Douglas Hyde

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Douglas Hyde
Douglas Hyde 2.jpg
1st President of Ireland
In office
25 June 1938 24 June 1945
Taoiseach Éamon de Valera
Preceded byNew office
Succeeded by Seán T. O'Kelly
Senator
In office
27 April 1938 4 May 1938
Constituency Nominated by the Taoiseach
In office
16 February 1922 4 September 1925
Constituency National University of Ireland
Personal details
Born
Douglas Ross Hyde

(1860-01-17)17 January 1860
Castlerea, County Roscommon, Ireland
Died12 July 1949(1949-07-12) (aged 89)
Little Ratra, Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland
Cause of death Pneumonia and Alzheimer's disease
Resting placePortahard Church Cemetery, Frenchpark, County Roscommon, Ireland
Nationality Irish
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Lucy Kurtz (m. 1893; d. 1937)
Children2
Alma mater Trinity College Dublin
Profession
Signature Douglas Hyde Signature.svg

Douglas Ross Hyde (Irish : Dubhghlas de hÍde; 17 January 1860 – 12 July 1949), known as An Craoibhín Aoibhinn (lit. "the pleasant little branch"), was an Irish academic, linguist, scholar of the Irish language, politician and diplomat who served as the first President of Ireland from June 1938 to June 1945. He was a leading figure in the Gaelic revival, and the first President of the Gaelic League, one of the most influential cultural organisations in Ireland at the time.

Irish language Goidelic language spoken in Ireland and by Irish people

Irish is a Goidelic language of the Celtic and Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath, and a few other locations, and as a second language by a larger group of non-habitual speakers across the country. A speaker of the Irish language is known as a Gaeilgeoir.

Gaelic revival resurgence ot interest in the Irish language in the 19th century

The Gaelic revival was the late-nineteenth-century national revival of interest in the Irish language and Irish Gaelic culture. Irish had diminished as a spoken tongue, remaining the main daily language only in isolated rural areas, with English having become the dominant language in the majority of Ireland.

Conradh na Gaeilge organization

Conradh na Gaeilge is a social and cultural organisation which promotes the Irish language in Ireland and worldwide. The organisation was founded in 1893 with Douglas Hyde as its first president, when it emerged as the successor of several 19th century groups such as the Gaelic Union. The organisation would be the spearhead of the Gaelic revival and Gaeilgeoir activism. Originally the organisation intended to be apolitical, but many of its participants became involved in Irish nationalism.

Contents

Background

Hyde was born at Longford House in Castlerea, County Roscommon, while his mother, Elizabeth née Oldfield (1834–1886) was on a short visit there. His father, Arthur Hyde, whose family were originally from Castlehyde, Fermoy, County Cork, was Church of Ireland rector of Kilmactranny, County Sligo from 1852 to 1867, and it was here that Hyde spent his early years. Arthur Hyde and Elizabeth Oldfield married in County Roscommon, in 1852, and had three other children, Arthur (1853–79 in County Leitrim), John Oldfield (1854–96 in County Dublin), and Hugh (1856) Hyde. [1]

Castlerea Town in Connacht, Ireland

Castlerea is the second largest town in County Roscommon, Republic of Ireland. It is located in the west of the county and, as of 2016, has a population of 2,970. Roughly translated from Irish, Castlerea can mean Brindled Castle or King's Castle. The town is built on the banks of the River Suck and the River Francis, both of which are tributaries of the River Shannon.

County Roscommon County in the Republic of Ireland

County Roscommon is a county in Ireland. In the western region, it is part of the province of Connacht. It is the 11th largest Irish county by area and 27th most populous. Its county town and largest town is Roscommon. Roscommon County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county was 64,544 according to the 2016 census.

Fermoy Town in Munster, Ireland

Fermoy is a town on the River Blackwater in east County Cork, Ireland. As of the 2016 census, the town and environs had a population of approximately 6,500 people. It is located in the barony of Fermoy.

