Wales national rugby union team

Last updated

Wales
Welsh Rugby Union logo.svg
Emblem Prince of Wales's feathers
Union Welsh Rugby Union
Head coach Warren Gatland
Captain Alun Wyn Jones
Most caps Gethin Jenkins (129)
Top scorer Neil Jenkins (1,049)
Top try scorer Shane Williams (58)
Home stadium Millennium Stadium
Kit left arm.svg
Kit body.svg
Kit right arm.svg
Kit shorts.svg
Kit socks color 3 stripes black.png
Kit socks long.svg
First colours
Kit left arm Walesleftrwcb.png
Kit left arm.svg
Kit body Waleskit1.png
Kit body.svg
Kit right arm Walesrightrwcb.png
Kit right arm.svg
Kit shorts Walesshortsrwcb.png
Kit shorts.svg
Kit socks Walessocksrwcb.png
Kit socks long.svg
Second colours
World Rugby ranking
Current2 (as of 18 March 2019)
Highest2 (2015, 2019)
Lowest10 (2007)
First international
England 8–0 Wales
(19 February 1881)
Biggest win
Wales 98–0 Japan
(26 November 2004)
Biggest defeat
South Africa 96–13 Wales
(27 June 1998)
World Cup
Appearances8 (First in 1987 )
Best resultThird place, 1987
Website www.wru.co.uk

The Wales national rugby union team (Welsh : Tîm rygbi'r undeb cenedlaethol Cymru) competes annually in the Six Nations Championship with England, France, Ireland, Italy and Scotland. Wales have won the Six Nations and its predecessors 27 times outright. Wales' most recent championship and Grand Slam victory came in 2019.

Welsh language Brythonic language spoken natively in Wales

Welsh or y Gymraeg is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages. It is spoken natively in Wales, by some in England, and in Y Wladfa. Historically, it has also been known in English as "Cambrian", "Cambric" and "Cymric".

Six Nations Championship annual international rugby union competition

The Six Nations Championship is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland, and Wales. The current champions are Wales, who won the 2019 tournament.

England national rugby union team sportsteam in rugby union

The England national rugby union team competes in the annual Six Nations Championship with France, Ireland, Scotland, Italy, and Wales. They have won this championship on a total of 28 occasions, 13 times winning the Grand Slam and 25 times winning the Triple Crown, making them the most successful outright winners in the tournament's history. They are ranked fourth in the world by the International Rugby Board as of 18 March 2019. England are to date the only team from the northern hemisphere to win the Rugby World Cup, when they won the tournament back in 2003. They were also runners-up in 1991 and 2007.

Contents

The governing body, the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU), was established in 1881, the same year that Wales played their first international against England. Wales' performances in the Home Nations Championship (now the Six Nations) continued to improve, experiencing their first 'golden age' between 1900 and 1911. They first played New Zealand, known as the All Blacks, in 1905, when they defeated them 3–0 in a famous match at Cardiff Arms Park. Welsh rugby struggled between the two World Wars, but experienced a second 'golden age' between 1969 and 1980 when they won eight Five Nations Championships.

The Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) is the governing body of rugby union in the country of Wales, recognised by the sport's international governing body, World Rugby.

New Zealand national rugby union team mens rugby union team of New Zealand

The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, which is known as the country's national sport. The team has won the last two Rugby World Cups, in 2011 and 2015 as well as the inaugural tournament in 1987.

Cardiff Arms Park sports venue

Cardiff Arms Park, also known as The Arms Park and the BT Sport Cardiff Arms Park for sponsorship reasons from September 2014, is situated in the centre of Cardiff, Wales. It is primarily known as a rugby union stadium, but it also has a bowling green. The Arms Park was host to the British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1958, and hosted four games in the 1991 Rugby World Cup, including the third-place play-off. The Arms Park also hosted the inaugural Heineken Cup Final of 1995–96 and the following year in 1996–97.

Wales played in the inaugural Rugby World Cup in 1987 where they achieved their best ever result of third. Following the sport allowing professionalism in 1995, Wales hosted the 1999 World Cup and, in 2005, won their first Six Nations Grand Slam. That was the first Grand Slam won by a team playing most of the matches away from home. Wales won three more Grand Slams in 2008, 2012 and 2019. In 2011, they came fourth in the Rugby World Cup.

The 1987 Rugby World Cup was the first Rugby World Cup. New Zealand and Australia agreed to co-host the tournament. New Zealand hosted 20 matches – 17 pool stage matches, two quarter-finals and the final – while Australia hosted 12 matches – seven pool matches, two quarter-finals and both semi-finals. The event was won by co-hosts New Zealand, who were the strong favourites and won all their matches comfortably. France were losing finalists, and Wales surprise third-place winners: Australia, having been second favourites, finished fourth after conceding crucial tries in the dying seconds of both the semi-final against France and the third-place play-off against Wales.

The 1999 Rugby World Cup was the fourth Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial international rugby union championship. It was principally hosted by Wales, and was won by Australia. This was the first Rugby World Cup to be held in the sport's professional era.

Their home ground is the Millennium Stadium, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Principality Stadium, completed in 1999 to replace the National Stadium at Cardiff Arms Park. Eight former Welsh players have been inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame; 10 were inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame prior to its 2014 merger into the World Rugby Hall.

Millennium Stadium national stadium of Wales

The Millennium Stadium, is the national stadium of Wales. Located in Cardiff, it is the home of the Wales national rugby union team and has also held Wales national football team games. Initially built to host the 1999 Rugby World Cup, it has gone on to host many other large-scale events, such as the Tsunami Relief Cardiff concert, the Super Special Stage of Wales Rally Great Britain, the Speedway Grand Prix of Great Britain and various music concerts. It also hosted six FA Cup finals and several other high-profile football fixtures while Wembley Stadium was being redeveloped.

