January 1919

Last updated
01 02 03 04
05 06 07 08 09 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30 31  

The following events occurred in January 1919:

Contents

January 1, 1919 (Wednesday)

Bolsheviks faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

The Bolsheviks, also known in English as the Bolshevists, were a faction founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov that split from the Menshevik faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898, at its Second Party Congress in 1903.

Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia former country

The Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia or Soviet Socialist Republic of Belarus was an early republic in the historical territory of Belarus after the collapse of the Russian Empire as a result of the October Revolution.

Smolensk City in Smolensk Oblast, Russia

Smolensk is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, 360 kilometers (220 mi) west-southwest of Moscow. Population: 326,861 (2010 Census); 325,137 (2002 Census); 341,483 (1989 Census).

January 2, 1919 (Thursday)

Estonian War of Independence war between Estonia and Soviet Russia in 1918–1920

The Estonian War of Independence, also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr. It was fought in connection with the Russian Civil War during 1918–1920. The campaign was the struggle of Estonia for its sovereignty in the aftermath of World War I. It resulted in a victory for the newly established state and was concluded in the Treaty of Tartu.

Finland Republic in Northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Red Army Soviet army and air force from 1917–1946

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991. The former official name Red Army continued to be used as a nickname by both sides throughout the Cold War.

January 3, 1919 (Friday)

Faisal–Weizmann Agreement 1919 agreement

The Faisal–Weizmann Agreement was a 3 January 1919 agreement between Emir Faisal, the third son of Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, King of the short-lived Kingdom of Hejaz, and Chaim Weizmann, a Zionist leader who had negotiated the 1917 Balfour Declaration with the British Government, signed two weeks before the start of the Paris Peace Conference. Together with a letter written by T. E. Lawrence in Faisal's name to Felix Frankfurter in March 1919, it was one of two documents used by the Zionist delegation at the Peace Conference to argue that the Zionist plans for Palestine had prior approval of Arabs.

Faisal I of Iraq 20th-century King of Syria and Iraq

Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi was King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria or Greater Syria in 1920, and was King of Iraq from 23 August 1921 to 1933. He was the third son of Hussein bin Ali, the Grand Sharif of Mecca, who had proclaimed himself King of the Arab lands in October 1916.

Kingdom of Hejaz Former middle-eastern country

The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East, the western portion of the Arabian peninsula ruled by the Hashemite dynasty. It achieved national independence after the destruction of the Ottoman Empire by the British Empire during World War I when the Sharif of Mecca fought in alliance with the British Imperial forces to drive the Ottoman Army from the Arabian Peninsula during the Arab Revolt.

January 4, 1919 (Saturday)

Russian Civil War multi-party war in the former Russian Empire, November 1917-October 1922

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Alexander Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians.

The Ukrainian Front, formerly the Army Group of Kursk Direction was a Soviet Army Group during the Russian Civil War, which existed between January and June 1919. The Army Group was created to invade Ukraine after the withdrawal of the Austrian-German occupation force in November 1918 and to fight the Ukrainian People's Republic, as well as the troops of the Entente which had landed on the Black Sea coast.
The Army Group was primarily based on two insurgent divisions that were created on September 22, 1918 by the order #6 of All-Ukrainian Central Military Revolutionary Committee and were part of the Red Army Reserve Front at the Oryol Military District. The reserve front was originally commissioned under Commandarm Glagolev and members of revolutionary military council Viyshnevetsky and Zusmanovich.

Ukrainian Peoples Republic country in Eastern Europe from 1917 to 1921

The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic, a predecessor of modern Ukraine, was declared on 10 June 1917 following the February Revolution in Russia. It initially formed part of the Russian Republic, but proclaimed its independence on 25 January 1918. During its short existence the republic went through several political transformations - from the socialist-leaning republic headed by the Central Council with its general secretariat to the national republic led by the Directorate and by Symon Petliura. Between April and December 1918 the Ukrainian People's Republic did not function, having been overthrown by the Ukrainian State of Pavlo Skoropadsky. From late 1919 the UNR operated as an ally of the Second Polish Republic, but by then the state de facto no longer existed in Ukraine. The 18 March 1921 Treaty of Riga between the Second Polish Republic, Soviet Russia and of Soviet Ukraine sealed the fate of the Ukrainian People's Republic.

January 5, 1919 (Sunday)

Tallinn City in Harju, Estonia

Tallinn is the capital, primate and the most populous city of Estonia. Located in the northern part of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, it has a population of 434,562. Administratively a part of Harju maakond (county), Tallinn is a major financial, industrial, cultural, educational and research centre of Estonia. Tallinn is located 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Helsinki, Finland, 320 kilometres (200 mi) west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, and 380 kilometres (240 mi) east of Stockholm, Sweden. It has close historical ties with these three cities. From the 13th century until the first half of the 20th century Tallinn was known in most of the world by its historical German name Reval.

Spartacist uprising general strike

The Spartacist uprising, also known as the January uprising (Januaraufstand), was a general strike in Berlin from 5 to 12 January 1919. Germany was in the middle of a post-war revolution, and two of the perceived paths forward were social democracy and a council republic similar to the one which had been established by the Bolsheviks in Russia. The uprising was primarily a power struggle between the moderate Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) led by Friedrich Ebert, and the radical communists of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, who had previously founded and led the Spartacist League (Spartakusbund).