In 1867, his father was appointed prebendary and rector of Tibohine, and the family moved to neighbouring Frenchpark, in County Roscommon. He was home schooled by his father and his aunt due to a childhood illness. [2] While a young man, he became fascinated with hearing the old people in the locality speak the Irish language. He was influenced in particular by the gamekeeper Seamus Hart and his friend's wife, Mrs. Connolly. Aged 14, Hyde was devastated when Hart died, and his interest in the Irish language—the first language he began to study in any detail, as his own undertaking—flagged for a while. However, he visited Dublin a number of times and realised that there were groups of people, just like him, interested in Irish, a language looked down on at the time by many and seen as backward and old-fashioned.

A prebendary is a member of the Anglican or Roman Catholic clergy, a form of canon with a role in the administration of a cathedral or collegiate church. When attending services, prebendaries sit in particular seats, usually at the back of the choir stalls, known as prebendal stalls.

Frenchpark Village in Connacht, Ireland

Frenchpark, historically known as Dungar, is a village in County Roscommon, Ireland on the N5 national primary road. It was the home of Douglas Hyde, the first President of Ireland. The nearby French Park Estate was until 1952 the ancestral seat of the French family, Barons de Freyne. The estate was sold to the Irish Land Commission in the 1950s and was dismantled by the mid 1970s. A historic smokehouse is one of the few remaining legacies of this period.

Dublin capital and largest city in Ireland

Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, and is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains. It has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, and the population of the Greater Dublin Area was 1,904,806.

Rejecting family pressure that, like past generations of Hydes, he would follow a career in the Church, Hyde instead became an academic. He entered Trinity College Dublin, where he became fluent in French, Latin, German, Greek and Hebrew, graduating in 1884 as a moderator in modern literature. A medallist of the College Historical Society, he was elected its President in 1931. [3] His passion for Irish, already a language in severe decline, led him to help found the Gaelic League, or in Irish, Conradh na Gaeilge, in 1893.

Trinity College Dublin Sole college of the University of Dublin, founded 1592

Trinity College, officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was ever established; as such, the designations "Trinity College" and "University of Dublin" are usually synonymous for practical purposes. The college is legally incorporated by "the Provost, Fellows, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university. Trinity College is widely considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination. Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College, Cambridge and Oriel College, Oxford.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Hyde married German-born but British-raised Lucy Kurtz [4] in 1893 and had two daughters, Nuala and Úna. [5]

Lucy Cometina Kurtz was the wife of the 1st President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde.

Conradh na Gaeilge/Gaelic League

Hyde joined the Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language around 1880, and between 1879 and 1884 he published more than a hundred pieces of Irish verse under the pen name "An Craoibhín Aoibhinn" ("The Pleasant Little Branch"). [6]

The Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language was a cultural organisation in late 19th-century Ireland, which was part of the Gaelic revival of the period.

A pen name is a pseudonym adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in place of their real name. A pen name may be used to make the author's name more distinctive, to disguise the author's gender, to distance the author from their other works, to protect the author from retribution for their writings, to combine more than one author into a single author, or for any of a number of reasons related to the marketing or aesthetic presentation of the work. The author's name may be known only to the publisher or may come to be common knowledge.

Initially derided, the Irish language movement gained a mass following. Hyde helped establish the Gaelic Journal in 1892; in November, he wrote a manifesto called The necessity for de-anglicising the Irish nation, [6] arguing that Ireland should follow its own traditions in language, literature and dress. [7]

In 1893, he helped found Conradh na Gaeilge (the Gaelic League) to encourage the preservation of Irish culture, music, dance and language. A new generation of Irish republicans (including Pádraig Pearse, Éamon de Valera, Michael Collins and Ernest Blythe), became politicised through their involvement in Conradh na Gaeilge. Hyde filled out the 1911 census form in Irish. [8]

Hyde as a young man DouglasHydepresident.jpg
Hyde as a young man

Uncomfortable at the growing politicisation of the movement, Hyde resigned the presidency in 1915. He was succeeded by the League's co-founder Eoin MacNeill. [9] [10]

Senator

Hyde had no association with Sinn Féin and the Independence movement. He was elected to Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Irish Free State's Oireachtas (parliament), at a by-election on 4 February 1925, replacing Sir Hutcheson Poë. [11]

In the 1925 Seanad election, Hyde placed 28th of the 78 candidates, with 19 seats available. The Catholic Truth Society opposed him for his Protestantism and publicised his supposed support for divorce. Historians have suggested that the CTS campaign was ineffective, [12] and that Irish-language advocates performed poorly, with all those endorsed by the Gaelic League losing. [12] [13]

He returned to academia as Professor of Irish at University College Dublin, where one of his students was future Attorney General of Ireland, Chief Justice of Ireland and President of Ireland, Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh.

