|Marquessate of the County of Bute|
|Creation date||2 February 1796|
|Monarch||King George III|
|Peerage||Peerage of Great Britain|
|First holder||John Stuart, 4th Earl of Bute|
|Present holder||John Crichton-Stuart, 8th Marquess of Bute|
|Heir presumptive||Lord Anthony Crichton-Stuart|
|Remainder to||the 1st Marquess's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten|
|Subsidiary titles||Lord Mount Stuart; Baron Cardiff; Viscount of Kingarth; Viscount Mountjoy; Earl of Bute; Earl of Windsor; Earl of Dumfries|
|Seat(s)||Mount Stuart House|
|Former seat(s)||Cardiff Castle, Dumfries House, Castell Coch|
|Motto||Over the centre Crest: |
NOBILIS EST IRA LEONIS (The wrath of the lion is noble)
Over the dexter Crest:
GOD SEND GRACE
Over the sinister Crest:
Avito viret honore (He flourishes in ancestral honour)
|Currently the Earldom of Dumfries resides with the Marquesses of Bute. However, the Dumfries title can be inherited through the female line through an amendment to its original creation, and the title could be separated from the Marquesses of Bute should heirs presumptive to the titles of Bute and Dumfries, being male and female respectively, inherit.|
Marquess of the County of Bute, shortened in general usage to Marquess of Bute,is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1796 for John Stuart, 4th Earl of Bute.
John Stuart was the member of a family that descended from John Stewart (1360–1449), Sheriff of Bute, a natural son of Robert II of Scotland and his mistress Moira Leitch, married to Janet Sympil and in 1407 to Elizabeth Graham. This John Stewart was granted the lands of Bute, Arran and Cumbrae by his father. He was known as the 'Black Stewart' because of his dark complexion; his brother John Stewart of Dundonald was known as the 'Red Stewart'. The grant of lands was confirmed in 1400 by a charter of Robert III.
About 1385, John Stewart of Bute was granted the hereditary office of Sheriff of Bute by his father Robert II. He died in 1449, aged 89.At about the time of Mary, Queen of Scots, the family adopted the spelling of 'Stuart', which she had used while living in France. James Stuart, seventh in descent from the Black Stewart, was created a Baronet, of Bute, in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia on 28 March 1627. His grandson, the third Baronet, represented Bute in the Parliament of Scotland and was one of the Commissioners that negotiated the Union between Scotland and England. On 14 April 1703, he was raised to the Peerage of Scotland as Earl of Bute, Viscount of Kingarth, and Lord Mount Stuart, Cumra and Inchmarnock. He was succeeded by his son, the 2nd Earl of Bute and 4th Baronet, who sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Buteshire. On his early death, the titles passed to his son, the third Earl. He became a politician and favourite of George III and served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1762 to 1763. Lord Bute married Mary, a daughter of Edward Wortley Montagu and his wife the writer Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. In 1761, Lord Bute's wife Mary was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain in her own right as Baroness Mount Stuart, of Wortley in the County of York, with remainder to the heirs male of her body by her then husband Lord Bute. Her son became the first Marquess of Bute, whose eldest son and heir John Stuart, Lord Mount Stuart (who predeceased his father) married Lady Elizabeth Penelope, daughter and heiress of Patrick McDouall-Crichton, 6th Earl of Dumfries. Lord Mount Stuart's eldest son John succeeded his maternal grandfather as seventh Earl of Dumfries in 1803, and his paternal grandfather as second Marquess of Bute in 1814. In 1805, he assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Crichton before Stuart. He was succeeded by his only child, the third Marquess. He was an antiquarian, scholar, philanthropist and architectural patron and also held the post of Lord-Lieutenant of Buteshire. It was the 3rd Marquess who in 1868 first converted to Roman Catholicism, since which time the family have remained of that faith. His son the fourth Marquess was also Lord-Lieutenant of Buteshire. His grandson, John Crichton-Stuart, 6th Marquess of Bute, succeeded his father and was Lord-Lieutenant of Buteshire from 1967 to 1975. As of 2021, the peerages are held by the latter's grandson, John Crichton-Stuart, 8th Marquess of Bute.
