Boiling points of the elements (data page)

Last updated

Boiling point

1 H hydrogen (H2)
use20.271 K−252.879 °C−423.182 °F
WebEl 20.28 K−252.87 °C−423.17 °F
CRC −252.879 °C
Lange −252.88 °C
Zhang et al. 21.15 K-252 °C
2 He helium
use4.222 K−268.928 °C−452.07 °F
WebEl 4.22 K−268.93 °C−452.07 °F
CRC −268.928 °C
Lange −268.935 °C
Zhang et al. 4.15 K-269 °C
3 Li lithium
use1603 K1330 °C2426 °F
WebEl 1615 K1342 °C2448 °F
CRC 1342 °C
Lange 1330 °C
Zhang et al. 1603 K1330 °C
4 Be beryllium
use2742 K2469 °C4476 °F
WebEl 2742 K2469 °C4476 °F
CRC 3243 K
Lange 2467 °C
Zhang et al. 3243 K2970 °C5378 °F
5 B boron
use4200 K3927 °C7101 °F
WebEl 4200 K3927 °C7101 °F
CRC 4000 °C
Lange 3864 °C
Zhang et al. 4203 K3930 °C
6 C carbon (graphite)
use
WebEl ? (4300 K)? (4027 °C)? (7281 °F)
CRC subl. 3825 °C
Lange subl. (39154020) °C
Zhang et al. 5103 K4830 °C
6 C carbon (diamond)
use4300 K4027 °C7281 °F
WebEl ? (4300 K)? (4027 °C)? (7281 °F)
Lange 3930 °C
7 N nitrogen (N2)
use77.355 K−195.795 °C−320.431 °F
WebEl 77.36 K−195.79 °C−320.42 °F
CRC −195.795 °C
Lange −195.79 °C
Zhang et al. 77.15 K-196 °C
8 O oxygen (O2)
use90.188 K−182.962 °C−297.332 °F
WebEl 90.2 K−182.9 °C−297.2 °F
CRC −182.962 °C
Lange −182.96 °C
Zhang et al. 90.15 K-183 °C
9 F fluorine (F2)
use85.04 K−188.11 °C−306.60 °F
WebEl 85.03 K−188.12 °C−306.62 °F
CRC −188.11 °C
Lange −188.13 °C
Zhang et al. 85.15 K-188 °C
10 Ne neon
use27.104 K−246.046 °C−410.883 °F
WebEl 27.07 K−246.08 °C−410.94 °F
CRC −246.046 °C
Lange −246.05 °C
Zhang et al. 27.15 K-246 °C
11 Na sodium
use1156.090 K882.940 °C1621.292 °F
WebEl 1156 K883 °C1621 °F
CRC 882.940 °C
Lange 881.4 °C
Zhang et al. 1163 K890 °C
12 Mg magnesium
use1363 K1090 °C1994 °F
WebEl 1363 K1090 °C1994 °F
CRC 1090 °C
Lange 1100 °C
Zhang et al. 1383 K1110 °C
13 Al aluminium
use2743 K2470 °C4478 °F
WebEl 2792 K2519 °C4566 °F
CRC 2519 °C
Lange 2518 °C
Zhang et al. 2743 K2470 °C4478 °F
14 Si silicon
use3538 K3265 °C5909 °F
WebEl 3173 K2900 °C5252 °F
CRC 3265 °C
Lange 3265 °C
Zhang et al. 3533 K3260 °C
15 P phosphorus (white)
use550 K277 °C531 °F
WebEl 550 K277 °C531 °F
CRC 280.5 °C
Lange 280.3 °C
Zhang et al. 553.2 K280 °C
15 P phosphorus (red)
usesubl. 704 Ksubl. 431 °Csubl. 808 °F
CRC subl. 431 °C
Lange subl. 416 °C
16 S sulfur (orthorhombic, alpha)
use717.8 K444.6 °C832.3 °F
WebEl ? (717.87 K)? (444.72 °C)? (832.5 °F)
CRC 444.60 °C
Lange 444.6 °C
Zhang et al. 718.2 K445 °C
16 S sulfur (monoclinic, beta)
