Louis Bouveault

Last updated
Louis Bouveault
Born(1864-02-11)11 February 1864
Nevers, France
Died5 September 1909(1909-09-05) (aged 45)
NationalityFrench
OccupationChemist

Louis Bouveault (11 February 1864 – 5 September 1909) was a French scientist who became professor of organic chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris. He is known for the Bouveault aldehyde synthesis and the Bouveault–Blanc reduction.

University of Paris former university in Paris, France

The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.

The Bouveault aldehyde synthesis is a one-pot substitution reaction that replaces an alkyl or aryl halide with a formyl group using a N,N-disubstituted formamide. For primary alkyl halides this produces the homologous aldehyde one carbon longer. For aryl halides this produces the corresponding carbaldehyde. The Bouveault aldehyde synthesis is an example of a formylation reaction, and is named for French scientist Louis Bouveault.

The Bouveault–Blanc reduction is a chemical reaction in which an ester is reduced to primary alcohols using absolute ethanol and sodium metal. It was developed by Louis Bouveault and Gustave Louis Blanc and first reported in 1903. Bouveault and Blanc demonstrated the reduction of ethyl oleate and n-butyl oleate to oleyl alcohol and ethanol or 1-butanol, modified versions of which were subsequently refined and published in Organic Syntheses.

Contents

Life

Louis Bouveault was born on 11 February 1864 in Nevers. [1] [2] He obtained doctorates in Paris in medicine and physical sciences. [3] Bouveault defended his thesis on β-keto nitriles and their derivatives in Paris in 1890. He taught for a short period at the Medical Faculty in Lyon, then became a lecturer in general chemistry in Lyon. He influenced Victor Grignard to take up chemistry in 1894. In Lyon he investigated syntheses with camphor and terpenes. [4] He worked with Philippe Barbier on terpene derivatives used in the manufacture of perfumes like citral, rhodinal and geraniol.

Nevers Prefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Nevers is the prefecture of the Nièvre department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in central France. It was the principal city of the former province of Nivernais. It is 260 km (160 mi) south-southeast of Paris.

Lyon Prefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille and 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais.

Victor Grignard French chemist

François Auguste Victor Grignard was a Nobel Prize-winning French chemist.

Bouveault moved on from Lyon to Lille, Nancy and finally to Paris. [3] He was appointed professor of organic chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris. [1] In 1903 Bouveault and Gustave Louis Blanc described the Bouveault–Blanc reduction [5] [6] [7] for reduction of esters to the corresponding alcohols in an alcoholic solvent. [8] In 1904 he described the Bouveault aldehyde synthesis, [9] [10] a formylation of an alkyl or aryl halide to the homologous aldehyde or carbaldehyde. [11] In 1907 he was elected president of the French Chemical Society. [12] He died on 5 September 1909. [1]

Bouveault was both an inspiring teacher and a strong researcher. Albin Haller wrote that he "often takes pleasure in the most daring conceptions, the most risky hypotheses, without being afraid to excite objections, indeed believing in the value of the most lively critiques. [3]

Albin Haller French chemist

Albin Haller was a French chemist.

Publications

Bouveault was a prolific author, who published many papers in his short career. [12] Two longer works: [1]

Notes

    1. 1 2 3 4 Louis Bouveault ... BnF.
    2. Li 2014, p. 73.
    3. 1 2 3 Nye 1986, p. 167.
    4. Nye 1986, p. 166.
    5. Bouveault, Louis; Blanc, Gustave Louis (1903). "Préparation des alcools primaires au moyen des acides correspondants" [Preparation of primary alcohols by means of the corresponding acids]. Compt. Rend. (in French). 136: 1676–1678.
    6. Bouveault, Louis; Blanc, Gustave Louis (1903). "Préparation des alcools primaires au moyen des acides correspondants" [Preparation of primary alcohols by means of the corresponding acids]. Compt. Rend. (in French). 137: 60–62.
    7. Bouveault, Louis; Blanc, Gustave Louis (1904). "Transformation des acides monobasiques saturés dans les alcools primaires correspondants" [Transforming saturated monobasic acids into the corresponding primary alcohols]. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (in French). 31: 666–672.
    8. Li 2014, p. 74.
    9. Bouveault, Louis (1904). "Modes de formation et de préparation des aldéhydes saturées de la série grasse" [Methods of preparation of saturated aldehydes of the aliphatic series]. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (in French). 31: 1306–1322.
    10. Bouveault, Louis (1904). "Nouvelle méthode générale synthétique de préparation des aldéhydes" [Novel general synthetic method for preparing aldehydes]. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (in French). 31: 1322–1327.
    11. Li 2014, p. 72–73.
    12. 1 2 Surrey 2013, p. 27.