The World Rugby Hall of Fame recognises special achievement and contribution to the sport of rugby union. The World Rugby Hall of Fame covers players, coaches, administrators, match officials, institutions and other individuals. The Hall of Fame recognises the history and important contributions to the game, through one or more induction ceremonies that have been held annually except in 2010. The permanent physical home of the Hall of Fame has been based at the Rugby Art Gallery and Museum in Rugby, Warwickshire since November 2016.

The International Rugby Hall of Fame (IRHOF) was a hall of fame for rugby union. It was created in 1997 in New Zealand and is run as a charitable trust with an address at Chiswick in London. Most of the trustees are also inductees. IRHOF accepted new inductees every two years until 2007. Most inductees are former players, but others who have contributed to the game are eligible. In 2014 it was integrated into the then–IRB Hall of Fame, which then was renamed the World Rugby Hall of Fame.

History

Early years (1881–1892)

The 1895 Wales team before playing England in the Home Nations Championship 1895 Wales team cropped.jpg
The 1895 Wales team before playing England in the Home Nations Championship

Rugby union took root in Wales in 1850, when Reverend Rowland Williams became Vice-Principal at St David's College, Lampeter, and introduced the sport there. [1] Wales played their first international on 19 February 1881; organised by Newport's Richard Mullock, Wales played against England, losing by seven goals, one drop goal and six tries to nil (82–0, in modern scoring values). [2] [3] On 12 March 1881, the Welsh Rugby Union was formed at The Castle Hotel, Neath. [2] Two years later, the Home Nation Championship now the Six Nations Championship  was first played and Wales did not register a win. [4] [5] [6] However, rugby in Wales developed and, by the 1890s, the Welsh had developed the four three-quarters formation. This formation – with seven backs and eight forwards, instead of six backs and nine forwards – revolutionised the sport and was eventually adopted almost universally at international and club level. [7]

Rowland Williams (theologian) Welsh theologian

Rowland Williams was vice-principal and Professor of Hebrew at St David’s College, Lampeter, from 1849 to 1862 and was one of the most influential theologians of the nineteenth century. He supported biblical criticism and pioneered comparative Religious Studies in Britain. He was also a priest in the Church of England, the vicar of Broad Chalke, where he is buried. Williams is also credited with introducing rugby football to Wales – Lampeter's team was the first to be established in the nation.

University of Wales, Lampeter Lampeter campus of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David

University of Wales, Lampeter was a university in Lampeter, Wales. Founded in 1822, and given its royal charter in 1828, it was the oldest degree awarding institution in Wales, with degree awarding powers since 1852, and the fourth oldest institution of higher learning in England and Wales after the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham. St. David's was a college. In 2010 it merged with Trinity University College to create the University of Wales Trinity Saint David.

Lampeter town in Wales, United Kingdom

Lampeter is a town, community and electoral ward in Ceredigion, South West Wales, at the confluence of the River Teifi and the Afon Dulas. It is the third largest urban area in Ceredigion, after Aberystwyth and Cardigan, and has a campus of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David.

First 'golden age' (1893–1913)

Wales' 1905 team that defeated New Zealand Wales team for the Original All Blacks match December 1905 - cropped.jpg
Wales' 1905 team that defeated New Zealand

With the "four three-quarter" formation Wales became Home International Champions for the first time in 1893; in the process winning the Triple Crown. [7] Wales next won the Championship in 1900, heralding the first "golden age" of Welsh rugby which was to last until 1911. [8] They won two more Triple Crowns in 1902 and 1905, [9] and were runners up in 1901, 1903 and 1904. [6]

The 1893 Home Nations Championship was the eleventh series of the rugby union Home Nations Championship. Six matches were played between 17 January and 11 March. It was contested by England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. In winning all three matches, Wales won the Championship for the first time and also took the Triple Crown.

In rugby union, the Triple Crown is an honour contested annually by the "Home Nations" – i.e. England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales who compete within the larger Six Nations Championship. If any one of these teams defeats all three other teams, they win the Triple Crown.

The 1900 Home Nations Championship was the eighteenth series of the rugby union Home Nations Championship. Six matches were played between 6 January and 17 March. It was contested by England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

A scrum in the Wales victory over New Zealand's Original All Blacks in 1905 Wales versus New Zealand scrum 1905 - cropped.jpg
A scrum in the Wales victory over New Zealand's Original All Blacks in 1905

When Wales faced New Zealand's All Blacks at Cardiff Arms Park in late 1905 they had not lost at home since 1899. [10] This New Zealand team  now referred to as the Original All Blacks  was the first of the southern hemisphere national teams to visit the British Isles, [11] and were undefeated on their tour up until that point; their victories included prior defeats of England, Ireland and Scotland. [12] [lower-alpha 1] Before the match, the All Blacks performed a haka (a Māori posture dance); the 47,000-strong crowd responded with the Welsh national anthem  Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau ("Land of Our Fathers") the first time a national anthem had been sung before a sporting fixture. [13] Wales' wing Teddy Morgan scored a try to give Wales a 3–0 lead, but later in the match All Black Bob Deans claimed to have scored a try, only to be dragged behind the try-line before the referee arrived. The referee ruled a scrum to Wales and the score did not change; Wales winning 3–0. [14] The loss was the All Blacks' only loss on their 35-match tour. [15]

In 1906, Wales again won the Home Championship, [9] [lower-alpha 2] and later that year played the South African national side, the Springboks for the first time. Wales were favourites to win the match, [16] but instead South Africa dominated in the forwards and eventually won 11–0. [17] [18] Two years later, on 12 December 1908, Wales played the touring Australians, known as the Wallabies, who they defeated 9–6. [19]

In 1909, Wales won the Home Championship and then, in 1910 – with the inclusion of France – the first Five Nations. In 1911, Wales took the first Five Nations Grand Slam by winning all their matches in the Five Nations; [9] [lower-alpha 3] France were heavily defeated by Wales at St Helens in 1910 (49–14) and Ivor Morgan scored two tries in the match. It would be nearly 40 years before they achieved a Grand Slam again. [9] England's defeat of Wales at Cardiff in 1913 was Wales' first home loss to one of the Home Nations since 1899, and their first home loss to England since 1895. [20] The Great War came in 1914 and rugby was suspended for the duration.