use717.8 K444.6 °C832.3 °F
WebEl ? (717.87 K)? (444.72 °C)? (832.5 °F)
CRC 444.60 °C
Lange 444.6 °C
16 S sulfur (gamma)
use717.87 K444.72 °C832.5 °F
WebEl ? (717.87 K)? (444.72 °C)? (832.5 °F)
Lange 444.72 °C
17 Cl chlorine (Cl2)
use239.11 K−34.04 °C−29.27 °F
WebEl 239.11 K−34.04 °C−29.27 °F
CRC −34.04 °C
Lange −34.04 °C
Zhang et al. 238.5 K-34.7 °C
18 Ar argon
use87.302 K−185.848 °C−302.526 °F
WebEl 87.3 K−185.8 °C−302.4 °F
CRC −185.848 °C
Lange −185.87 °C
Zhang et al. 87.15 K−186 °C
19 K potassium
use1032 K759 °C1398 °F
WebEl 1032 K759 °C1398 °F
CRC 759 °C
Lange 759 °C
Zhang et al. 1047 K774 °C1425 °F
20 Ca calcium
use1757 K1484 °C2703 °F
WebEl 1757 K1484 °C2703 °F
CRC 1484 °C
Lange 1484 °C
Zhang et al. 1760 K1487 °C
21 Sc scandium
use3109 K2836 °C5136 °F
WebEl 3103 K2830 °C5126 °F
CRC 2836 °C
Lange 2836 °C
Zhang et al. 3003 K2730 °C
22 Ti titanium (hexagonal)
use3560 K3287 °C5949 °F
WebEl 3560 K3287 °C5949 °F
CRC 3287 °C
Lange 3287 °C
Zhang et al. 3533 K3260 °C
23 V vanadium
use3680 K3407 °C6165 °F
WebEl 3680 K3407 °C6165 °F
CRC 3407 °C
Lange 3421 °C
Zhang et al. 3680 K3407 °C
24 Cr chromium
use2755 K2482 °C4499 °F
Zhang et al. 2755 K2482 °C4499 °F
WebEl 2944 K2671 °C4840 °F
CRC 2671 °C
Lange 2679 °C
Zhang et al. 2755 K2482 °C
25 Mn manganese
use2334 K2061 °C3742 °F
WebEl 2334 K2061 °C3742 °F
CRC 2061 °C
Lange 2095 °C
Zhang et al. 2373 K2100 °C
26 Fe iron
use3134 K2861 °C5182 °F
WebEl 3134 K2861 °C5182 °F
CRC 2861 °C
Lange 2861 °C
Zhang et al. 3273 K3000 °C
27 Co cobalt
use3200 K2927 °C5301 °F
WebEl 3200 K2927 °C5301 °F
CRC 2927 °C
Lange 2927 °C
Zhang et al. 3173 K2900 °C
28 Ni nickel
use3003 K2730 °C4946 °F
WebEl 3186 K2913 °C5275 °F
CRC 2913 °C
Lange 2884 °C
Zhang et al. 3003 K2730 °C4946 °F
29 Cu copper
use2835 K2562 °C4643 °F
WebEl 3200 K2927 °C5301 °F
CRC 2562 °C
Lange 2561.5 °C
Zhang et al. 2868 K2595 °C
30 Zn zinc
use1180 K907 °C1665 °F
WebEl 1180 K907 °C1665 °F
CRC 907 °C
Lange 907 °C
Zhang et al. 1180 K907 °C
31 Ga gallium
use2673 K2400 °C4352 °F
WebEl 2477 K2204 °C3999 °F
CRC 2204 °C
Lange 2203 °C
Zhang et al. 2673 K2400 °C4352 °F
32 Ge germanium
use3106 K2833 °C5131 °F
WebEl 3093 K2820 °C5108 °F
CRC 2833 °C
Lange 2830 °C
Zhang et al. 3103 K2830 °C
33 As arsenic (gray)
use887 Ksubl. 614 °C1137 °F
WebEl 887 K614 °C1137 °F
CRC subl. 603 °C
Lange subl. 615 °C
Zhang et al. 886.2 K613 °C
34 Se selenium (hexagonal, gray)
use958 K685 °C1265 °F
