Louis Bouveault

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Louis Bouveault
Born(1864-02-11)11 February 1864
Nevers, France
Died5 September 1909(1909-09-05) (aged 45)

Louis Bouveault (11 February 1864 – 5 September 1909) was a French scientist who became professor of organic chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris. He is known for the Bouveault aldehyde synthesis and the Bouveault–Blanc reduction.

University of Paris former university in Paris, France

The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.

The Bouveault aldehyde synthesis is a one-pot substitution reaction that replaces an alkyl or aryl halide with a formyl group using a N,N-disubstituted formamide. For primary alkyl halides this produces the homologous aldehyde one carbon longer. For aryl halides this produces the corresponding carbaldehyde. The Bouveault aldehyde synthesis is an example of a formylation reaction, and is named for French scientist Louis Bouveault.

The Bouveault–Blanc reduction is a chemical reaction in which an ester is reduced to primary alcohols using absolute ethanol and sodium metal. It was developed by Louis Bouveault and Gustave Louis Blanc and first reported in 1903. Bouveault and Blanc demonstrated the reduction of ethyl oleate and n-butyl oleate to oleyl alcohol and ethanol or 1-butanol, modified versions of which were subsequently refined and published in Organic Syntheses.



Louis Bouveault was born on 11 February 1864 in Nevers. [1] [2] He obtained doctorates in Paris in medicine and physical sciences. [3] Bouveault defended his thesis on β-keto nitriles and their derivatives in Paris in 1890. He taught for a short period at the Medical Faculty in Lyon, then became a lecturer in general chemistry in Lyon. He influenced Victor Grignard to take up chemistry in 1894. In Lyon he investigated syntheses with camphor and terpenes. [4] He worked with Philippe Barbier on terpene derivatives used in the manufacture of perfumes like citral, rhodinal and geraniol.

Nevers Prefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Nevers is the prefecture of the Nièvre department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in central France. It was the principal city of the former province of Nivernais. It is 260 km (160 mi) south-southeast of Paris.

Lyon Prefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille and 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais.

Victor Grignard French chemist

François Auguste Victor Grignard was a Nobel Prize-winning French chemist.

Bouveault moved on from Lyon to Lille, Nancy and finally to Paris. [3] He was appointed professor of organic chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris. [1] In 1903 Bouveault and Gustave Louis Blanc described the Bouveault–Blanc reduction [5] [6] [7] for reduction of esters to the corresponding alcohols in an alcoholic solvent. [8] In 1904 he described the Bouveault aldehyde synthesis, [9] [10] a formylation of an alkyl or aryl halide to the homologous aldehyde or carbaldehyde. [11] In 1907 he was elected president of the French Chemical Society. [12] He died on 5 September 1909. [1]

Bouveault was both an inspiring teacher and a strong researcher. Albin Haller wrote that he "often takes pleasure in the most daring conceptions, the most risky hypotheses, without being afraid to excite objections, indeed believing in the value of the most lively critiques. [3]

Albin Haller French chemist

Albin Haller was a French chemist.


Bouveault was a prolific author, who published many papers in his short career. [12] Two longer works: [1]


    1. 1 2 3 4 Louis Bouveault ... BnF.
    2. Li 2014, p. 73.
    3. 1 2 3 Nye 1986, p. 167.
    4. Nye 1986, p. 166.
    5. Bouveault, Louis; Blanc, Gustave Louis (1903). "Préparation des alcools primaires au moyen des acides correspondants" [Preparation of primary alcohols by means of the corresponding acids]. Compt. Rend. (in French). 136: 1676–1678.
    6. Bouveault, Louis; Blanc, Gustave Louis (1903). "Préparation des alcools primaires au moyen des acides correspondants" [Preparation of primary alcohols by means of the corresponding acids]. Compt. Rend. (in French). 137: 60–62.
    7. Bouveault, Louis; Blanc, Gustave Louis (1904). "Transformation des acides monobasiques saturés dans les alcools primaires correspondants" [Transforming saturated monobasic acids into the corresponding primary alcohols]. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (in French). 31: 666–672.
    8. Li 2014, p. 74.
    9. Bouveault, Louis (1904). "Modes de formation et de préparation des aldéhydes saturées de la série grasse" [Methods of preparation of saturated aldehydes of the aliphatic series]. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (in French). 31: 1306–1322.
    10. Bouveault, Louis (1904). "Nouvelle méthode générale synthétique de préparation des aldéhydes" [Novel general synthetic method for preparing aldehydes]. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (in French). 31: 1322–1327.
    11. Li 2014, p. 72–73.
    12. 1 2 Surrey 2013, p. 27.


    International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

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