Communist Party of Germany former political party in Germany

The Communist Party of Germany was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.

January 6, 1919 (Monday)

Christmas Uprising

The Christmas Uprising or Christmas Rebellion refers to an uprising led by the Zelenaši, in response to the Podgorica Assembly's claim of authority to unite the Kingdom of Montenegro with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The uprising reached a climax in Cetinje on 7 January 1919, the day of Orthodox Christmas.

Greens (Montenegro) Montenegrin separatist group

The Greens were a group of Montenegrin nationalists which originated from the membership of True People's Party, most notable for instigating the Christmas Uprising of 1919 in an attempt to prevent the annexation of Montenegro into the unitary Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Greens were supporters of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty, which was dethroned after the World War I, and fought for the establishment of Montenegro as either an independent state, or a federal unit within the Yugoslav federation. Following the defeat in Christmas uprising, Greens continued with guerrilla warfare until 1929. The motto of the movement, as inscribed on their flag, was "For the Right, Honour and Freedom of Montenegro".

Cetinje Old Royal Capital in Montenegro

Cetinje, is a city and Old Royal Capital of Montenegro. It is also the historic and the secondary capital of Montenegro, where the official residence of the President of Montenegro is located. According to the 2011 census, the town had a population of 14,093 while the Cetinje municipality had 16,657 residents as of 2011.

January 7, 1919 (Tuesday)

January 8, 1919 (Wednesday)

January 9, 1919 (Thursday)

January 10, 1919 (Friday)

January 11, 1919 (Saturday)

January 12, 1919 (Sunday)

January 13, 1919 (Monday)

January 14, 1919 (Tuesday)

January 15, 1919 (Wednesday)

January 16, 1919 (Thursday)

January 17, 1919 (Friday)

January 18, 1919 (Saturday)

January 19, 1919 (Sunday)

January 20, 1919 (Monday)

January 21, 1919 (Tuesday)

January 22, 1919 (Wednesday)

January 23, 1919 (Thursday)

January 24, 1919 (Friday)

January 25, 1919 (Saturday)

January 26, 1919 (Sunday)

January 27, 1919 (Monday)

January 28, 1919 (Tuesday)

January 29, 1919 (Wednesday)

January 30, 1919 (Thursday)

January 31, 1919 (Friday)

Related Research Articles

1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1919th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 919th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic one of fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union (USSR); founding member of the United Nations Organization in 1945; now Belarus

The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR). It existed between 1920 and 1922, and from 1922 to 1991 as one of fifteen constituent republics of the USSR, with its own legislation from 1990 to 1991. The republic was ruled by the Communist Party of Byelorussia and was also referred to as Soviet Byelorussia by a number of historians.

Polish–Soviet War 20th-century conflict between Poland and the USSR

The Polish–Soviet War was fought by the Second Polish Republic, the Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union over a region comparable to today's westernmost Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.

Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19

The Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919 was part of the campaign by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic into areas abandoned by the Ober Ost garrisons that were being withdrawn to Germany following that country's defeat in World War I. The initially successful offensive against the Republic of Estonia ignited the Estonian War of Independence which ended with the Soviet recognition of Estonia. The war against Republics of Latvia and Lithuania was more successful for the Soviets, and resulted in the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic and Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republics being established. In Belarus, the Belarusian People's Republic was conquered and the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia proclaimed.

Byaroza Place in Brest Region, Belarus

Biaroza is a town of 31 000 inhabitants (1995) in Western Belarus in Brest Region and the administrative center of the Byaroza District.

Polish–Ukrainian War 1918-1919 conflict between the Second Polish Republic and West Ukrainian Peoples Republic

The Polish–Ukrainian War of November 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces. The conflict had its roots in ethnic, cultural and political differences between the Polish and Ukrainian populations living in the region. The war started in Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and spilled over into Chełm Land and Volhynia (Wołyń) regions formerly belonging to the Russian Empire, which were both claimed by the Ukrainian State and the Ukrainian People's Republic.

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War consisted of a series of multi-national military expeditions in 1918. The stated goals were to help the Czechoslovak Legion, to secure supplies of munitions and armaments in Russian ports, and to re-establish the Eastern Front. Overthrow of the new Bolshevik regime was an additional, covert motivation.

Causes of the Polish–Soviet War

During the Polish–Soviet War of 1919-1921, Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine were in combat with the re-established Second Polish Republic and the newly established Ukrainian People's Republic. Both sides aimed to secure territory in the often disputed areas of the Kresy, which make up today's Ukraine and parts of modern-day Belarus, in the context of the fluidity of borders in Central and Eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War I and the breakdown of the Austrian, German, and Russian empires. The first clashes between the two sides occurred in February 1919, but full-scale war did not break out until the following year. Especially at first, neither Soviet Russia, embroiled in the Russian Civil War, nor Poland, still in the early stages of state re-building, were in a position to formulate and pursue clear and consistent war aims.