WebEl 958 K685 °C1265 °F
CRC 685 °C
Lange 685 °C
Zhang et al. 958.2 K685 °C
35 Br bromine (Br2)
use332.0 K58.8 °C137.8 °F
WebEl 332 K59 °C138 °F
CRC 58.8 °C
Lange 58.8 °C
Zhang et al. 331.7 K58.5 °C
36 Kr krypton
use119.735 K−153.415 °C−244.147 °F
WebEl 119.93 K−153.22 °C−243.8 °F
CRC −153.415 °C
Lange −153.22 °C
Zhang et al. 121.2 K-152 °C
37 Rb rubidium
use961 K688 °C1270 °F
WebEl 961 K688 °C1270 °F
CRC 688 °C
Lange 691 °C
Zhang et al. 961.2 K688 °C
38 Sr strontium
use1650 K1382 °C2511 °F
WebEl 1655 K1382 °C2520 °F
CRC 1377 °C
Lange 1366 °C
Zhang et al. 1653 K1380 °C
39 Y yttrium
use3203 K2930 °C5306 °F
WebEl 3609 K3336 °C6037 °F
CRC 3345 °C
Lange 3345 °C
Zhang et al. 3203 K2930 °C5306 °F
40 Zr zirconium
use4650 K4377 °C7911 °F
WebEl 4682 K4409 °C7968 °F
CRC 4409 °C
Lange 3577 °C
Zhang et al. 4650 K4377 °C7911 °F
41 Nb niobium
use5017 K4744 °C8571 °F
WebEl 5017 K4744 °C8571 °F
CRC 4744 °C
Lange 4860 °C
Zhang et al. 5017 K4744 °C
42 Mo molybdenum
use4912 K4639 °C8382 °F
WebEl 4912 K4639 °C8382 °F
CRC 4639 °C
Lange 4825 °C
Zhang et al. 4885 K4612 °C
43 Tc technetium (Tc-98 ?)
use4538 K4265 °C7709 °F
WebEl 4538 K4265 °C7709 °F
CRC 4265 °C
Lange (Tc-98) 4265 °C
est. 5200 K ; Schwochau, Klaus, Technetium,
Wiley-VCH (2000), ISBN   3-527-29496-1
44 Ru ruthenium
use4423 K4150 °C7502 °F
WebEl 4423 K4150 °C7502 °F
CRC 4150 °C
Lange 4150 °C
Zhang et al. 4423 K4150 °C
45 Rh rhodium
use3968 K3695 °C6683 °F
WebEl 3968 K3695 °C6683 °F
CRC 3695 °C
Lange 3727 °C
Zhang et al. 4000 K3727 °C
46 Pd palladium
use3236 K2963 °C5365 °F
WebEl 3236 K2963 °C5365 °F
CRC 2963 °C
Lange 3167 °C
Zhang et al. 3233 K2960 °C
47 Ag silver
use2483 K2210 °C4010 °F
WebEl 2435 K2162 °C3924 °F
CRC 2162 °C
Lange 2164 °C
Zhang et al. 2483 K2210 °C4010 °F
48 Cd cadmium
use1040 K767 °C1413 °F
WebEl 1040 K767 °C1413 °F
CRC 767 °C
Lange 765 °C
Zhang et al. 1038 K765 °C
49 In indium
use2345 K2072 °C3762 °F
WebEl 2345 K2072 °C3762 °F
CRC 2072 °C
Lange 2072 °C
Zhang et al. 2273 K2000 °C
50 Sn tin (white)
use2875 K2602 °C4716 °F
WebEl 2875 K2602 °C4716 °F
CRC 2602 °C
Lange 2602 °C
Zhang et al. 2893 K2620 °C
51 Sb antimony
use1908 K1635 °C2975 °F
WebEl 1860 K1587 °C2889 °F
CRC 1587 °C
Lange 1587 °C
Zhang et al. 1908 K1635 °C
52 Te tellurium
use1261 K988 °C1810 °F
WebEl 1261 K988 °C1810 °F
CRC 988 °C
Lange 989.9 °C
Zhang et al. 1263 K990 °C
53 I iodine (I2)
use457.4 K184.3 °C363.7 °F
WebEl 457.4 K184.3 °C363.7 °F
CRC 184.4 °C