Post-war years (1920–1968)

Wales playing France during the 1922 Five Nations Championship France versus Wales in rugby union 1922 - cropped.jpg
Wales playing France during the 1922 Five Nations Championship

The post-First World War years marked a decline in Welsh rugby. An industrial recession struck the principality, and hurt South Wales in particular. Welsh international results in the 1920s mirrored the performance of the economy: of their 42 matches they won only 17, with three drawn. [21] Half a million people emigrated from Wales to find work elsewhere during the depression; [22] this included many Welsh rugby union internationals who moved to the professional code of rugby league. [23] Between 1923 and 1928, Wales managed only seven victories – five of them against France. However, even France managed to defeat Wales that decade; achieving their first victory over Wales in 1928. [24] Welsh selection policy reflected the upheavals of the mid-1920s. In 1924, 35 different players were selected for Wales' four matches, with a different captain for each; and only Edward Watkins in the backs and Charlie Pugh in the forwards, playing in all four matches. [21]

A resurgence of both economy and rugby union followed in the 1930s and, in 1931, Wales won their first championship for nine years. That year, for the first time since the First World War, Wales retained the same side for two consecutive Tests when they faced England and Scotland. [25] Then, in 1933, captained by Watcyn Thomas, Wales defeated England at Twickenham. [26] In 1935, Wales beat the touring All Blacks by 13–12, with Haydn Tanner making his first appearance. Although the Five Nations Championship was suspended during the Second World War [lower-alpha 4] Wales did play a Red Cross charity match against England at Cardiff in 1940, which Wales lost 18–9. [28]

Following the Second World War, Wales played a New Zealand Army team (the Kiwis) in 1946, which Wales lost 11–3. [29] The Five Nations (suspended during the war) resumed in 1947 when Wales shared the title with England. Although Wales suffered their first home defeat to France in 1948, [30] they won their first Five Nations Grand Slam since 1911 in 1950. [9] The next year, they lost to the touring South Africans 6–3 despite dominating in the line-outs. [31] They achieved another Grand Slam in 1952, [9] followed by a 13–8 win over the All Blacks in 1953. [32] In 1954, St Helens in Swansea (a Welsh international venue since 1882) hosted its last international and Cardiff Arms Park officially became the home of the Welsh team. [33] In 1956, Wales again won the Five Nations, but they did not regain the title until 1964 and did not win it outright until 1965. [9]

Wales playing Argentina at Estadio GEBA in September 1968 Rugby arg wales 1968.jpg
Wales playing Argentina at Estadio GEBA in September 1968

Wales conducted their first overseas tour in 1964, playing several games and one Test in South Africa. [34] They lost the Test against South Africa in Durban 24–3, their biggest defeat in 40 years. [35] At the WRU annual general meeting that year, the outgoing WRU President D. Ewart Davies declared that "it was evident from the experience of the South African Tour that a much more positive attitude to the game was required in Wales ... Players must be prepared to learn, and indeed re-learn, to the absolute point of mastery, the basic principles of Rugby Union football". [36] This started the coaching revolution. The WRU Coaching Committee – set up in the late 1950s – was given the task of improving the quality of coaching and, in January 1967, Ray Williams was appointed Coaching Organiser. [37] The first national coach, David Nash, was appointed in 1967 to coach Wales for the season, but resigned when the WRU refused to allow him to accompany Wales on their 1968 tour of Argentina. [38] Eventually, the WRU reversed their decision, appointing Clive Rowlands to tour as coach. Of the six matches, Wales won three, drew two and lost one. [39]

Second 'golden age' (1969–1979)

Wales enjoyed a second "golden age" in the 1970s, [40] [41] [42] with world-class players such as Gareth Edwards, [42] J. P. R. Williams, Gerald Davies, [42] Barry John, [40] and Mervyn Davies, [43] in their side. Wales dominated Northern Hemisphere rugby between 1969 and 1979, and attained an incredible winning record, losing only seven times during that period. [40] Wales toured New Zealand for the first time in 1969, but were defeated in both Tests. As well as losing the first Test 19–0, and the second 33–12, [44] they also conceded 24 points to the All Blacks' fullback Fergie McCormick in the second Test; a record at the time. [45]

In 1970, Wales shared the Five Nations with France, and recorded a 6–6 draw against South Africa in Cardiff. [46] The following year Wales recorded their first Five Nations Grand Slam since 1952. Using only 16 players in four games, [47] the 1971 side achieved their most notable win of the tournament in their victory over Scotland; [48] after a last minute try by Gerald Davies that reduced Scotland's lead to 18–17, flanker John Taylor kicked a conversion from the sideline described as "the greatest conversion since St Paul" to give Wales a 19–18 win. [49] Wales contributed more players than any other team to the British and Irish Lions that toured New Zealand that year. Those Lions became the only ones to win a series over the All Blacks. [50]

In the 1972 Five Nations Championship, Wales and Scotland refused to travel to Ireland at the height of the Troubles after receiving threats, purportedly from the Irish Republican Army. [51] The Championship remained unresolved with Wales and Ireland unbeaten. Although the Five Nations was a five-way tie in 1973, the Welsh did defeat Australia 24–0 in Cardiff. [52]

Wales next won the Five Nations outright in 1975, and in 1976, Wales won their second Grand slam of the decade. Just like the first in 1971, they only used 16 players over their four matches. [53] They repeated the feat in 1978 and, in the process, became the first team to win three consecutive Triple Crowns. [54] Following their final Five Nations match of 1978, both Phil Bennett and Gareth Edwards retired from rugby. [42]