President of Ireland

Hyde is notable in that he was the only leader of independent Ireland to be featured on its banknotes, here on a Series C Banknote of IRPS50. CBI - SERIES C - FIFTY POUND NOTE.PNG
Hyde is notable in that he was the only leader of independent Ireland to be featured on its banknotes, here on a Series C Banknote of IR£50.

Nomination

In April 1938, by now retired from academia, Hyde was plucked from retirement by Taoiseach Éamon de Valera and again appointed to Seanad Éireann. Again his tenure proved short, even shorter than before; however, this time it was because Hyde was chosen, after inter-party negotiations—following an initial suggestion by Fine Gael—to be the first President of Ireland, to which office he was elected unopposed. He was selected for a number of reasons:

Inauguration

Douglas Hyde (in back of car holding top hat), leaving Dublin Castle with a cavalry escort following his inauguration Douglas Hyde inauguration.jpg
Douglas Hyde (in back of car holding top hat), leaving Dublin Castle with a cavalry escort following his inauguration

Hyde was inaugurated as the first President of Ireland, on 26 June 1938. The Irish Times reported it as follows:

In the morning [Dr Hyde] attended a service in St. Patrick's Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. Gregg. Mr. de Valera and his Ministerial colleagues attended a solemn Votive Mass in the Pro-Cathedral, and there were services in the principal Presbyterian and Methodist churches, as well as in the synagogue. Dr. Hyde was installed formally in Dublin Castle, where the seals of office were handed over by the Chief Justice. Some 200 persons were present, including the heads of the Judiciary and the chief dignitaries of the Churches. After the ceremony President Hyde drove in procession through the beflagged streets. The procession halted for two minutes outside the General Post Office to pay homage to the memory of the men who fell in the Easter Week rebellion of 1916. Large crowds lined the streets from the Castle to the Vice-Regal Lodge and the President was welcomed with bursts of cheering. He wore morning dress, but Mr. de Valera and Mr. Sean T. O'Kelly, who followed Dr. Hyde in the next motor-car, wore black clothes with felt hats.

In the evening there was a ceremony in Dublin Castle which was without precedent in Irish history. Mr. and Mrs. de Valera received about 1,500 guests at a reception in honour of the President. The reception was held in St. Patrick's Hall, where the banners of the Knights of St. Patrick are still hung. The attendance included all the members of the Dail and Senate with their ladies, members of the Judiciary and the chiefs of the Civil Service, Dr. Paschal Robinson, the Papal Nuncio at the head of the Diplomatic Corps, several Roman Catholic Bishops, the Primate of All Ireland, the Archbishop of Dublin, the Bishop of Killaloe, the heads of the Presbyterian and Methodist congregations, the Provost and Vice Provost of Trinity College, and the President of the National University. It was the most colourful event that has been held in Dublin since the inauguration of the new order in Ireland, and the gathering, representing as it did every shade of political, religious, and social opinion in Eire [Ireland], might be regarded as a microcosm of the new Ireland. [14]

Hyde set a precedent by reciting the Presidential Declaration of Office in Irish. His recitation, in Roscommon Irish, is one of a few recordings of a dialect of which Hyde was one of the last speakers. Upon inauguration, he moved into the long vacant Viceregal Lodge in Phoenix Park, since known as Áras an Uachtaráin.