Lange 185.24 °C
Zhang et al. 457.2 K184 °C
54 Xe xenon
use165.051 K−108.099 °C−162.578 °F
WebEl 165.1 K−108 °C−162 °F
CRC −108.099 °C
Lange −108.04 °C
Zhang et al. 165.2 K-108 °C
55 Cs caesium
use944 K671 °C1240 °F
WebEl 944 K671 °C1240 °F
CRC 671 °C
Lange 668.2 °C
Zhang et al. 963.2 K690 °C
56 Ba barium
use1910 K1637 °C2978 °F
WebEl 2143 K1870 °C3398 °F
CRC 1845 °C
Lange 1845 °C
Zhang et al. 1910 K1637 °C
57 La lanthanum
use3737 K3464 °C6267 °F
WebEl 3743 K3470 °C6278 °F
CRC 3464 °C
Lange 3464 °C
Zhang et al. 3743 K3470 °C
58 Ce cerium
use3716 K3443 °C6229 °F
WebEl 3633 K3360 °C6080 °F
CRC 3443 °C
Lange 3440 °C
Zhang et al. 3743 K3470 °C
59 Pr praseodymium
use3403 K3130 °C5666 °F
WebEl 3563 K3290 °C5954 °F
CRC 3520 °C
Lange 3520 °C
Zhang et al. 3403 K3130 °C
60 Nd neodymium
use3347 K3074 °C5565 °F
WebEl 3373 K3100 °C5612 °F
CRC 3074 °C
Lange 3074 °C
Zhang et al. 3303 K3030 °C
61 Pm promethium (Pm-147 ?)
use3273 K3000 °C5432 °F
WebEl 3273 K3000 °C5432 °F
CRC 3000 °C
Lange (Pm-147) estimated 3000 °C
62 Sm samarium
use2173 K1900 °C3452 °F
WebEl 2076 K1803 °C3277 °F
CRC 1794 °C
Lange 1794 °C
Zhang et al. 2173 K1900 °C3452 °F
63 Eu europium
use1802 K1529 °C2784 °F
WebEl 1800 K1527 °C2781 °F
CRC 1529 °C
Lange 1527 °C
Zhang et al. 1713 K1440 °C
64 Gd gadolinium
use3273 K3000 °C5432 °F
WebEl 3523 K3250 °C5882 °F
CRC 3273 °C
Lange 3273 °C
Zhang et al. 3273 K3000 °C5432 °F
65 Tb terbium
use3396 K3123 °C5653 °F
WebEl 3503 K3230 °C5846 °F
CRC 3230 °C
Lange 3230 °C
Zhang et al. 3396 K3123 °C5653 °F
66 Dy dysprosium
use2840 K2567 °C4653 °F
WebEl 2840 K2567 °C4653 °F
CRC 2567 °C
Lange 2567 °C
Zhang et al. 2873 K2600 °C
67 Ho holmium
use2873 K2600 °C4712 °F
WebEl 2993 K2720 °C4928 °F
CRC 2700 °C
Lange 2720 °C
Zhang et al. 2873 K2600 °C4712 °F
68 Er erbium
use3141 K2868 °C5194 °F
WebEl 3141 K2868 °C5194 °F
CRC 2868 °C
Lange 2868 °C
Zhang et al. 3173 K2900 °C
69 Tm thulium
use2223 K1950 °C3542 °F
WebEl 2223 K1950 °C3542 °F
CRC 1950 °C
Lange 1950 °C
Zhang et al. 2223 K1950 °C3542 °F
70 Yb ytterbium
use1703 K1430 °C2606 °F
WebEl 1469 K1196 °C2185 °F
CRC 1196 °C
Lange 1196 °C
Zhang et al. 1703K1430 °C2606 °F
71 Lu lutetium
use3675 K3402 °C6156 °F
WebEl 3675 K3402 °C6156 °F
CRC 3402 °C
Lange 3402 °C
Zhang et al. 3603 K3330 °C
72 Hf hafnium
use4876 K4603 °C8317 °F
WebEl 4876 K4603 °C8317 °F
CRC 4603 °C
Lange 4450 °C
Zhang et al. 4876 K4603 °C
73 Ta tantalum
use5731 K5458 °C9856 °F
WebEl 5731 K5458 °C9856 °F