Wales hosted the All Blacks at Cardiff Arms Park in November 1978, losing 13–12 after a late penalty goal by the replacement All Black fullback, Brian McKechnie. [55] The penalty was controversial because All Black lock Andy Haden had dived out of a line-out in an attempt to earn a penalty. Haden later admitted that he and Frank Oliver had pre-agreed this tactic should the All Blacks find themselves in difficulties. [56] [57] Referee Roger Quittenton was roasted by the press for failing to notice the dive, but he later stated he had the penalty was in for Welsh lock Geoff Wheel for jumping off the shoulder of Frank Oliver. [58] Quittenton later said, "Haden's perception is that his dive secured the penalty. That is a load of rubbish". [57] The All Blacks went on to secure their first Home Nations Grand Slam. [59] [lower-alpha 5] Wales then went on to win the 1979 Five Nations with a Triple Crown. [9]

Barren years (1980–2003)

New Zealander Graham Henry coached Wales to their first Test win over South Africa in 1999. Graham Henry 28 March 2011 Twickenham.jpg
New Zealander Graham Henry coached Wales to their first Test win over South Africa in 1999.

In 1980, the WRU's centenary year, [60] Wales lost to the All Blacks in Cardiff by 23–3 after the All Blacks scored four tries to nil. [61] Wales won two matches in each Five Nations of 1980 and 1981, [62] and in 1983 were nearly upset by Japan; winning 29–24 at Cardiff. [63] In 1984, Australia defeated Wales 28–9 at Cardiff Arms Park and in the process scored a push-over try. Australia went on to win their first Home Nations Grand Slam. [19]

Wales achieved only one win in 1987's Five Nations before contesting the inaugural Rugby World Cup. [62] Wales defeated Ireland in their crucial pool fixture, [64] before defeating England in the quarter-finals. [65] They then faced hosts the All Blacks who won 49–6, but beat Australia in the third place play-off game to claim third. [66] The next year Wales won the Triple Crown for the first time since 1979, but heavy defeats on tour to New Zealand later that year saw the end of a number of Welsh players' careers, as several converted to rugby league. [60]

Welsh rugby reached a nadir when Wales suffered their first Five Nations championship whitewash; they had upset England in 1989 to avoid losing all their Championship matches that season, [67] but in 1990 Wales were defeated in all four Five Nations' matches for the first time. [68] The 1991 World Cup saw further frustration when Wales were upset by Manu Samoa in their opening match. [69] A second group-stage loss, by 38–3 to Australia, eliminated Wales from the tournament. [70]

After winning two Five Nations games in 1992, and one in 1993, [71] Wales won the Championship in 1994 on points difference. [9] But without defeating one of Australia, New Zealand, or South Africa, during the inter-World Cup period, Wales was not considered a major tournament contender. [70] [72] At the 1995 World Cup, after comprehensively beating Japan, Wales lost to New Zealand; this meant that they needed to defeat Ireland to qualify for the quarter-finals. Wales lost 24–23 and so failed to progress beyond the pool stage for the second time, [73] and later that year Kevin Bowring replaced Alex Evans to become Wales' first full-time coach. [74]

Record defeats, 51–0 to France, and 96–13 to South Africa, prompted the WRU to appoint New Zealander Graham Henry as coach in 1998. [75] [76] Henry had early success as coach, leading Wales to a ten-match winning streak; this included Wales' first victory over South Africa, by 29–19. [75] Henry was consequently nicknamed "the great redeemer" by the Welsh media and fans. [76] [77] Hosting the 1999 World Cup, Wales qualified for the quarter-finals for the first time since 1987, but lost 9–24 to eventual champions Australia. [78] A lack of success in the Five and Six Nations (Italy joined the tournament in 2000), and especially a number of heavy losses to Ireland, led to Henry's resignation in February 2002; his assistant Steve Hansen took over. [75] [76]

During Hansen's tenure, the WRU implemented a significant change in the structure of the game domestically. Regional teams were introduced as a tier above the traditional club-based structures in 2003, and the five (then four) regional sides became the top level of domestic professional rugby in the principality. [lower-alpha 6] [79] [80] At the 2003 World Cup, Wales scored four tries in their 53–37 loss to New Zealand, [81] and also lost to the eventual tournament winners, England, in their quarter-final, despite outscoring them by three tries to one. [82]

Revival (2004–present)

Michael Owen takes a line-out. Michael Owen takes a lineout.jpg
Michael Owen takes a line-out.

Coached by Mike Ruddock, Wales won their first Grand Slam since 1978 and their first Six Nations Grand Slam in 2005. A late long range penalty from Gavin Henson gave them a victory over England at Cardiff for the first time in 12 years, [83] and after victories over Italy, France, Scotland, they faced Ireland in front of a capacity crowd at the Millennium Stadium where Wales' 32–20 victory gave them their first Championship since 1994. [84] Later that year they suffered a record home loss, 41–3 to New Zealand. [85]

Mike Ruddock resigned as the head coach of Wales midway through the 2006 Six Nations, [86] where Wales finished fifth, and Gareth Jenkins was eventually appointed as his replacement. [87] Jenkins led Wales through the 2007 World Cup, where they failed to advance beyond the pool stage following a loss to Fiji. [88] Jenkins subsequently lost his job, [89] [90] and Warren Gatland, a New Zealander, was appointed as his successor. [91]

Wales faced England at Twickenham for Gatland's inaugural match as coach and their first match of the 2008 Six Nations. They had not defeated England there since 1988, and went on to win 26–19. They eventually won all their Championship matches, conceding only two tries in the process, to claim another Grand Slam. [92] Later that year Wales defeated Australia 21–18 in Cardiff, but then started a six-year, 23-game winless streak against the southern hemisphere nations of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. [93]

At the 2011 World Cup, Wales reached the tournament semi-finals for the first time since 1987 where they lost 9–8 to France after a red card for captain Sam Warburton. [94] The two teams met again in March 2012, where Wales needed a win to claim their third Six Nations Grand Slam in eight years, which they did with a 16–9 victory. [95] This was followed immediately by an eight-match losing streak, which was eventually broken during the 2013 Six Nations, [96] where Wales retained the Championship for the first time since 1979 wins. [97] Wales reached the quarter-finals of the 2015 World Cup at the expense of hosts England, then lost 23–19 to South Africa. [98] Wales also achieved a fourth Grand Slam in 14 years and their first in 7 years in the 2019 Six Nations.