The Marquesses of Bute have important ancestors not only in Scotland but also in Wales, including the first Lord Herbert of Cardiff, son and heir of Richard Herbert of Ewyas. He was also created Earl of Pembroke.After the Stuart Restoration, most of the Herbert family property was sold, and the rest was owned by Thomas, Viscount Windsor, who married Charlotte, the only child of Philip Herbert, 7th Earl of Pembroke. In 1766, Viscount Windsor's granddaughter, Charlotte Jane, was married to John Stuart, Lord Mount Stuart (1744-1814), the son and heir of the 3rd Earl of Bute, prime minister from 1762 to 1763, and through this marriage great estates in south Wales came into the Bute family. In 1776, sixteen years before he succeeded his father as Earl of Bute, he was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain in his own right as Baron Cardiff, of Cardiff Castle in the County of Glamorgan, in recognition of his substantial Welsh estates. In 1796, he was further honoured when he was created Earl of Windsor and Viscount Mountjoy, in the Isle of Wight, revivals of the titles once held by his wife's family, and Marquess of Bute. These titles are also in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Marquess of Bute is the Hereditary Keeper of Rothesay Castle, a privilege granted to the ancestor of the Earls and Marquesses of Bute, John Stewart, by Robert II during the 14th century. In this capacity, the Crichton-Stuart family had been responsible for the upkeep and restoration of the castle up until the 1960s.
This branch of the Stewart (also Stuart) family previously held the office of Hereditary High Steward of Scotland, an office now held by the Duke of Rothesay, in his capacity as a direct descendant of the House of Stuart.
Many other members of the family have gained distinction. Robert Stuart, a younger son of the first Baronet, was created a Baronet in his own right in 1707. The Hon. James Stuart-Mackenzie, a younger son of the second Earl, succeeded to the Mackenzie estates through his paternal grandmother and assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Mackenzie. He was a member of parliament. The Hon. James Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie, second son of the third Earl, was a politician and the father of James Stuart-Wortley, 1st Baron Wharncliffe. Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Stuart, fourth son of the third Earl, was a distinguished soldier and the father of Charles Stuart, 1st Baron Stuart de Rothesay. The Most Reverend the Hon. William Stuart, fifth son of the third Earl, was Archbishop of Armagh. His son Sir William Stuart was a member of parliament. His eldest son William Stuart also sat as a member of parliament. Lady Louisa Stuart, daughter of the third Earl, was a writer. Lord Evelyn Stuart, second son of the first Marquess, was a soldier and politician. Lord Henry Crichton-Stuart, third son of the first Marquess, was the father of Henry Villiers-Stuart, 1st Baron Stuart de Decies (see the Baron Stuart de Decies for more information on this branch of the family).
Lord William Stuart, fourth son of the first Marquess, was a captain in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament. Lord George Stuart (1780–1841), fifth son of the first Marquess, was a rear-admiral in the Royal Navy. Lord Dudley Stuart, sixth son of the first Marquess (and eldest from his second marriage), was a member of parliament. Lord Patrick Crichton-Stuart, second son of Lord Mount Stuart, eldest son of the first Marquess, was Member of Parliament for Cardiff. His eldest son James Crichton-Stuart also represented this constituency in Parliament. Lord Ninian Crichton-Stuart, second son of the third Marquess, was also Member of Parliament for Cardiff before his early death in the First World War. Lord Colum Crichton-Stuart, third and youngest son of the third Marquess, sat as Member of Parliament for Northwich for many years. Lord Robert Crichton-Stuart Crichton-Stuart, second son of the fourth Marquess, was Lord-Lieutenant of Buteshire. Lord Rhidian Crichton-Stuart, fifth and youngest son of the fourth Marquess, was a British member of the International Legislative Assembly of the Tangier International Zone.
The Earls and Marquesses of Bute originally used the courtesy title Lord Mount Stuart for the heir apparent. After the earldom of Dumfries was inherited by the second Marquess, the heir apparent has been styled Earl of Dumfries and his heir apparent is styled Lord Mount Stuart. However, the current Marquess John Bryson Crichton-Stuart was styled as Lord Mount Stuart for some years after his father inherited the marquessate in 1993. This was because his father was well known at the time as Johnny Dumfries, Earl of Dumfries. Subsequently, the seventh Marquess became known as John or Johnny Bute and his heir adopted Jack Dumfries for short.
Over the dexter Crest: GOD SEND GRACE, Over the sinister Crest: Avito viret honore (To flourish in an honourable ancestry)
Mount Stuart House is the seat of the family of the Stuarts of Bute, on land which has been in the family since 1157, on the Isle of Bute. James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute, built a new Georgian house here which was finished in 1719. In 1877, this was damaged by fire, although the walls and most of the contents survived the blaze. A new Victorian Mount Stuart House was then builtand was the first in Scotland to have electric lighting throughout, as well as having the world's first heated pool.