    Sources

    International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

    The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

    Related Research Articles

    Grignard reaction Organometallic coupling reaction

    The Grignard reaction is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone. This reaction is important for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds. The reaction of an organic halide with magnesium is not a Grignard reaction, but provides a Grignard reagent.

    Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4. It was discovered by Finholt, Bond and Schlesinger in 1947. This compound is used as a reducing agent in organic synthesis, especially for the reduction of esters, carboxylic acids, and amides. The solid is dangerously reactive toward water, releasing gaseous hydrogen (H2). Some related derivatives have been discussed for hydrogen storage.

    Charles Adolphe Wurtz French chemist

    Charles Adolphe Wurtz was an Alsatian French chemist. He is best remembered for his decades-long advocacy for the atomic theory and for ideas about the structures of chemical compounds, against the skeptical opinions of chemists such as Marcellin Berthelot and Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville. He is well known by organic chemists for the Wurtz reaction, to form carbon-carbon bonds by reacting alkyl halides with sodium, and for his discoveries of ethylamine, ethylene glycol, and the aldol reaction. Wurtz was also an influential writer and educator.

    Ethyl oleate chemical compound

    Ethyl oleate is a fatty acid ester formed by the condensation of oleic acid and ethanol. It is a colorless to light yellow liquid. Ethyl oleate is produced by the body during ethanol intoxication.

    Dimethylformamide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H. Commonly abbreviated as DMF (although this initialism is sometimes used for dimethylfuran, or dimethyl fumarate), this colourless liquid is miscible with water and the majority of organic liquids. DMF is a common solvent for chemical reactions. Dimethylformamide is odorless whereas technical grade or degraded samples often have a fishy smell due to impurity of dimethylamine. Dimethylamine degradation impurities can be removed by sparging degraded samples with an inert gas such as argon or by sonicating the samples under reduced pressure. As its name indicates, it is a derivative of formamide, the amide of formic acid. DMF is a polar (hydrophilic) aprotic solvent with a high boiling point. It facilitates reactions that follow polar mechanisms, such as SN2 reactions.

    Oleyl alcohol, octadecenol, or cis-9-octadecen-1-ol, is an unsaturated fatty alcohol with the molecular formula C18H36O or the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)7-CH=CH-(CH2)8OH.

    Darzens reaction

    The Darzens reaction is the chemical reaction of a ketone or aldehyde with an α-haloester in the presence of a base to form an α,β-epoxy ester, also called a "glycidic ester". This reaction was discovered by the organic chemist Auguste George Darzens in 1904.

    The Blanc chloromethylation is the chemical reaction of aromatic rings with formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride catalyzed by zinc chloride or other Lewis acid to form chloromethyl arenes. The reaction was discovered by Gustave Louis Blanc (1872-1927) in 1923. The reaction is performed with care as, like most chloromethylation reactions, it produces highly carcinogenic bis(chloromethyl) ether as a by-product.

    The Guerbet reaction, named after Marcel Guerbet (1861–1938), is an organic reaction converting a primary aliphatic alcohol into its β-alkylated dimer alcohol with loss of one equivalent of water. This reaction requires a catalyst and elevated temperatures.

    There are several Akabori amino acid reactions, which are named after Shirō Akabori (1900–1992), a Japanese chemist.

    Oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids

    The oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids is an important oxidation reaction in organic chemistry.

    Valentin Magnan French psychiatrist

    Valentin Magnan was a French psychiatrist who was a native of Perpignan.

    The Markó–Lam deoxygenation is an organic chemistry reaction where the hydroxy functional group in an organic compound is replaced by a hydrogen atom to give an alkyl group. The Markó-Lam reaction is a variant of the Bouveault–Blanc reduction and an alternative to the classical Barton–McCombie deoxygenation. It is named for the Belgian chemists István Markó and Kevin Lam.

    Carbonyl reduction

    In organic chemistry, carbonyl reduction is the organic reduction of any carbonyl group by a reducing agent.

    9,10-Dihydroanthracene chemical compound

    9,10-Dihydroanthracene is an organic compound that is derived from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene. Several isomers of dihydroanthracene are known, but the 9,10 derivative is most common. It is a colourless solid that is used as a carrier of H2 in various chemical reactions.

    Darzens halogenation is the chemical synthesis of alkyl halides from alcohols via the treatment upon reflux of a large excess of thionyl chloride or thionyl bromide (SOX2) in the presence of a small amount of a nitrogen base, such as a tertiary amine or pyridine or its corresponding hydrochloride or hydrobromide salt. The reaction is named after its creator, Auguste George Darzens, who first reported it in 1911.

    Marcel Del├ępine French chemist and professor

    Stéphane Marcel Delépine was a French pharmacist and chemist, whose name is associated with the Delépine reaction for the preparation of primary amines.