Strip

Wales play in red jerseys, white shorts and red socks. For the 2015–16 season, the design of the Jersey incorporated gold for the first time. The jerseys are embroidered with the Prince of Wales's feathers, which were chosen in the 19th century by the WRU over another Welsh symbol, the leek, to demonstrate the nation's loyalty to Britain. [99] In 1991, to enable the device to be trademarked, the original generic motif was replaced with a more stylised version. The original motto beneath the feathers was Ich dien (German for "I serve") but was replaced with "WRU" in the new version. [100]

Wales change strip also known as the alternative strip is black jerseys, shorts and socks, [101] although there have been various different coloured strips in the past. Former change strips worn by Wales have included a green, navy, white or grey jersey. [102] Wales previously wore black jerseys as part of celebrations for the WRU's 125th anniversary in 2005. The jersey was worn against Fiji and then Australia that year; the Australia match was the first time Wales had not played in their red jersey against one of their traditional rivals. [102] Since the 2008 end-of-year Tests, the strip is made by Under Armour. They replaced Reebok who supplied the Wales strip between late 1996 and the 2008 mid-year-Tests. [103] The shirt sponsors Have included Brains Brewery, Admiral Insurance and Isuzu. [104] [lower-alpha 7]

PeriodKit manufacturerShirt sponsor
1970s–1991 Umbro No shirt sponsor
1991–1996 Cotton Traders
1997–2000 Reebok [106]
2000–2002 Redstone Telecom [107]
2002–2004 Rockport [108]
2004–2008 Brains Brewery
2008–2010 Under Armour [109]
2010–2017 Admiral [110]
2017– Isuzu (home kit) [111]
Subaru (away kit)

Support

Rugby union and Wales' national team hold an important place in Welsh culture and society. Sport historian John Bale has stated that "rugby is characteristically Welsh", and David Andrew said that "To the popular consciousness, rugby is as Welsh as coal mining, male voice choirs, How Green Was My Valley , Dylan Thomas, and Tom Jones". [112] Welsh rugby's first 'golden age' (1900–1911) coincided with the country's zenith during the 20th century, [113] and rugby was important in building Wales' modern identity. [114] There is a long tradition of Welsh supporters singing before and during matches. The choral tradition developed in Wales during the 19th century alongside the rise of nonconformity, and has extended to singing at rugby matches. [115] Commonly sung songs include the hymn Bread of Heaven , [115] Tom Jones' Delilah , [116] and Max Boyce's Hymns and Arias. [117]

Grounds

Millennium Stadium, Cardiff, where Wales play their home games MillenniumStadiumExterior.jpg
Millennium Stadium, Cardiff, where Wales play their home games

Wales' first home international was played at St Helen's ground, Swansea in 1882. [118] In the 1880s and 1890s, home Welsh internationals were played at Cardiff, Swansea, Newport and Llanelli. [119] Swansea continued to be used as an international venue until 1954, when Cardiff Arms Park became Wales' primary home venue. [120] [121] Cardiff Arms Park first had a stand erected in 1881, and continued to expand its seating that decade. [122] Crowds continued to grow and in 1902 in Wales' match against Scotland a world record 40,000 spectators paid to see the match. [123] In 1911, the owners of the Arms Park, the Marquess of Bute's family, [124] confirmed Wales' tenure and the 1920s and 1930s, Wales gradually gained increasing control. [125] A new stand was built at the park in the 1933–34 season, which increased the grounds capacity to 56,000. [126]

The National Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park The National Stadium The Arms Park Cardiff.jpg
The National Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park

By 1958, the WRU had concluded that a new national ground was needed due to flooding that often plagued Arms Park. [127] After debate and disputes between the WRU and various other parties, including Cardiff RFC, in the 1960s, it was decided that a new national stadium would be built with a new ground for the Cardiff club backing onto it. [128] The National Stadium, as it was known, was officially opened in 1970. [129]

Currently, Wales play all their home matches at the 74,500 capacity Millennium Stadium, Cardiff, which is also Wales' national stadium. [130] The Millennium Stadium was first conceived in 1994, when a group redevelopment committee was set up. It was decided to replace the National Stadium at Cardiff Arms Park after a review found it was out of date; new legislation also required stadia to be all-seated. [131] Construction began in September 1997, and was completed by June 1999, in time for the Rugby World Cup. The construction cost the WRU £126 million, which was funded by private investment, £46 million of public funds from the National Lottery, the sale of debentures to supporters (which offered guaranteed tickets in exchange for an interest-free loan), and loans. [132] While the new ground was being built, Wales used the old Wembley Stadium for their home matches [133]  a deal reciprocated during construction of the new Wembley, when FA Cup finals were held at the Millennium Stadium. [134]

Record

Six Nations

Wales compete annually in the Six Nations Championship, which is played against five other European nations: England, France, Ireland, Italy, and Scotland. The Six Nations started as the Home Nations Championship in 1883, as a contest between the four component nations of the United Kingdom. Wales first won it in 1893, when they achieved a Triple Crown. [4] [7] Wales have won the tournament outright 27 times, and shared 12 other victories. [135] Their longest wait between championships was 11 years (1994–2005). Wales first won a Grand Slam in 1908 although France did not officially join the Five Nations until 1910 and their first Six Nations Grand Slam in 2005. [4] [136] Their most recent Grand Slam and Triple Crown were won in 2019 with victory over Ireland on the final day of the Six Nations tournament.

