Dmitri Mendeleev

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Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev in 1897
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev

(1834-02-08)8 February 1834
Verkhnie Aremzyani, Tobolsk Governorate, Russian Empire
Died2 February 1907(1907-02-02) (aged 72)
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alma mater Saint Petersburg University
Known forFormulating the Periodic table of chemical elements
  • Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva (1862–1871)
  • Anna Ivanovna Popova (1882)
Scientific career
Fields Chemistry, physics
Academic advisors Gustav Kirchhoff
Notable students
  • Dmitri Petrovich Konovalov
  • Valery Gemilian
  • Alexander Baykov[ citation needed ]
Mendelejew signature.jpg

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (often romanized as Mendeleyev or Mendeleef) (English: /ˌmɛndəlˈəf/ MEN-dəl-AY-əf; [2] Russian: Дмитрий Иванович Менделеев, [note 1] tr. Dmítriy Ivánovich Mendeléyev,IPA:  [ˈdmʲitrʲɪj ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ mʲɪnʲdʲɪˈlʲejɪf] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); 8 February 1834 2 February 1907 [ OS 27 January 1834 20 January 1907]) was a Russian chemist and inventor. He is best remembered for formulating the Periodic Law and creating a farsighted version of the periodic table of elements. He used the Periodic Law not only to correct the hypothesized properties[ clarification needed ] of some of the already discovered elements but also to predict the properties of eight elements that were yet to be discovered.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

Chemistry scientific discipline

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.


Early life

Mendeleev was born in the village of Verkhnie Aremzyani, near Tobolsk in Siberia, to Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev (1783–1847) and Maria Dmitrievna Mendeleeva (née Kornilieva) (1793–1850). [3] [4] Ivan worked as a school principal and a teacher of fine arts, politics and philosophy at the Tambov and Saratov gymnasiums. [5] Ivan's father, Pavel Maximovich Sokolov, was a Russian Orthodox priest from the Tver region. [6] As per the tradition of priests of that time, Pavel's children were given new family names while attending the theological seminary, [7] with Ivan getting the family name Mendeleev after the name of a local landlord. [8]

Tobolsk Town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia

Tobolsk is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers. Founded in 1590, Tobolsk is the second oldest Russian settlement east of the Ural Mountains in Asian Russia, and is a historic capital of the Siberia region. Population: 99,694 (2010 Census); 92,880 (2002 Census); 94,143 (1989 Census).

Siberia Geographical region in Russia

Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has historically been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century.

Tambov City in Tambov Oblast, Russia

Tambov is a city and the administrative center of Tambov Oblast, central Russia, located at the confluence of the Tsna and Studenets Rivers, about 480 kilometers (300 mi) south-southeast of Moscow. Population: 280,161 ; 293,658 ; 304,600 (1989 Census).

Maria Kornilieva came from a well-known family of Tobolsk merchants, founders of the first Siberian printing house who traced their ancestry to Yakov Korniliev, a 17th-century posad man turned a wealthy merchant. [9] [10] In 1889 a local librarian published an article in the Tobolsk newspaper where he claimed that Yakov was a baptized Teleut, an ethnic minority known as "white Kalmyks" at the time. [11] Since no sources were provided and no documented facts of Yakov's life were ever revealed, biographers generally dismiss it as a myth. [12] [13] In 1908, shortly after Mendeleev's death, one of his nieces published Family Chronicles. Memories about D. I. Mendeleev where she voiced "a family legend" about Maria's grandfather who married "a Kyrgyz or Tatar beauty whom he loved so much that when she died, he also died from grief". [14] This, however, contradicts the documented family chronicles, and neither of those legends is supported by Mendeleev's autobiography, his daughter's or his wife's memoirs. [4] [15] [16] Yet some Western scholars still refer to Mendeleev's supposed "Mongol", "Tatar", "Tartarian" or simply "Asian" ancestry as a fact. [17] [18] [19] [20]

Posad single entity of population

A posad was a settlement in the Russian Empire, often surrounded by ramparts and a moat, adjoining a town or a kremlin, but outside of it, or adjoining a monastery in the 10th to 15th centuries. The posad was inhabited by craftsmen and merchants and was its own distinct community, separate from the city it adjoined. Some posads developed into towns, such as Pavlovsky Posad and Sergiev Posad.

Teleuts are a Turkic people living in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia. According to the 2002 census, there were 2,650 Teleuts in Russia. Their language is classified as a southern dialect within the group of dialects called the Altay language.

Kalmyks ethnic group

The Kalmyks are a Mongol subgroup in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607. They created the Kalmyk Khanate in 1630–1771 in Russia's North Caucasus territory. Today they form a majority in the Republic of Kalmykia located in the Kalmyk Steppe, on the western shore of the Caspian Sea.

Mendeleev was raised as an Orthodox Christian, his mother encouraging him to "patiently search divine and scientific truth". [21] His son would later inform that he departed from the Church and embraced a form of "romanticized deism". [22]

Deism is the philosophical position that rejects revelation as a source of religious knowledge and asserts that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to establish the existence of a Supreme Being or creator of the universe.

Mendeleev was the youngest of 17 siblings, of whom "only 14 stayed alive to be baptized" according to Mendeleev's brother Pavel, meaning the others died soon after their birth. [5] The exact number of Mendeleev's siblings differs among sources and is still a matter of some historical dispute. [23] [24] Unfortunately for the family's financial well being, his father became blind and lost his teaching position. His mother was forced to work and she restarted her family's abandoned glass factory. At the age of 13, after the passing of his father and the destruction of his mother's factory by fire, Mendeleev attended the Gymnasium in Tobolsk.

Gymnasium (school) type of school providing advanced secondary education in Europe

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern and southern Europe.

In 1849, his mother took Mendeleev across Russia from Siberia to Moscow with the aim of getting Mendeleev enrolled at the Moscow University. [8] The university in Moscow did not accept him. The mother and son continued to Saint Petersburg to the father's alma mater. The now poor Mendeleev family relocated to Saint Petersburg, where he entered the Main Pedagogical Institute in 1850. After graduation, he contracted tuberculosis, causing him to move to the Crimean Peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in 1855. While there, he became a science master of the 1st Simferopol Gymnasium. In 1857, he returned to Saint Petersburg with fully restored health.

Moscow State University University in Moscow, Russia

Moscow State University is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia. It was founded on 23 January [O.S. 12 January] 1755 by Mikhail Lomonosov. During the Soviet period, MSU was renamed after Lomonosov in 1940 and was then known as Lomonosov University. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy.

Saint Petersburg Federal city in the Northwestern federal district, Russia

Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.

Tuberculosis Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those affected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically called "consumption" due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.

Between 1859 and 1861, he worked on the capillarity of liquids and the workings of the spectroscope in Heidelberg. Later in 1861, he published a textbook named Organic Chemistry. [25] This won him the Demidov Prize of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. [25]

On 4 April 1862 he became engaged to Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva, and they married on 27 April 1862 at Nikolaev Engineering Institute's church in Saint Petersburg (where he taught). [26]

Mendeleev became a professor at the Saint Petersburg Technological Institute and Saint Petersburg State University in 1864, [25] and 1865, respectively. In 1865 he became Doctor of Science for his dissertation "On the Combinations of Water with Alcohol". He achieved tenure in 1867 at St. Petersburg University and started to teach inorganic chemistry, while succeeding Voskresenskii to this post. [25] and by 1871 he had transformed Saint Petersburg into an internationally recognized center for chemistry research.

Periodic table

Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table Mendelejevs periodiska system 1871.png
Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table