The Lithuanian Wars of Independence, also known as the Freedom Struggles, refer to three wars Lithuania fought defending its independence at the end of World War I: with Bolshevik forces, Bermontians, and Poland. The wars delayed international recognition of independent Lithuania and the formation of civil institutions.

Latvian War of Independence fought against Russian SFSR

The Latvian War of Independence, sometimes called the Latvia's freedom struggles or the Latvian War of Liberation, was a series of military conflicts in Latvia between 5 December 1918, after the newly proclaimed Republic of Latvia was invaded by Soviet Russia, and the signing of the Latvian-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty on 11 August 1920.

Various factions fought over Ukrainian territory after the collapse of the Russian Empire following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and after the First World War ended in 1918, resulting in the collapse of Austria-Hungary, which had ruled Ukrainian Galicia. The crumbling of the empires had a great effect on the Ukrainian nationalist movement, and in a short period of four years a number of Ukrainian governments sprang up. This period was characterized by optimism and by nation-building, as well as by chaos and civil war. Matters stabilized somewhat in 1921 with the territory of modern-day Ukraine divided between Soviet Ukraine and Poland, and with small ethnic-Ukrainian regions belonging to Czechoslovakia and to Romania.

Battle of Cēsis (1919) battle in the Estonian War of Independence and the Latvian War of Independence

The Battle of Cēsis, fought near Cēsis in June 1919, was a decisive battle in the Estonian War of Independence and the Latvian War of Independence. After heavy fighting an Estonian force moving from the north, supplemented by Latvian units, repelled Baltic German attacks and went on full counter-attack.

Ukrainian War of Independence

The Ukrainian War of Independence, a period of sustained warlike conflict, lasted from 1917 to 1921 and resulted in the establishment and development of a Ukrainian republic – later a part of the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of 1922–1991. The war consisted of a series of military conflicts between different governmental, political and military forces. Belligerents included Ukrainian nationalists, anarchists, Bolsheviks, the forces of Germany and Austria-Hungary, the White Russian Volunteer Army, and Second Polish Republic forces. They struggled for control of Ukraine after the February Revolution in the Russian Empire. The Allied forces of Romania and France also became involved. The struggle lasted from February 1917 to November 1921 and resulted in the division of Ukraine between the Bolshevik Ukrainian SSR, Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia. The conflict is frequently viewed within the framework of the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, as well as the closing stage of the Eastern Front of the First World War of 1914–1918.

Lithuanian–Soviet War war

The Lithuanian–Soviet War or Lithuanian–Bolshevik War was fought between newly independent Lithuania and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic in the aftermath of World War I. It was part of the larger Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919. The offensive followed retreating German troops with intentions to establish Soviet republics in Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland and link up with the German Revolution. By the end of December 1918 Soviet forces reached Lithuanian borders. Largely unopposed, they took one town after another and by the end of January 1919 controlled about ​23 of the Lithuanian territory. In February, the Soviet advance was stopped by Lithuanian and German volunteers, who prevented the Soviets from capturing Kaunas, the temporary capital of Lithuania. From April 1919, the Lithuanian war went parallel with the Polish–Soviet War. Poland had territorial claims over Lithuania, especially the Vilnius Region, and these tensions spilled over into the Polish–Lithuanian War. Historian Norman Davies summarized the situation: "the German army was supporting the Lithuanian nationalists, the Soviets were supporting the Lithuanian communists and the Polish Army was fighting them all." In mid-May, the Lithuanian army, now commanded by General Silvestras Žukauskas, began an offensive against the Soviets in northeastern Lithuania. By mid-June, the Lithuanians reached the Latvian border and cornered the Soviets among lakes and hills near Zarasai, where the Soviets held out until the end of August 1919. The Soviets and Lithuanians, separated by the Daugava River, maintained their fronts until the Battle of Daugavpils in January 1920. As early as September 1919, the Soviets offered to negotiate a peace treaty, but talks began only in May 1920. The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty was signed on July 12, 1920. Soviet Russia fully recognized independent Lithuania.

Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1918–19) independent 1918-1919 republic

The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (LSSR) was a short-lived Soviet republic declared on December 16, 1918, by a provisional revolutionary government led by Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas. It ceased to exist on February 27, 1919, when it was merged with the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia to form the Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (Litbel). While efforts were made to represent the LSSR as a product of a socialist revolution supported by local residents, it was largely a Moscow-orchestrated entity created to justify the Lithuanian–Soviet War. As a Soviet historian, adhering to official propaganda, put it: "The fact that the Government of Soviet Russia recognized a young Soviet Lithuanian Republic unmasked the lie of the USA and British imperialists that Soviet Russia allegedly sought rapacious aims with regard to the Baltic countries." Lithuanians generally did not support Soviet causes and rallied for their own national state, declared independent on February 16, 1918, by the Council of Lithuania.

The following events occurred in November 1918:

The following events occurred in December 1918:

Revolutions of 1917–1923

The Revolutions of 1917–1923 included political unrest and revolts around the world inspired by the success of the Russian Revolution and the disorder created by the aftermath of World War I. The uprisings were mainly socialist or anti-colonial in nature. Many attempted socialist revolts failed to have a long-term impact.