Hyde's selection and inauguration received worldwide media attention and was covered by newspapers in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, and even Egypt. [15] Hitler "ordered" the Berlin newspapers "to splash" on the Irish presidential installation ceremony. [15] However, the British government ignored the event. [15] The Northern Ireland Finance Minister, John Miller Andrews, described Hyde's inauguration as a "slight on the King" and "a deplorable tragedy." [15]

Presidency

Despite being placed in a position to shape the office of the presidency via precedent, Hyde by and large opted for a quiet, conservative interpretation of the office. His age and health obligated him to schedule periods of rest throughout his days, and his lack of political experience caused him to defer to his advisers on questions of policy and discretionary powers, especially to his Secretary, Michael McDunphy. On 13 November 1938, just months after Hyde's inauguration, Hyde attended an international soccer match between Ireland and Poland at Dalymount Park in Dublin. This was seen as breaching the GAA's ban on 'foreign games' and he was subsequently removed as patron of the GAA, an honour he had held since 1902. [16]

However, after a massive stroke in April 1940, plans were made for his lying-in-state and state funeral. However, Hyde survived, albeit paralysed and having to use a wheelchair.[ citation needed ]

Although the role of President of Ireland was largely ceremonial, Hyde did make important decisions during his presidency. He was confronted with a crisis in 1944, when de Valera's government unexpectedly collapsed in a vote on the Transport Bill and the President had to decide whether or not to grant a dissolution of the Dáil to de Valera. Under the Constitution the President of Ireland may grant or refuse a dissolution of the Dáil to a Taoiseach who has "ceased to retain the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann". If a dissolution is granted, a general election is proclaimed to fill the seats now vacated by the dissolution. However, this means that for four to six weeks, until the new Dáil assembles, there is no Dáil. Fearing this gap might facilitate an invasion during World War II, during which no parliament could be called upon to deal with the invasion, the Oireachtas enacted emergency legislation (under Article 28.3.3°) - the General Elections (Emergency Powers) Act 1943 - which allowed an election to be called separate from a dissolution, with the Dáil only being dissolved just before new Dáil would assemble, so ensuring the gap between Dála (plural of Dáil) would be too short to facilitate an invasion. Under the Act the President could "refuse to proclaim a general election on the advice of a Taoiseach who had ceased to retain the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann".[ citation needed ]

Hyde had that option, but after considering it with his senior advisor, Michael McDunphy, he opted to grant de Valera his election request. Hyde twice used his power under Article 26 of the Constitution, having consulted the Council of State, to refer a Bill or part of a Bill to the Supreme Court, for the court's decision on whether the Bill or part referred is repugnant to the Constitution (so that the Bill in question cannot be signed into law).[ citation needed ]

On the first occasion, the court held that the Bill referred – Offences Against the State (Amendment) Bill, 1940 – was not repugnant to the Constitution. [17] In response to the second reference, the Court decided that the particular provision referred – section 4 of the School Attendance Bill, 1942 – was repugnant to the Constitution. [18] Because of Article 34.3.3° of the Constitution, the constitutional validity of the Offences Against the State (Amendment) Act, 1940 [19] cannot be challenged in any court, since the Bill which became that Act was found by the Supreme Court not to be repugnant in the context of an Article 26 reference.[ clarification needed ]

One of Hyde's last presidential acts was a visit to the German Ambassador Eduard Hempel, on 3 May 1945, to offer his formal condolences on the death of Adolf Hitler. The visit remained a secret until 2005. [20]

Retirement and death

Hyde left office on 25 June 1945, opting not to nominate himself for a second term. Owing to his ill-health he did not return to his Roscommon home, Ratra, empty since the death of his wife early in his term. He moved into the former residence of the Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant, in the grounds of Áras an Uachtaráin, which he renamed Little Ratra , where he lived out the remaining four years of his life. He died at 10pm on 12 July 1949, aged 89. [21]

State funeral

Memorial to Douglas Hyde in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. Douglas Hyde St Patrick's Cathedral Dublin 2006.jpg
Memorial to Douglas Hyde in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

As a former President of Ireland he was accorded a state funeral. A problem arose; as a member of the Church of Ireland, his funeral service took place in Dublin's Church of Ireland St. Patrick's Cathedral. However, contemporary rules of the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland prohibited Roman Catholics from attending services in non-Catholic churches. As a result, all but one member of the Catholic cabinet, Noël Browne, remained outside the cathedral grounds while Hyde's funeral took place. They then joined the cortège when his coffin left the cathedral. Éamon de Valera, by now Leader of the Opposition also did not attend, being represented by a senior Fianna Fáil figure who was a member of the Church of Ireland, Erskine H. Childers, a future President of Ireland himself. Hyde was buried in Frenchpark, County Roscommon at Portahard Church, (where he had spent most of his childhood life) beside his wife Lucy, his daughter Nuala, his sister Annette, mother Elizabeth and father Arthur.