CRC 5458 °C
Lange 5429 °C
Zhang et al. 5693 K5420 °C
74 W tungsten
use6203 K5930 °C10706 °F
WebEl 5828 K5555 °C10031 °F
CRC 5555 °C
Lange 5900 °C
Zhang et al. 6203 K5930 °C10706 °F
75 Re rhenium
use5869 K5596 °C10105 °F
WebEl 5869 K5596 °C10105 °F
CRC 5596 °C
Lange 5678 °C
Zhang et al. 5903 K5630 °C
76 Os osmium
use5285 K5012 °C9054 °F
WebEl 5285 K5012 °C9054 °F
CRC 5012 °C
Lange 5225 °C
Zhang et al. 5273 K5000 °C
77 Ir iridium
use4403 K4130 °C7466 °F
WebEl 4701 K4428 °C8002 °F
CRC 4428 °C
Lange circa 2550 °C
Zhang et al. 4403 K4130 °C7466 °F
78 Pt platinum
use4098 K3825 °C6917 °F
WebEl 4098 K3825 °C6917 °F
CRC 3825 °C
Lange 3824 °C
Zhang et al. 4100 K3827 °C
79 Au gold
use3243 K2970 °C5378 °F
WebEl 3129 K2856 °C5173 °F
CRC 2856 °C
Lange 2856 °C
Zhang et al. 3243 K2970 °C5378 °F
80 Hg mercury
use629.88 K356.73 °C674.11 °F
WebEl 629.88 K356.73 °C674.11 °F
CRC 356.73 °C
Lange 356.7 °C
Zhang et al. 630.2 K357 °C
81 Tl thallium
use1746 K1473 °C2683 °F
WebEl 1746 K1473 °C2683 °F
CRC 1473 °C
Lange 1457 °C
Zhang et al. 1733 K1460 °C
82 Pb lead
use2022 K1749 °C3180 °F
WebEl 2022 K1749 °C3180 °F
CRC 1749 °C
Lange 1749 °C
Zhang et al. 2017 K1744 °C
83 Bi bismuth
use1837 K1564 °C2847 °F
WebEl 1837 K1564 °C2847 °F
CRC 1564 °C
Lange 1564 °C
Zhang et al. 1833 K1560 °C
84 Po polonium (alpha)
use1235 K962 °C1764 °F
WebEl 1235 K962 °C1764 °F
CRC 962 °C
Lange 962 °C
85 At astatine
use503±3 K230±3 °C445±5 °F
Otozai et al. 503±3 K
86 Rn radon
use211.5 K−61.7 °C−79.1 °F
WebEl 211.3 K−61.7 °C−79.1 °F
CRC −61.7 °C
Lange −62 °C
87 Fr francium
use890 K620 °C1150 °F
Lavrukhina et al. 620 °C
88 Ra radium
use2010 K1737 °C3159 °F
WebEl 2010 K1737 °C3159 °F
Lange 1737 °C
89 Ac actinium (Ac-227 ?)
use3471 K3198 °C5788 °F
WebEl 3573 K3300 °C5972 °F
CRC 3198 °C
Lange (Ac-227) circa 3200 °C
90 Th thorium
use5061 K4788 °C8650 °F
WebEl 5093 K4820 °C8708 °F
CRC 4788 °C
Lange 4788 °C
91 Pa protactinium
use? 4300 K? 4027 °C?
92 U uranium
use4404 K4131 °C7468 °F
WebEl 4200 K3927 °C7101 °F
CRC 4131 °C
Lange 4131 °C
93 Np neptunium
use4273 K4000 °C7232 °F
WebEl 4273 K4000 °C7232 °F
Lange above 3900 °C
94 Pu plutonium
use3501 K3228 °C5842 °F
WebEl 3503 K3230 °C5846 °F
CRC 3228 °C
Lange 3230 °C
95 Am americium
use2880 K2607 °C4725 °F
WebEl 2880 K2607 °C4725 °F
CRC 2011 °C
Lange 2011 °C
96 Cm curium (Cm-244 ?)
use3383 K3110 °C5630 °F
WebEl 3383 K3110 °C5630 °F
CRC circa 3100 °C
Lange (Cm-244) circa 3110 °C