Ukrainian–Soviet War war (1917–1921) between the Ukrainian Peoples Republic and the Bolsheviks, won by the latter, resulting in the establishment of the Ukrainian SSR

The Ukrainian–Soviet War is the term commonly used in post-Soviet Ukraine for the events taking place between 1917–21, nowadays regarded essentially as a war between the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Russian Soviet Republic. The war ensued soon after the October Revolution when Lenin dispatched the Antonov's expeditionary group to Ukraine and Southern Russia. Soviet historical tradition viewed it as an occupation of Ukraine by military forces of Western and Central Europe, including the Polish Republic's military – the Bolshevik victory constituting Ukraine's liberation from these forces. Conversely, modern Ukrainian historians consider it a failed War of Independence by the Ukrainian People's Republic against the Russian Soviet Republic, ending with Ukraine falling under a Russian-Soviet occupation.

References

  1. Čepėnas, Pranas (1986). Naujųjų laikų Lietuvos istorija (in Lithuanian). II. Chicago: Dr. Griniaus fondas. p. 315. ISBN   5-89957-012-1.
  2. "Electoral Insight". Elections Canada Online. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
  3. "Women Get the Vote 1916-1919". Canada: A Country by Consent. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  4. Rodriguez Ruiz, Blanca; Rubio-Marín, Ruth (2012). The Struggle for Female Suffrage in Europe: Voting to Become Citizens. International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 216. ISBN   90-04-22425-4.
  5. "Sinking of HMY Iolaire - list of all on board at time of grounding". Across Two Seas. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  6. Lacika, Ján (2000). Bratislava. Visiting Slovakia (1st ed.). Bratislava: Dajama. p. 42. ISBN   80-88975-16-6.
  7. Clay, Steven E. (2011). U. S. Army Order Of Battle 1919-1941 (PDF). Volume 4. The Services: Quartermaster, Medical, Military Police, Signal Corps, Chemical Warfare, And Miscellaneous Organizations, 1919-41. 4. Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027: Combat Studies Institute Press. p. 2173. ISBN   9780984190140. LCCN   2010022326 . Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  8. Huzjan, Vladimir (2005). "Raspuštanje Hrvatskog domobranstva nakon završetka Prvog svjetskog rata". Časopis za suvremenu povijest. Croatian Institute of History. 37 (2): 445–462.
  9. Toronto Star, January 1, 1919
  10. Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1957). Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915–1933. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. p. 409.
  11. Isabel Pedrote, El Manifiesto de Córdoba que cita el Preámbulo declara a Andalucía "separatista" del Estado, El País , 2006-10-26. Accessed online 2009-12-20.
  12. Rose Bowl Game Timeline, Pasadena Tournament of Roses
  13. "Firm History". Covington & Burlington. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  14. John McDonough and Karen Egolf. Advertising Age Encyclopedia of Advertising. 2015.
  15. Marsh, Arthur (1984). Trade Union Handbook (3 ed.). Aldershot: Gower. p. 401. ISBN   0566024268.
  16. "Our Story". Emmanuel College. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  17. "ARGIA, the oldest Basque publication, has digitalised its 100-year old legacy". Argia. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  18. Ion N. Oprea - Mari personalităţi ale culturii române într-o istorie a presei bârlădene 1870 – 2008 - Editura P.I.M. Iaşi - 2008.
  19. "Club History". Buckingham Curling Club (in French). Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  20. Jaan Maide (1933). "II". Ülevaade Eesti Vabadussõjast (1918–1920) (PDF). Tartu: Kaitseliidu kirjastus.
  21. Ellis, John; Cox, Michael (1993). The World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. p. 187. ISBN   1-85410-766-6.
  22. "Fort Sill History: Henry Post Army Airfield - oldest airfield in the Army". Fort Sill Public Affairs. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  23. Allawi, Ali A. (2014). Faisal I of Iraq. Yale University Press. p. 189. ISBN   978-0-300-19936-9.
  24. Webb, Simon (2016). 1919: Britain's year of revolution. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. ISBN   978-1-47386-286-9.
  25. Boyle, Andrew. "Chapter 12". Trenchard Man of Vision. London: Collins. pp. 317–324.
  26. Ward, Dana (2006). "Timeline of Anarchism in Argentina". Anarchy Archives. Pitzer College.
  27. "УКРАЇНСЬКИЙ ФРОНТ". Leksika. Лексика - українські енциклопедії та словники. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  28. (in Polish) Bohdan Urbankowski, Józef Piłsudski: marzyciel i strateg, (Józef Piłsudski: Dreamer and Strategist), Tom pierwszy (first tome), Wydawnictwo ALFA, Warsaw, 1997, ISBN   83-7001-914-5, pp. 499-501
  29. "1919: The Spartacist Uprising". Weimar and Nazi Germany. September 29, 2013.