In memoriam

NameLocationNotes
Gaelscoil de hÍde Roscommon In 2000 Gaelscoil de hÍde was set up in Roscommon town. Currently 120 students attend the school.
Gaelscoil de hÍde Oranmore, County Galway The Irish speaking primary school was founded in 1994 in Oranmore, County Galway.
Gaelscoil de hÍde Fermoy, County Cork Gaelscoil de hÍde is the only Gaelscoil in Fermoy, County Cork and currently accommodates 332 pupils.
Coláiste an ChraoibhínFermoy, County CorkFounded in 1987, this secondary school takes its name from Hyde's pseudonym. The school overlooks the Hyde family's ancestral estate of Castlehyde. There are 610 students in the school.
Hyde Museum Frenchpark, County Roscommon His father's old church is now a museum dedicated to showing memorabilia about Douglas Hyde.
Coláiste de hÍde Tallaght, DublinColáiste de hÍde, a Gaelcholáiste (all-Irish second level school) was founded in 1993 in Tallaght, South Dublin in his honour.
Dr. Hyde Park RoscommonDr. Hyde Park is the home of Roscommon GAA. Opened in 1969 it has a capacity of 25,000. It hosts many championship matches due to Roscommon's geographical positioning.
The Douglas Hyde Gallery Dublin The Douglas Hyde Gallery is located in Trinity College, Dublin. It was opened in 1978 and it is home to many contemporary art exhibitions.

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References

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  2. "Multitext Project in Irish History--Douglas Hyde". Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  3. Dunleavy, Janet & Gareth (1991). Douglas Hyde - A Maker of Modern Ireland. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN   0-520-06684-7.
  4. https://www.poemhunter.com/douglas-hyde/biography/
  5. The Trustees of FreeBMD (2005). FreeBMD. Retrieved 12 November 2005.
  6. 1 2 Ó Corráin, Donnchadh. "Douglas Hyde". University College Cork, Multitext Project in Irish History. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  7. Hyde, Douglas. "The necessity for de-anglicizing the Irish nation". gaeilge.org. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  8. "Census of Ireland 1911 - de hÍde". National Archives of Ireland.
  9. Ryan, John (December 1945). "Eoin Mac Neill 1867–1945". Irish Province of the Society of Jesus. Irish Province of the Society of Jesus. 34 (136): 433–448. JSTOR   30100064., pp. 439–40
  10. Grote, Georg (1994). Torn Between Politics and Culture: the Gaelic League, 1893–1993. Münster: Waxman. p. 120. ISBN   3-89325-243-6.
  11. "Dr. Douglas Hyde". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  12. 1 2 O'Sullivan, Donal (1940). The Irish Free State and its Senate: A Study in Contemporary Politics. London: Faber & Faber.
  13. Coakley, John (September 2005). "Ireland's Unique Electoral Experiment: The Senate Election of 1925". Irish Political Studies. 20 (3): 231–269. doi:10.1080/07907180500359327.
  14. The Irish Times, 27 June 1938.
  15. 1 2 3 4 Brian Murphy in the Irish Independent; 1 October 2016 Hyde, Hitler and why our first president fascinated press around the world
  16. Cormac Moore. "The GAA v Douglas Hyde". Collins Press. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  17. Re Article 26 of the Constitution and the Offences Against the State (Amendment) Bill, 1940 [1940] IR 470.
  18. Re Article 26 of the Constitution and the School Attendance Bill, 1942 [1943] IR 334.
  19. "Offences Against the State (Amendment) Act, 1940". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  20. "Hyde (and de Valera) offered condolences on Hitler's death". Irish Independent . 31 December 2005.
  21. Announcement of death, The Irish Times, 13 July 1949
Political offices
Preceded by
Presidential Commission
President of Ireland
1938–1945
Succeeded by
Seán T. O'Kelly
Preceded by
Lord Glenavy
President of the Trinity College Historical Society
1931–1949
Succeeded by
Sir Robert W. Tate