest state office.
The office of Prime Minister was first instituted in 1940 in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of Cuba as amended in that year. The first Prime Minister of Cuba was Carlos Saladrigas Zayas (1900–1957), the nephew of former President Alfredo Zayas. The prime minister was also sometimes referred to as "Premier". Between 1940 and 1959, Cuba saw fifteen changes of prime minister; Félix Lancís Sánchez exercised the role twice (1944–1945 and 1950–1951) while Fulgencio Batista held the position concurrently with that of President of Cuba for one month (April 1952) following a military coup. Fidel Castro became prime minister in 1959, replacing José Miró Cardona.
On 2 December 1976 a new national constitution, restructuring the government, came into force. Under that constitution, the Prime Minister's post was effectively merged with that of the President, who served as chairman of both the Council of State and the Council of Ministers of Cuba.
The 1976 constitution created a governmental structure that partly copied that of the Soviet Union. However, unlike in the Soviet Union, where the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the Council of Ministers were distinct posts, the Cuban Council of State and Council of Ministers were chaired by the same person. Furthermore, unlike English and Russian, Spanish does not distinguish between the terms "chairman/председатель" and "president/президент", translating both as "presidente".
On 24 February 2019, another constitution – Cuba's current – was adopted in a referendum. Under it, the government was again re-organized, and the separate posts of President and Prime Minister were restored.Manuel Marrero was named prime minister for a 5-year term by President Miguel Díaz-Canel on 21 December 2019, under the new constitutional provisions, and was approved unanimously by the National Assembly to serve the same day.
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Cuba has had a socialist political system since 1959 based on the "one state – one party" principle. Cuba is constitutionally defined as a Marxist–Leninist socialist state guided in part by the political ideas of Karl Marx, one of the fathers of historical materialism, Friedrich Engels, and Vladimir Lenin. Despite being regarded as a one-party Communist state, the Cuban nationalist ideology of José Martí is what serves as the main source of influence in Cuban politics. The present Constitution of Cuba, which was passed in a 2019 referendum, also describes the role of the Communist Party of Cuba to be the "leading force of society and of the state" and as having the capability of setting national policy. The 2019 Constitution of Cuba identifies the ideals represented by Cuban independence hero José Martí and revolutionary leader Fidel Castro as the primary foundation of Cuba's political system, while also stressing the importance of the influence of the ideas of Marx, Engels, and Lenin.
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The president of Cuba, officially the President of the Republic of Cuba, is the head of state of Cuba. The office in its current form was established under the Constitution of 2019. The President is the second-highest office in Cuba and the highest state office. Miguel Díaz-Canel became President of the Council of State on 19 April 2018, taking over from Raúl Castro, and has been President of Cuba since 10 October 2019.
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The National Assembly of People's Power is the legislative parliament of the Republic of Cuba and the supreme body of State power. Its members are elected from multi-member electoral districts for a term of five years. The Assembly's current president is Esteban Lazo Hernández. The assembly meets twice a year. Between sessions it is represented by the 31 member Council of State. The most recent elections were held on 11 March 2018.
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The 1940 Constitution of Cuba was implemented during the presidency of Federico Laredo Brú and took effect on 10 October 1940. It was primarily influenced by the collectivist ideas that inspired the Cuban Revolution of 1933. Widely considered one of the most progressive constitutions at the time, it provided for land reform, public education, a minimum wage and other social programs. It had 286 articles in 19 sections.
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Manuel Marrero Cruz is a Cuban politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of Cuba, and the first since Cuba recreated the office of Prime Minister in December 2019 after the 43-year abolition of the position dating from 1976. The last Prime Minister before the abolition of the office was Fidel Castro. Marrero is the first person to hold the position of Prime Minister of Cuba in 43 years. A member of the Communist Party of Cuba, he served as the country's long-time Minister of Tourism from 2004 until his appointment to the office of Prime Minister in December 2019. During his tenure as tourism minister, Cuban tourism witnessed massive resilience. Marrero is an architect and worked in Gaviota, the tourism arm of the Cuban military, where he also held the rank of colonel.