  30. Haffner, Sebastian (2002). Die deutsche Revolution 1918/19 (German). Kindler. p. 155. ISBN   3-463-40423-0.
  31. Broue, P. (2006) The German Revolution 1917-1923 Chicago: Haymarket p. 239
  32. Traksmaa, August: Lühike vabadussõja ajalugu, page 10. Olion, 1992, ISBN   5-450-01325-6
  33. Broue 2006, p. 241
  34. Haffner 2002, p. 162
  35. Urbankowski1997, pp. 499-501
  36. Leszek Adamczewski, Slawomir Kmiecik: Zwyciezcy. Bohaterowie Powstania Wielkopolskiego 1918-1919 we wspomnieniach swoich bliskich. Poznan 2008, ISBN   978-83-88965-77-7, pp. 66-67
  37. Kershaw, Ian (1999) [1998]. Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 82. ISBN   978-0-393-04671-7.
  38. Rodolfo Rodrigues (2009). Escudos dos Times do Mundo Inteiro. Panda Books. p. 72.
  39. "History". Eyupspor (in Turkish). Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  40. Kenneth Morrison. Montenegro: A Modern History. I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd (2009). p. 44
  41. "Perm Operations of 1918–19". The Free Dictionary. Farlex. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  42. "Kronika Miasta Poznania" nr 4, 1998, Naczelna Rada Ludowa.
  43. Adamczewski & Kmiecik 2008, pp. 66-67
  44. Broue 2006, p. 246
  45. Carlos Caballero Jurado, Ramiro Bujeiro (2001). The German Freikorps 1918–23: 1918–23. Osprey Publishing. ISBN   1-84176-184-2.
  46. Jennifer Llewellyn, Jim Southey and Steve Thompson (2014). "The German Revolution". Alpha History.
  47. Dalton, Kathleen (2002), Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life (full scholarly biography), p. 507, ISBN   0-679-76733-9
  48. Ellis & Cox 1993 , p. 187
  49. Morrison 2009, p. 44
  50. Traksmaa 1992, p. 10
  51. Haffner 2002, p. 162
  52. Adamczewski & Kmiecik 2008, pp. 66-67
  53. Ward 2006, Anarchy Archives
  54. Čepėnas 1986 , p. 315
  55. Cox 1993, p. 187
  56. "New Lines In Bronx Coming This Year: Rays of Rapid Transit to be Let Into Dark Sections in the West and North" (PDF). nytimes.com . The New York Times. January 7, 1919. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  57. "About NSF". Norwegian Statistical Association (in Norwegian). Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  58. Lucy Mallows, Rudolf Abraham, Transylvania p. 212
  59. Fráter, Olivér (2000). "The Romanian Occupation of Transsylvania in 1918-1919". epa.oszk.hu. Kisebbségkutatás - 9. évf. 2000. 2. szám.
  60. Magocsi, Paul Robert; Pop, Ivan I. (June 2002). Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture (book). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 237–238. ISBN   978-0-8020-3566-0 . Retrieved 2009-06-23.
  61. Haffner 2002, p. 162
  62. Ward 2006, Anarchy Archives
  63. Theodore Roosevelt Centre. Accessed 20 March 2014
  64. "Corporate Outline". Maeda Corporation. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  65. "Company Profile". Nikkei Asian Review . Nikkei Inc. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  66. "About - The American Society of Cinematographers". theasc.com. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  67. Haffner 2002, p. 163–168
  68. Adamczewski & Kmiecik 2008, 66–67
  69. Ward 2006, Anarchy Archives
  70. Massie, Robert K. (2004). Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea . New York: Ballantine Books. p. 783. ISBN   0345408780.
  71. "History". Estonian Defense Forces (in Estonian). Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  72. Statement Showing, in Chronological Order, the Date of Opening and the Mileage of Each Section of Railway, Statement No. 19, p. 188, ref. no. 200954-13
  73. "History of the TRA". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  74. Haffner 2002, p. 163-168
  75. (in German) Lebendige Geschichte: Vor 80 Jahren: der Freistaat Flaschenhals Archived 2006-03-05 at Archive.today Hessischer Rundfunk
  76. Ward 2006, Anarchy Archives
  77. Ferris, John. "Treasury Control, the Ten Year Rule and British Service Policies, 1919–1924". The Historical Journal, Vol. 30, No. 4. (December 1987), pp. 859–83
  78. Jackson, A.J. De Havilland Aircraft since 1909. London: Putnam, Third edition, 1987. ISBN   0-85177-802-X, p. 77
  79. "Atletico Adelante de Reconquista". Interior Futbolero. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  80. (in Russian) A.I. Melnin (1973), "Октябрьская революция и гражданская война в Северной Осетии" (The October Revolution and Civil War in North Ossetia), p. 225. Ordzhonikidze: Ir
  81. "Alagir incident (1919)", in: Mikaberidze, Alexander (2007), Historical Dictionary of Georgia, p. 106. Scarecrow Press, ISBN   0-8108-5580-1
  82. Flemming, Thomas (2004). The illusion of victory : America in World War I. New York: Basic Books. ISBN   978-0465024698.
  83. Benjamin Ziemann (1 January 2011). War Experiences in Rural Germany: 1914-1923. Berg. p. 221. ISBN   978-0-85785-095-9 . Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  84. "Acts of Anarchy Continue". The News and Courier. 13 January 1919.