Although Mount Stuart House is the family seat of the Marquesses of Bute, the Mount Stuart Trust has operated it as a business since 1989.
In 1814, Dumfries House was inherited by John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute, and the property remained in the Crichton-Stuart centuries.In 1885, the 3rd Marquess of Bute commissioned Robert Weir Schultz to design the pavilions. The Crichton-Stuart family retained their main residence at Mount Stuart House on the Isle of Bute. In the later 20th century, the house was lived in by the Dowager Marchioness of Bute, Lady Eileen, until her death in 1993. The 6th Marquess died a few months later, meaning the house passed to her grandson the 7th Marquess, the racing driver known as John Bute.
Because of maintenance issues the Marquess of Bute arranged with The National Trust for Scotland the sale of Dumfries House, near Cumnock, East Ayrshire. Dumfries housewas inherited by the 2nd Marquess of Bute in 1814, and it remained private until 2007 when 7th Marquess sold it for £45m.
The 3rd Marquess worked with the architect William Burges in creating two Gothic revival castles in south Wales. The Work of William Burges at Cardiff Castlehas been remodeled from the original Roman fort and the later Norman motte-and-bailey; it has since passed through the hands of many noble families until in 1766, it passed by marriage to the Bute family. The 2nd Marquess of Bute was key in developing south Wales into one of the biggest coal exporters in its time by developing the port and Cardiff docks. Cardiff castle was inherited by his son John, the 3rd Marquess of Bute, who was extremely wealthy. The project begun in 1866 with the architect William Burges who transformed the castle grounds. Within the two towers one of which is a clock, he also designed expert interiors, with murals, stained glass, marble, gilding and elaborate wood carvings. The rooms included are the Mediterranean gardens and Italian, then also Arabian winter smoking room within the Herbert tower. Despite both previous Marquess' dying in their 50's, the project was completed by the 4th Marquess. Then after death of the 4th Marquess of Bute, the family gave away the castle and its surrounding parks to city of Cardiff. For a quarter of a century, the Castle was leased by the National College of Music and Drama, and since 1974 Cardiff Castle has become one of Wales’s most popular tourist destinations.
The Herbert family ruins were acquired by the Earls of Bute in 1760 when John, 3rd Earl of Bute, married Lady Charlotte Windsor, sharing her inheritance in south Wales.His grandson, The 2nd Marquess of Bute, whose wealth came from Cardiff Docks, eventually inherited the castle. The 2nd Marquess carried out exploration for iron ore at Castell Coch in 1827 and considered establishing an ironworks there.
The 3rd Marquess of Bute, another John Crichton-Stuart, inherited Castell Coch and the family estates as a child in 1848.On his coming of age, Bute's landed estates and industrial inheritance made him one of the wealthiest men in the world. He had a wide range of interests including archaeology, theology, linguistics and history. In 1850 the antiquarian George Clark surveyed Castell Coch and published his findings, the first major scholarly work about the castle. Castell Coch has been used for over 700 years, the previous owner were the De Clare Family. The castle was rarely used and given to the British government 5th Marquess in 1950.
Should the 8th Marquess have no children:
Line of succession
see above for further succession
|Sir James Stuart|
1st Earl of Dumfries
|Sir Dugald Stuart|
| William Crichton|
2nd Earl of Dumfries
| James Stuart|
1st Earl of Bute
| John Dalrymple|
1st Earl of Stair
|The Hon. Charles Chricton|
| James Stuart|
2nd Earl of Bute
4th Countess of Dumfries
3rd Earl of Dumfries
| John Stuart|
3rd Earl of Bute
| William Dalrymple-Crichton|
5th Earl of Dumfries
4th Earl of Stair
| John Stuart|
1st Marquess of Bute
6th Earl of Dumfries
Viscount Mount Stuart
| John Crichton-Stuart|
2nd Marquess of Bute
7th Earl of Dumfries
| John Patrick Crichton-Stuart|
3rd Marquess of Bute
8th Earl of Dumfries
| John Patrick Crichton-Stuart|
4th Marquess of Bute
9th Earl of Dumfries
| John Crichton-Stuart|
5th Marquess of Bute
10th Earl of Dumfries
| John Crichton-Stuart|
6th Marquess of Bute
11th Earl of Dumfries
| John Colum Crichton-Stuart|
7th Marquess of Bute
12th Earl of Dumfries
|John Bryson Crichton-Stuart|
8th Marquess of Bute
13th Earl of Dumfries
Earl of Dumfries is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was originally created for William Crichton, 9th Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, in 1633, and stayed in the Crichton family until the death of the fourth countess in 1742, at which point the title passed to first the Dalrymple and then the McDouall families before finally being inherited by the Marquesses of Bute, where it remains today.