World Cup

A scrum between Wales and Australia at the 2011 Rugby World Cup Wales vs Australia 2011 RWC (5).jpg
A scrum between Wales and Australia at the 2011 Rugby World Cup

Wales have contested every Rugby World Cup since the inaugural tournament in 1987.

The 1987 tournament was Wales' most successful; they won all three pool matches and their quarter-final, before losing to the All Blacks in the semi-finals. They then faced Australia in the third place play-off match, which they won 22–21. [66]

In the next two tournaments in 1991 and 1995, Wales failed to progress beyond the pool stage, winning just one match in each tournament. [70] [73] They also became the first co host nation to not make it out of the pool stage in 1991.

Both the 1999 and 2003 tournaments were more successful, with Wales qualifying for the quarter-finals both times. Wales hosted the event in 1999 and topped their pool only to lose to eventual winners Australia in the quarter-finals. [78] [137]

In 2003, they finished second in their pool behind the All Blacks, [81] and faced England in their quarter-final. They lost to England, the eventual champions, 28–17. Wales conceded 17 penalties, and their lack of discipline proved costly. [82]

In the 2007 World Cup, Wales again failed to progress from the pool stage. After a loss to Australia, and two wins against Japan and Canada, they faced Fiji for a place in the quarter-finals. [88] The game started poorly for Wales who were behind 25–3 at half-time. They fought back to lead by three points with six minutes remaining, but Fiji then scored a try to win 38–34 and eliminated Wales from the tournament. [89]

At the 2011 World Cup, Wales reached the semi-finals for the first time since 1987. Playing the semi-finals against France, Wales lost 9–8, in a game overshadowed by the 18th-minute sending off of Wales' captain Sam Warburton for a dangerous tackle against Vincent Clerc. [94]

At the 2015 World Cup Wales were in the same pool as Australia, England, Fiji and Uruguay. They finished second in the pool behind Australia and ahead of hosts England. South Africa defeated Wales in the quarter final.

Overall

Top 30 rankings as of 18 March 2019 [138]
RankChange*TeamPoints
1Steady2.svgFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 092.54
2Increase2.svg1Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 089.96
3Decrease2.svg1IRFU flag.svg  Ireland 088.69
4Steady2.svgFlag of England.svg  England 086.27
5Steady2.svgFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 084.58
6Steady2.svgFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 082.40
7Steady2.svgFlag of Scotland.svg  Scotland 080.17
8Steady2.svgFlag of France.svg  France 079.42
9Steady2.svgFlag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 077.95
10Steady2.svgFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 077.05
11Steady2.svgFlag of Japan.svg  Japan 075.24
12Steady2.svgFlag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 074.42
13Steady2.svgFlag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 073.02
14Steady2.svgFlag of Italy.svg  Italy 072.04
15Steady2.svgFlag of the United States.svg  United States 071.71
16Steady2.svgFlag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 069.09
17Steady2.svgFlag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 068.78
18Steady2.svgFlag of Romania.svg  Romania 065.84
19Steady2.svgFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 065.11
20Steady2.svgFlag of Russia.svg  Russia 063.72
21Steady2.svgFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 061.36
22Steady2.svgFlag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 060.34
23Steady2.svgFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 059.79
24Steady2.svgFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 058.42
25Increase2.svg1Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 058.11
26Increase2.svg1Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 057.60
27Decrease2.svg2Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 057.35
28Steady2.svgFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 055.79
29Steady2.svgFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 054.04
30Steady2.svgFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 053.59
*Change from the previous week
Wales's historical rankings
Wales IRB World Rankings.png
Source: World Rugby - Graph updated to 7 January 2019 [138]

When the World Rugby Rankings were introduced in October 2003, Wales were ranked 8th. [lower-alpha 8] They rose to 7th in June 2004, before falling back to 8th in November that year. Following a Grand Slam win in the 2005 Six Nations, they rose to a ranking position of 5th. They fell to 9th by June 2006, and, after rising back to 8th by September, fell to 10th after the 2007 World Cup. A second Six Nations' Grand Slam in 2008 propelled them to 6th in the rankings, but following losses to South Africa in the mid-year and end-of-year internationals Wales slipped to 7th. Wales climbed to 4th after a win over Scotland in their first match of the 2009 Six Nations. They slumped to 9th in 2010 but rose back to 4th after their fourth place in the 2011 World Cup. [139] Since then – notwithstanding a nine-game slump in 2012–13 where they fell to 9th – Wales have ranked consistently in the top six teams. They reached their highest ranking of 2nd during the 2015 Rugby World Cup, [140] and are currently ranked 2nd as of 18 March 2019. Wales have won 372 of their 715 Test matches for a 52.03% winning record. [141] [142] Their biggest Test defeat was 96–13 loss to South Africa in 1998, and their largest victory a 98–0 defeat of Japan in 2004. Their record for most tries in a match is 16, scored against Portugal in 1994 they also scored 102 points in this match, more than in any other Test. Wales' record for consecutive Test wins is 14 (ongoing), and for consecutive losses is 10. [142]

Below is table summary of Wales Test matches up until 2 February 2019. [141] [142]

OpponentPlayedWonLostDrawnWin %ForAgaDiff
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 18 135072.22%505392+113
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 42 1130126.19%634979−345
Barbarians 4 22050.00%11393+20
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 12 111091.67%460207+253
Flag of England.svg  England 131 57621243.51%15401706-166
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 11 91181.82%329145+184
Flag of France.svg  France 97 5044351.54%1,4591,400+59
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 1100100%136+7
IRFU flag.svg  Ireland 126 6851753.97%15261427+99
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 26 232188.46%886421+465
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 10 91090.00%526159+367
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 4400100.00%17169+102
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 34 33108.82%3741070−696
  New Zealand Natives 1100100.00%1G0G+1G
  New Zealand Services 10100.00%36−3
  Pacific Islanders 1100100.00%3820+18
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 1100100.00%10211+91
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 862075.00%34296+246
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 10 64060.00%235180+55
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland 125 7349358.06%16981294+397
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 34 628114.71%532892−360
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1100100.00%540+54
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 8 900100.00%301108+193
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 7 700100.00%30586+219
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 1100100.00%549+45
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 3300100.00%12638+88
Total7163733142952.09%1229410784+1510