Notes

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Astatine Chemical element with atomic number 85

Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol At and atomic number 85. It is the rarest naturally occurring element in the Earth's crust, occurring only as the decay product of various heavier elements. All of astatine's isotopes are short-lived; the most stable is astatine-210, with a half-life of 8.1 hours. A sample of the pure element has never been assembled, because any macroscopic specimen would be immediately vaporized by the heat of its own radioactivity.

The data values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions:

Nonmetal term to classify chemical elements

In chemistry, a nonmetal is a chemical element that mostly lacks the characteristics of a metal. Physically, a nonmetal tends to have a relatively low melting point, boiling point, and density. A nonmetal is typically brittle when solid and usually has poor thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Chemically, nonmetals tend to have relatively high ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity. They gain or share electrons when they react with other elements and chemical compounds. Seventeen elements are generally classified as nonmetals: most are gases ; one is a liquid (bromine); and a few are solids. Metalloids such as boron, silicon, and germanium are sometimes counted as nonmetals.

The atomic radius of a chemical element is the distance from the centre of the nucleus to the outermost shell of the electron. Since the boundary is not a well-defined physical entity, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius. Depending on the definition, the term may apply only to isolated atoms, or also to atoms in condensed matter, covalently bound in molecules, or in ionized and excited states; and its value may be obtained through experimental measurements, or computed from theoretical models. Under some definitions, the value of the radius may depend on the atom's state and context.

This page provides supplementary data to the article properties of water.

Astatine (85At) has 39 known isotopes, all of which are radioactive; the range of their mass numbers is from 191 to 229. There also exist 23 metastable excited states. The longest-lived isotope is 210At, which has a half-life of 8.1 hours; the longest-lived isotope existing in naturally occurring decay chains is 219At with a half-life of 56 seconds.

<i>CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics</i> comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research


The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 100th edition. It is sometimes nicknamed the "Rubber Bible" or the "Rubber Book", as CRC originally stood for "Chemical Rubber Company".

This is a list of 194 sources that each list metalloids: elements classified as metalloids. The sources are listed in chronological order. Lists of metalloids differ since there is no rigorous definition of metalloid. Individual lists share common ground, with variations occurring at the margins. The elements most often regarded as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium. Wikipedia generally categorises these six as metalloids, with the addition of astatine. Other sources may subtract from this list or add a varying number of other elements.

References

Zhang et al.

Zhang Y; Evans JRG and Zhang S (2011). "Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks". J. Chem. Eng. Data. 56 (2): 328–337. doi:10.1021/je1011086.

Digital object identifier Character string used as a permanent identifier for a digital object, in a format controlled by the International DOI Foundation

In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

Contents

WebEl

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from these sources:

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Thomas Howell Laby FRS, was an Australian physicist and chemist, Professor of Natural Philosophy, University of Melbourne 1915–1942. Along with G. W. C. Kaye, he was one of the founding editors of the reference book Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants and Some Mathematical Functions, usually known simply as "Kaye and Laby".

CRC

Lange

As quoted from:

Otozai et al.

Otozai, K.; Takahashi, N. (1982). "Estimation Chemical Form Boiling Point Elementary Astatine by Radio Gas Chromatography". Radiochimica Acta. 31 (3–4): 201–203. doi:10.1524/ract.1982.31.34.201.

Lavrukhina et al.

Lavrukhina, Avgusta Konstantinovna; Pozdnyakov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1970). Analytical Chemistry of Technetium, Promethium, Astatine, and Francium. Translated by R. Kondor. Ann Arbor–Humphrey Science Publishers. p. 269. ISBN   978-0-250-39923-9.

See also