  85. Ward 2006, Anarchy Archives
  86. "Baden: Ereignisse 1918-1933". Wahlen in der Weimarer Republik (in German). Retrieved 2007-04-26.
  87. Haffner 2002, p. 163-168
  88. Hébert, John Raymond (1972). The Tragic Week of January, 1919, in Buenos Aires: Background, Events, Aftermath (PhD thesis). Georgetown University. p. 159.
  89. Ward 2006, Anarchy Archives
  90. Cox 1993, p. 187
  91. Garrett, Major Charles S., The Arkansas Coast Artillery National Guard, Journal of the United States Field Artillery, 1922, Volume 56, Number 1, p. 69
  92. McPherson, Jim, "Mr. Meek Goes to Washington: The Story of the Small-Potatoes Canadian Baritone Who Founded America’s 'National' Opera," The Opera Quarterly, volume 20, no. 2, Spring 2004
  93. Latvijas Vēsture, eds. 65-68. A/S Lana. 2007. p. 104.
  94. Traksmaa 1992, p. 98
  95. Ward 2006, Anarchy Archives
  96. Marchak, Patricia (1999). God's Assassins: State Terrorism in Argentina in the 1970s. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 47. ISBN   978-0773520134.
  97. Garcia, Miguel Angel (1928) Diccionario Histórico Enciclopédico de la República de El Salvador. Vol. II San Salvador, p. 119
  98. Bulletin of the Pan American Union, Vol. 52, 1921
  99. Vethanayagamony, Peter (15 December 2009). "The Lutheran Churches of India". Lutheran Forum. Archived from the original on 6 September 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  100. Cent ans de mise en scène lyrique en France (env. 1830-1930) H. Robert Cohen, Marie-Odile Gigou, Association de la régie théâtrale 1986 091872869X GISMONDA Musique de Henry Février Livret de Henri Cain et Louis Payen (d'après la pièce de Victorien Sardou) Créé à Chicago, 14 janvier 1919 Opéra-Comique, 15 octobre 1919 d Livret de mise en scène imprimé, reproduction de ...
  101. Wroe, David (18 December 2009). "Rosa Luxemburg Murder Case Reopened". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  102. Wette, Wolfram (2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality . Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 44. ISBN   0674022130.
  103. "Chaouia". Uboat.net. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  104. Park, Edwards (November 1983). "Without Warning, Molasses in January Surged Over Boston". Smithsonian. 14 (8): 213–230. Retrieved March 24, 2013. Reprinted at Eric Postpischil's Domain, "Eric Postpischil's Molasses Disaster Pages, Smithsonian Article", June 14, 2009
  105. Bowyer, Chaz. Handley Page Bombers of the First World War. Bourne End, Bucks, UK:Aston Publications, 1992. ISBN   0-946627-68-1, pp. 135, 138
  106. Daya, Burhaduddin. (1990) Gerakan Penbaharuan Pemikiran Islam Kasus Sumatera Thawalib. Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana. p. 92
  107. "Progressive Silent Film List: The Lightning Raider". Silent Era. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
  108. "Sportive Hope of Tunis". Est.org (in French). Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  109. "The 18th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution". National Constitution Center – The 18th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Retrieved 2017-11-20.
  110. Patrick Frank. Los Artistas del Pueblo: prints and workers' culture in Buenos Aires, 1917-1935. University of New Mexico Press, 2006. Pp. 206.
  111. "Agency ID603, Cook Shire Council". Queensland State Archives . Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  112. Traksmaa 1992, p. 98
  113. Magocsi 2002, pp. 237-238
  114. Franks, Norman; Bailey, Frank W.; Guest, Russell F. (1993). Above The Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service, and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918. London, UK: Grub Street. p. 47. ISBN   978-0-948817-73-1.
  115. "Peace Conference Opens: Memorable Ceremony at the Quai d'Orsay". The Globe (38539). London. 1919-01-18. p. 1.
  116. MacMillan, Margaret (2002). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. Random House.
  117. Traksmaa 1992, p. 98
  118. Savchenko, V.A. (2006). Двенадцать войн за Украину [12 Wars of Ukraine] (in Russian). Kharkov: Folio.
  119. Prazmowska, Anita (2010). Makers of the Modern World: Ignacy Paderewski, Poland. Haus Publishing Ltd. pp. 76–97. ISBN   978-1-905791-70-5.
  120. Gilbert & Nilsson, The A to Z of Modern Italy, p. 328
  121. "Death of Youngest Son of King and Queen". Daily Mirror. 20 January 1919. p. 2.
  122. Van der Kiste, John (1991). George V's Children. London: A. Sutton. p. 44. ISBN   0-86299-816-6.
  123. Georgano, Nick, ed. (1 October 2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile (Hardcover, Reprint ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN   1-57958-293-1.
  124. "Who We Are - History". Polish Red Cross (in Polish). Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  125. "Perm Operations of 1918–19". The Free Dictionary. Farlex. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  126. Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p. 762 ISBN   978-3-8329-5609-7