Players

Current squad

On 15 January, head coach Warren Gatland named a 39-man squad for the 2019 Six Nations Championship. [143]

On 13 February, Scott Williams was released from the squad due to injury. [144]

On 26 February, Cory Hill was released from the squad due to injury. [145]

Head Coach: Flag of New Zealand.svg Warren Gatland

Player Position Date of birth (Age)CapsClub/province
Elliot Dee Hooker (1994-03-07) 7 March 1994 (age 25)18 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Dragons
Ryan Elias Hooker (1995-01-07) 7 January 1995 (age 24)7 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Ken Owens Hooker (1987-01-03) 3 January 1987 (age 32)64 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Leon Brown Prop (1996-10-26) 26 October 1996 (age 22)5 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Dragons
Rob Evans Prop (1992-04-14) 14 April 1992 (age 26)35 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Tomas Francis Prop (1992-04-27) 27 April 1992 (age 26)40 Flag of England.svg Exeter Chiefs
Wyn Jones Prop (1992-02-26) 26 February 1992 (age 27)12 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Samson Lee Prop (1992-11-30) 30 November 1992 (age 26)40 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Dillon Lewis Prop (1996-01-04) 4 January 1996 (age 23)12 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Cardiff Blues
Nicky Smith Prop (1994-04-07) 7 April 1994 (age 25)28 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Ospreys
Jake Ball Lock (1991-06-27) 27 June 1991 (age 27)32 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Adam Beard Lock (1996-01-07) 7 January 1996 (age 23)13 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Ospreys
Seb Davies Lock (1996-05-17) 17 May 1996 (age 22)7 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Cardiff Blues
Alun Wyn Jones ‡ (c) Lock (1985-09-19) 19 September 1985 (age 33)125 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Ospreys
Ross Moriarty Back row (1994-04-18) 18 April 1994 (age 24)31 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Dragons
Josh Navidi Back row (1990-12-30) 30 December 1990 (age 28)16 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Cardiff Blues
Justin Tipuric Back row (1989-08-06) 6 August 1989 (age 29)64 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Ospreys
Josh Turnbull Back row (1988-03-12) 12 March 1988 (age 31)10 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Cardiff Blues
Aaron Wainwright Back row (1997-09-25) 25 September 1997 (age 21)8 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Dragons
Thomas Young Back row (1992-05-18) 18 May 1992 (age 26)3 Flag of England.svg Wasps
Aled Davies Scrum-half (1992-07-19) 19 July 1992 (age 26)16 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Ospreys
Gareth Davies Scrum-half (1990-08-18) 18 August 1990 (age 28)41 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Tomos Williams Scrum-half (1995-01-01) 1 January 1995 (age 24)7 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Cardiff Blues
Gareth Anscombe Fly-half (1991-05-10) 10 May 1991 (age 27)26 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Cardiff Blues
Dan Biggar Fly-half (1989-10-16) 16 October 1989 (age 29)70 Flag of England.svg Northampton Saints
Jarrod Evans Fly-half (1996-07-25) 25 July 1996 (age 22)1 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Cardiff Blues
Rhys Patchell Fly-half (1993-05-17) 17 May 1993 (age 25)11 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Jonathan Davies Centre (1988-04-05) 5 April 1988 (age 31)73 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Hadleigh Parkes Centre (1987-10-05) 5 October 1987 (age 31)15 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Owen Watkin Centre (1996-10-12) 12 October 1996 (age 22)13 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Ospreys
Josh Adams Wing (1995-04-21) 21 April 1995 (age 23)11 Flag of England.svg Worcester Warriors
Hallam Amos Wing (1994-09-24) 24 September 1994 (age 24)19 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Dragons
Steff Evans Wing (1994-09-01) 1 September 1994 (age 24)12 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Jonah Holmes Wing (1992-07-24) 24 July 1992 (age 26)2 Flag of England.svg Leicester Tigers
George North Wing (1992-04-13) 13 April 1992 (age 26)83 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Ospreys
Leigh Halfpenny Fullback (1988-12-22) 22 December 1988 (age 30)80 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Scarlets
Liam Williams Fullback (1991-04-09) 9 April 1991 (age 28)56 Flag of England.svg Saracens

National dual contracted players

The WRU contacts some players under "dual contracts" that are 60% funded by the national union, and 40% by the player's regional side. The contracts restrict the number of domestic matches the player can play each season while guaranteeing their availability for Wales. [147] [148] The number of caps relates to the number of caps won upon signing first National dual contract.

PlayerPositionDate of Birth (Age)CapsClub/provinceDate signedRe-signed
Dan Lydiate Flanker (1987-12-18) 18 December 1987 (age 31)64 Ospreys 9 December 2014 [149] 28 October 2016 [150]
Hallam Amos Wing (1994-09-24) 24 September 1994 (age 24)5 Dragons 26 December 2014 [151] 28 October 2016 [150]
Jake Ball Lock (1991-06-21) 21 June 1991 (age 27)15 Scarlets 2 January 2015 [152] 13 February 2018 [153]
Samson Lee Prop (1992-11-30) 30 November 1992 (age 26)19 Scarlets 11 January 2015 [154] 28 October 2016 [150]
Alun Wyn Jones Lock (1985-09-19) 19 September 1985 (age 33)124 Ospreys 18 March 2015 [155] 16 March 2018 [156]
Gareth Anscombe Fly-half (1991-05-10) 10 May 1991 (age 27)4 Cardiff Blues 18 March 2015 [155] 12 May 2017 [157]
Scott Baldwin Hooker (1988-07-12) 12 July 1988 (age 30)17 Ospreys 5 November 2015 [158]
Bradley Davies Lock (1987-01-09) 9 January 1987 (age 32)56 Ospreys 16 May 2016
(started in July 2016) [159]
Leigh Halfpenny Fullback (1988-12-22) 22 December 1988 (age 30)71 Scarlets 3 August 2017 [160]
Gareth Davies Scrum-half (1990-08-18) 18 August 1990 (age 28)29 Scarlets 13 February 2018 [153]
George North Wing (1992-04-13) 13 April 1992 (age 26)76 Ospreys 25 April 2018
(started in July 2018) [161]