Earl of Stair is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1703 for the lawyer and statesman John Dalrymple, 2nd Viscount of Stair.
John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, was a landed aristocrat, industrial magnate, antiquarian, scholar, philanthropist, and architectural patron.
Earl of Wharncliffe, in the West Riding of the County of York, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute, KT, was a Scottish peer.
John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute, KT, FRS, styled Lord Mount Stuart between 1794 and 1814, was a wealthy aristocrat and industrialist in Georgian and early Victorian Britain. He developed the coal and iron industries across South Wales and built the Cardiff Docks.
John Crichton-Stuart, 6th Marquess of Bute, was a Scottish peer, benefactor and patron of the arts. He was largely known either as Lord Bute or simply John Bute.
John Colum Crichton-Stuart, 7th Marquess of Bute, styled Earl of Dumfries before 1993, was a Scottish peer and a racing driver, most notably winning the 1988 24 Hours of Le Mans. He did not use his title and preferred to be known solely as John Bute, although he had previously been called Johnny Dumfries before his accession to the Marquessate. The family home is Mount Stuart House on the Isle of Bute. He attended Ampleforth College, as had his father and most male members of the Crichton-Stuart family, but did not finish the normal five years of study.
John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute PC, FRS, styled Lord Mount Stuart until 1792 and known as The Earl of Bute between 1792 and 1794, was a British nobleman, coalfield owner, diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1766 to 1776.
John Stuart, Lord Mount Stuart, was a British Tory politician.
Patrick McDouall-Crichton, 6th Earl of Dumfries was a Scottish peer.
Sanquhar Castle, now a ruin, was built in the 13th century; the ruins are situated north east of Dumfries overlooking the River Nith. Situated on the southern approach to the former royal burgh of Sanquhar in Dumfries and Galloway, south west Scotland, it sits on the trail of the Southern Upland Way. The castle is a stronghold bounded on the west by the River Nith, to the north by a burn, and made strong by a deep ditch running the remainder of the boundary.
Baron Stuart de Decies, of Dromana within the Decies in the County of Waterford, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 10 May 1839 for Henry Villiers-Stuart, Member of Parliament for County Waterford and Banbury and Lord-Lieutenant of County Waterford. He was the eldest son of Lord Henry Crichton-Stuart, third son of John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute. His mother was Lady Gertrude Emilia, daughter of George Mason-Villiers, 2nd Earl Grandison. There was uncertainty over the validity of his marriage and his son Henry Villiers-Stuart was not allowed to succeed in the title, which became extinct on his death in 1874.
Clan Stewart is a Scottish Highland and Lowland clan. The clan is recognised by Court of the Lord Lyon; however, it does not have a Clan Chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Because the clan has no chief it can be considered an armigerous clan; however, the Earls of Galloway are now considered to be the principal branch of this clan, and the crest and motto of The Earls of Galloway's arms are used in the Clan Stewart crest badge. The Court of the Lord Lyon recognises two other Stewart/Stuart clans, Clan Stuart of Bute and Clan Stewart of Appin. Clan Stuart of Bute is the only one of the three clans at present which has a recognised chief.
Augusta Mary Monica Crichton-Stuart, Marchioness of Bute,, was an Anglo-Irish aristocrat who was a daughter of Sir Henry Bellingham, 4th Baronet, and Lady Constance Julia Eleanor Georgiana Noel, daughter of Charles Noel, 2nd Earl of Gainsborough.
Lord Patrick James Herbert Crichton-Stuart, known as the Hon. Patrick Stuart until 1817, was a British politician.
Clan Stuart of Bute is a Highland Scottish Clan and is a branch of the larger Clan Stewart.
Herbert Windsor, 2nd Viscount Windsor, styled The Honourable Herbert Windsor until 1738, was a British landowner and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1734 until 1738 when he succeeded to the peerage as Baron Mountjoy and Viscount Windsor.
Sophia Crichton-Stuart, Marchioness of Bute, formerly Lady Sophia Frederica Christina Rawdon-Hastings, was a Scottish noblewoman. She was the second wife of John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute, and the mother of the 3rd Marquess. Cardiff's Sophia Gardens are named after her.
Arthur Henry Johnstone-Douglas JP DL was a Scottish soldier and politician.