  127. Stephenson, Jill (2013). Women in Nazi Society. 35. London, England: Routledge. p. 4. ISBN   978-1-136-24740-8.
  128. Stephenson, Jill (2013). Women in Nazi Society. 35. London, England: Routledge. p. 4. ISBN   978-1-136-24740-8.
  129. Darman, Peter, ed. (2007). "Introduction: Deutschland Erwache". World War II A Day-By-Day History (60th Anniversary ed.). China: The Brown Reference Group plc. p. 10; 575. ISBN   978-0-7607-9475-3.
  130. "Proclamação da "Monarquia do Norte"". Fundação Mário Soares. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  131. Halliday, E.M. (1990). The Ignorant Armies. New York: Bantam. pp. 154–155. ISBN   0-553-28456-8.
  132. "Vedrines' 80 h.p.Caudron on the roof of the Galeries Lafayette". Flight . 30 January 1919.
  133. Ellis & Cox 1993 , p. 187
  134. "History of the University". Banaras Hindu University. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  135. Baruch Gurevitz (15 September 1980). National Communism in the Soviet Union, 1918-28. University of Pittsburgh Pre. pp. 35–36. ISBN   978-0-8229-7736-0.
  136. "Our History". Cathedral of Our Lady of Perpetual Help. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
  137. Matiossian, Vartan (April 15, 2014). "The Quest for Aurora: On 'Ravished Armenia' and its Surviving Fragment". The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  138. Grüne, Hardy (2001). Vereinslexikon. Kassel: AGON Sportverlag ISBN   3-89784-147-9
  139. "History". FSV Brieske (in German). Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  140. Traksmaa 1992, p. 98
  141. Halliday 1990, p. 161.
  142. Philadelphia War History Committee (1922). Philadelphia in the war, 1914-1919. New York: Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co. p. 207.
  143. "History of Drummoyne Rowing Club". Drummoyne Rowers. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  144. Comerford, Maire (1969). The First Dáil. Joe Clarke. p. 11.
  145. Aengus O Snodaigh (21 January 1999). "Gearing up for war: Soloheadbeg 1919". An Phoblacht .
  146. Foner, Philip S., History of the Labor Movement in the United States, v.8 Postwar Struggles, 1918–1920 (NY: International Publishers, 1988), ISBN   0-7178-0388-0, p. 65
  147. Cox 1993, p. 187
  148. "UC 40". Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  149. Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 362. ISBN   0-8020-8390-0.
  150. Savchenko, V.A. (2006). Двенадцать войн за Украину [12 Wars of Ukraine] (in Russian). Kharkov: Folio.
  151. Halliday 1990, p. 162.
  152. Mallows & Abraham, p. 212
  153. Palestine Factionalism in the National Movement (1919-1939)
  154. Evan Mawdsley (2011-07-04). The Russian Civil War. Birlinn. p. 284. ISBN   978-0-85790-123-1.
  155. "Mr. Richard Mulcahy". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  156. "Professor Eoin MacNeill". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  157. Irish Bureau of Military History WS 825 (Leopold H.Kerney), cited in Townshend, p. 69
  158. Mackay, James (1997). Michael Collins: A Life. Mainstream Publishing. p. 116. ISBN   978-1-85158-857-2.
  159. "George Herriman". Lambiek Comiclopedia. Lambiek Comix-Strips. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  160. Pogonowski, Iwo Cyprian. Poland: A Historical Atlas (March 1989 ed.). Hippocrene Books; Revised edition. p. 321. ISBN   0-87052-282-5.
  161. Dovidnyk z istoriï Ukraïny, 3-Volumes, Article "Hotyns'ke Povstannya, 1919 Archived 2006-07-20 at the Wayback Machine " (T.3), Kiev, 1993-1999, ISBN   5-7707-5190-8 (t. 1), ISBN   5-7707-8552-7 (t. 2), ISBN   966-504-237-8 (t. 3).
  162. Sean Treacy and the 3rd. Tipperary Brigade by Desmond Ryan (1945), p. 74
  163. Police Casualties in Ireland, 1919–1922 by Richard Abbott ( ISBN   978-1856353144), p. 49
  164. Halliday 1990, pp. 163-166.
  165. Webb, Simon (2016). 1919: Britain's year of revolution. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. ISBN   978-1-47386-286-9.
  166. Kurs, Ott (1994). Ingria: The broken landbridge between Estonia and Finland. GeoJournal 33.1, 107-113.
  167. Pogonowski 1989, p. 321
  168. Savchenko, V.A. (2006). Двенадцать войн за Украину [12 Wars of Ukraine] (in Russian). Kharkov: Folio.
  169. Boot, Max (2003). The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books. p. 230. ISBN   046500721X. LCCN   2004695066.
  170. Cox 1993, p. 187
  171. Magocsi, Paul Robert (2002) [1993]. "Central Europe 1918-1923". Historical Atlas of Central Europe. A History of East Central Europe. 1 (revised and expanded ed.). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 127. ISBN   0-295-98146-6. OCLC   47097699.
  172. Desmond Keenan, Ireland Within The Union 1800-1921 (Xlibris Corporation), 228.[ self-published source ]
  173. Magliveras, Konstantinos D (1999). Exclusion from Participation in International Organisations: The Law and Practice behind Member States' Expulsion and Suspension of Membership. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 8. ISBN   978-90-411-1239-2.