Notable players

Ten former Welsh internationals have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame, [162] while 18 have been inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame. [163] One Welsh player, Shane Williams in 2008, has been awarded World Rugby Player of the Year (formerly known as the International Rugby Board Player of the Year). [164]

Individual records

See List of Wales national rugby union team records; and List of Wales national rugby union players for a sortable list containing player caps and tries
Former Wales forward Colin Charvis scored 22 tries for his country, the most ever by a forward. Colin Charvis.jpg
Former Wales forward Colin Charvis scored 22 tries for his country, the most ever by a forward.

Neil Jenkins was the first rugby player to surpass 1000 Test points. He holds several Welsh records, including the most points scored for Wales with 1049, the most successful penalty kicks for Wales with 248, and the Welsh record for most points in a single Test match with 30. [165] [166] The record for drop-goals for Wales is held by Jonathan Davies with 13. [167]

Shane Williams is Wales' record try-scorer with 58 tries. Williams is also Wales' record try-scorer in Six Nations Championships with 22 and the Rugby World Cups with 10. [168] Colin Charvis' 22 tries is the all-time Welsh record for a forward, and was the world record for tries by a forward until 2011. [169]

Gethin Jenkins is the nation's most capped player with 129 Welsh caps. Four other players have earned 100 caps or more: Alun Wyn Jones, Stephen Jones, Gareth Thomas and Martyn Williams. [170] The record for most Tests as captain is held by Sam Warburton with 49. [171] The record for the most consecutive appearances is held by Gareth Edwards who played all 53 of his Tests for Wales consecutively between 1967 and 1978. [165] Edwards is also Wales' youngest ever captain at the age of 20. [43]

The youngest player ever capped for Wales is Tom Prydie, who made his debut in Wales' 2010 Six Nations finale against Italy at age 18 years, 25 days, beating the record set by Norman Biggs in 1888. [172] [173] Prydie is also Wales' youngest try-scorer, scored against South Africa in June 2010, overtaking the record that Tom Pearson set on his debut in 1891. [174] Winger George North, aged 18 years 214 days, overtook Pearson's record as the youngest Wales player to score a try on debut in November 2010. [175]

Welsh Sports Hall of Fame

The following Welsh players have been inducted into the Welsh Sports Hall of Fame:

Coaches

Wales coach Warren Gatland was appointed in 2007, and coached Wales to Six Nations Grand Slams in 2008, 2012 and 2019, more than any other coach. 2012-03-19 Warren Gatland at Wales' Grand Slam celebrations.jpg
Wales coach Warren Gatland was appointed in 2007, and coached Wales to Six Nations Grand Slams in 2008, 2012 and 2019, more than any other coach.

Following the unsuccessful tour to South Africa in 1964, the WRU set up a working party on coaching. The party recommended that Welsh clubs accept the principle of coaching. David Nash was appointed as the national team's first coach in 1967, but for the 1968 tour of Argentina, the WRU initially planned not to have a coach tour with the team. Following pressure from the Welsh clubs at the WRU's annual general meeting, the decision was reversed and Clive Rowlands was appointed as coach for the tour. [37] The appointing of a coach for the team coincided with Wales' success in the Five Nations during the 1970s. [177]

Wales' head coaches [178]
NameNationalityYearsTestsWonDrewLostWin %
David Nash Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1967511320
Clive Rowlands Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1968–7429184762
John Dawes Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1974–7924180675
John Lloyd Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1980–821460843
John Bevan Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1982–851571747
Tony Gray Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1985–881890950
John Ryan Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1988–90920722
Ron Waldron Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1990–911021720
Alan Davies Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1991–95351801751
Alex Evans Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1995 (caretaker coach)410325
Kevin Bowring Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1995–98291501452
Dennis John Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1998 (interim coach)210150
Graham Henry Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1998–2002342011359
Lynn Howells Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 2001 (caretaker coach)2200100
Steve Hansen Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 2002–04291001935
Mike Ruddock Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 2004–0620130765
Scott Johnson Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 2006 (interim coach)30120
Gareth Jenkins [179] Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 2006–0720611330
Nigel Davies Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 2007 (interim coach)10010
Warren Gatland [176] Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 2007–present1025224851
Robin McBryde [180] Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 2009, 2013, 2017 (caretaker coach)650183
Rob Howley [181] Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 2012–13, 2016–17 (caretaker coach)201001050

See also

Notes

  1. Wales was the 28th match of New Zealand's tour, and at that point the tourists had scored 801 points and conceded only 22. [12]
  2. Shared with Ireland. [9]
  3. Wales defeated France in 1908 and 1909 to win Grand Slams in those seasons also even though France did not join the Championship until 1910. [9]
  4. France was readmitted into international rugby union following the Home Nations Championship in 1939; France had been expelled in 1931. [27]
  5. This is victory over England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales all on the same tour. [59]
  6. For more information see Introduction of regional rugby union teams in Wales.
  7. For the Rugby World Cup the jersey is not allowed any sponsors on it only the national union's emblem, the Rugby World Cup logo, and the logo of the jersey's manufacturer. [105]
  8. Ranking archives can be found at the World Rugby website. [139]

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