  174. Boot 2003, p. 231.
  175. "World's Biggest Hotel Opens Today" (PDF). The New York Times. January 25, 1919. p. 9. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  176. Dieter Nohlen; Philip Stöver (31 May 2010). Elections in Europe: A Data Handbook. Nomos. p. 1491. ISBN   978-3-8329-5609-7 . Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  177. Sharp, Ingrid; Stibbe, Matthew, eds. (2011). Aftermaths of War: Women's movements and female activists, 1918-1923. 63. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 280. ISBN   978-90-04-19172-3.
  178. Harsch, Donna (2000). German Social Democracy and the Rise of Nazism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 129.
  179. https://www.radio.cz/de/rubrik/geschichte/sieben-tage-krieg-als-tschechen-und-polen-1919-aufeinander-schossen, in particular: "Während des Siebentagekrieges töteten tschechoslowakische Soldaten sogar polnische Gefangene, das ist auf Fotos dokumentiert. Einige Quellen sagen, dass die Gefangenen mit Bajonetten erstochen wurden."
  180. Stručná Historie ČSL a KDU-ČSL KDU-ČSL
  181. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN   0-7607-0592-5, p. 186
  182. Ford, Colonel Joseph H., MC (1927). The Medical Department of the U.S. Army in the World War, Volume 2. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 748.
  183. Donegan, Des, The Complete Handbook of Gaelic Games (DBA Publications Limited, 2005)
  184. Andersen, Svein S.; Ronglan, Lars Tore (2012). Nordic Elite Sports: Same Ambitions - Different Tracks. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press. pp. 85–88. ISBN   978-876-30024-5-5.
  185. Pogonowski 1989, p. 321
  186. Boot, Max (2003). The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books. p. 231. ISBN   046500721X. LCCN   2004695066.
  187. Goldinger, Walter; Dieter A. Binder (1992). Geschichte der Republik Österreich: 1918-1938 (in German). Vienna, Austria: Verlag fur Geschischte und Politik. p. 62. Marburger Blutsonntag
  188. Webb, Simon (2016). 1919: Britain's year of revolution. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. ISBN   978-1-47386-286-9.
  189. "The 40 Hours Strike 1919". Glasgow Digital Library. University of Strathclyde.
  190. "Perm Operations of 1918–19". The Free Dictionary. Farlex. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  191. "Kuban People's Republic" by Kirill Protopopov, in The Cinderella Philatelist , Vol. 52, No. 1 (Whole No. 205), January 2012, p. 9
  192. "УКРАЇНСЬКИЙ ФРОНТ". Leksika. Лексика - українські енциклопедії та словники. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  193. Cox 1993, p. 187
  194. Cockfield, Jamie H. White Crow: The Life and Times of the Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich Romanov, 1859-1919. Praeger, 2002, ISBN   0-275-97778-1, p. 245
  195. Lee, William & Davidson, Lisa. Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich. Published in The Grand Dukes. Eurohistory, 2012. ISBN   9780985460396, p. 165
  196. "History of Masaryk University". Masaryk University (in Czech). Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  197. Valdis Bēržin̦š (2000). 20. gadsimta Latvijas vēsture: Neatkarīgā valsts 1918-1940. II. Latvijas Vēstures Institūta Apgāds. p. 771. ISBN   978-9984-601-18-2.
  198. Walicki, Andrzej. "The Troubling Legacy of Roman Dmowski," East European Politics & Societies (2000), p. 13
  199. Cox 1993, p. 187
  200. "World War 1 Era Naval Aviation Stations". BlueJacket.com. BlueJacket.com.
  201. Ford 1927, p. 735
  202. Pogonowski 1989, p. 321
  203. "The last reading of the Riot Act". BBC Scotland. BBC.
  204. CAB 23/9/9, 'War Cabinet, Minutes of Meeting 523, 31 January 1919'
  205. Čepėnas 1986 , p. 315
  206. Cox 1993, p. 187
  207. "San Pancracio" (in Spanish). Archdiocese of Montevideo. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  208. "SOLDIERS' MEMORIAL". Darling Downs Gazette (8712). Queensland, Australia. 1 February 1919. p. 6. Retrieved 25 January 2017 via National Library of Australia.
  209. Traksmaa 1992, pp. 106-109
  210. Pogonowski 1989, p. 321
  211. "The Battle of George Square". The Sunday Post.
  212. "Kirkwood and Gallacher arrested during 'Bloody Friday', 31 Jan 1919". Glasgow Digital Library. University of Strathclyde.
  213. "Letter from lawyer of Emanuel Shinwell to defence witnesses in the 40 hours strike trial, 31 Jan 1919". Glasgow Digital Library. University of Strathclyde.
  214. Riffenburgh, Beau (2004). Nimrod: Ernest Shackleton and the Extraordinary Story of the 1907–09 British Antarctic Expedition. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 306–7. ISBN   0-7475-7253-4.
  215. "London Regiment - Regiment History, War & Military Records & Archives". forces-war-records.co.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  216. "12th Infantry Division". US Militia Forum. Retrieved 8 December 2017.