Khanate of Bukhara

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Khanate of Bukhara

خانات بخارا
1506–1785
War flag of Khanate of Bukhara.svg
War flag
Khanate of Bukhara Mawara'nnahr (1500-1785).png
The Khanate of Bukhara (green), c. 1600.
Capital

39°46′N64°26′E / 39.767°N 64.433°E / 39.767; 64.433 Coordinates: 39°46′N64°26′E / 39.767°N 64.433°E / 39.767; 64.433
Common languages
Religion
Islam (Sunni, Naqshbandi Sufism)
GovernmentMonarchy
Khan  
 1506–1510
Muhammad Shaybani
 1599–1605
Baqi Muhammad Khan
 1606-1611
Wali Muhammad Khan
 1611-1642
Imam Quli khan
 1642-1645
Nadar Muhammad
 1747–1753
Muhammed Rahim
 1758–1785
Abu’l Ghazi Khan
Ataliq 
Historical era Early modern period
 Muhammad Shaybani conquers Bukhara from Timurid Empire
1506
 Establishment of Janid dynasty
1599
 Khanate is conquered by Nader Shah after Mohammad Hakim surrenders
1745
  Manghit dynasty takes control after Nader Shah dies and his empire breaks up
1747
 Establishment of Emirate of Bukhara
1785
Population
 1902
2,000,000 est. [4]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Timurid Empire
Blank.png Uzbek Khanate
Emirate of Bukhara Blank.png
Khanate of Kokand Blank.png
Durrani Empire Blank.png

The Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) (Persian : خانات بخارا; Uzbek : Buxoro Xonligi) was an Uzbek [5] state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century in Central Asia or Turkestan, founded by the Shaybanid dynasty. From 1533 to 1540, Bukhara briefly became its capital during the reign of Ubaydallah Khan. The khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under its penultimate Shaybanid ruler, the scholarly Abdullah Khan II (r. 1557–1598).

Contents

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Khanate was ruled by the Janid Dynasty (Astrakhanids or Toqay Timurids). They were the last Genghisid descendants to rule Bukhara. In 1740, it was conquered by Nader Shah, the Shah of Iran. After his death in 1747, the khanate was controlled by the non-Genghisid descendants of the Uzbek emir Khudayar Bi, through the prime ministerial position of ataliq. In 1785, his descendant, Shahmurad, formalized the family's dynastic rule (Manghit dynasty), and the khanate became the Emirate of Bukhara. [6] The Manghits were non-Genghisid and took the Islamic title of Emir instead of Khan since their legitimacy was not based on descent from Genghis Khan.

Shaybanid Dynasty

The battle between Shah Ismail I and Muhammad Shaybani. The Battle between Shah Ismail and Shaybani Khan.jpg
The battle between Shah Ismail I and Muhammad Shaybani.
Chor Bakr memorial complex, Bukhara La necropole de Tchor Bakhr (Boukhara, Ouzbekistan) (5719346105).jpg
Chor Bakr memorial complex, Bukhara

The Shaybanid dynasty ruled the Khanate from 1506 to 1598. Under their rule, Bukhara became a center of arts and literature and educational reforms were introduced. In the sources of the second half of the 17th century, the expression “92 Uzbek tribes” is used in relation to the part of the population of Bukhara Khanate territory. [7]

Shaybani Khan was fond of poetry and wrote poetry in the Turkic language. A collection of his poems has come down to us. There are sources that Shaybani Khan wrote poetry in both Turkic and Persian. The "Divan" of Shaybani Khan's poems, written in the Central Asian Turkic literary language, is currently kept in the Topkapi manuscript collection in Istanbul. The manuscript of his philosophical and religious work: "Bahr ul-Khudo", written in the Central Asian Turkic literary language in 1508, is located in London. [8]

Shaybani Khan wrote poetry under the pseudonym "Shibani". He wrote a prose work called Risale-yi maarif-i Shaybani. It was written in the Turkic-Chagatai language in 1507 shortly after his capture of Khorasan and is dedicated to his son, Muhammad Timur-Sultan (the manuscript is kept in Istanbul). Ubaydulla Khan was a very educated person, he skillfully recited the Koran and provided it with comments in the Turkic language, was a gifted singer and musician. The formation of the most significant court literary circle in Maverannahr in the first half of the 16th century is associated with the name of Ubaydulla Khan. Ubaydulla Khan himself wrote poetry in Turkic, Persian and Arabic under the literary pseudonym Ubaydiy. A collection of his poems has reached us. [9]

In the Shaybanid era in the Bukhara Khanate, Agha-i Buzurg or "Great Lady" was a famous scholarly woman-Sufi (she died in 1522–23), she was also called "Mastura Khatun" [10]

Bukhara of the 16th century attracted skilled craftsmen of calligraphy and miniature-paintings, such as Sultan Ah Maskhadi, Mahmud ibn Eshaq Shakibi, the theoretician in calligraphy and dervish Mahmud Buklian, Molana Mahmud Muzahheb, and Jelaleddin Yusuf.[ citation needed ]

Abd al-Aziz Khan (1540–1550) established a library "having no equal" the world over. The prominent scholar Sultan Mirak Munshi worked there from 1540. The gifted calligrapher Mir Abid Khusaini produced masterpieces of Nastaliq and Reihani script. He was a brilliant miniature-painter, master of encrustation, and was the librarian (kitabdar) of Bukhara's library. [11]

The Shaybanids instituted a number of measures to improve the khanate's system of public education. Each neighborhood mahalla — unit of local self-government — of Bukhara had a hedge school, while prosperous families provided home education to their children. Children started elementary education at the age of six. After two years they could be taken to madrasah. The course of education in madrasah consisted of three steps of seven years each. Hence, the whole course of education in madrasah lasted twenty-one years. The pupils studied theology, arithmetic, jurisprudence, logic, music, and poetry. This educational system had a positive influence upon the development and wide circulation of the Persian and Uzbek languages, and on the development of literature, science, art, and skills.[ citation needed ]

Janid Dynasty

Imamkuli-khan Imamquli-khan.jpg
Imamkuli-khan
The Registan and its three madrasahs. From left to right: Ulugh Beg Madrasah, Tilya-Kori Madrasah and Sher-Dor Madrasah. Registan square Samarkand.jpg
The Registan and its three madrasahs. From left to right: Ulugh Beg Madrasah, Tilya-Kori Madrasah and Sher-Dor Madrasah.

The Janid Dynasty (descendants of Astrakhanids) ruled the Khanate from 1599 until 1747. Yar Muhammad and his family had escaped from Astrakhan after Astrakhan fell to Russians. He had a son named Jani Muhammad who had two sons named Baqi Muhammad and Vali Muhammad Khan from his wife, who was the daughter of the last Shaybanid ruler. [12]

The son of Din Muhammad Sultan - Boqi Muhammad Khan in 1599 defeated Pir Muhammad Khan II, who had lost his authority. He became the real founder of a new dynasty of Janids or Ashtarkhanids in the Bukhara Khanate (1599-1756). Boqi Muhammad Khan, despite his short reign, carried out administrative, tax and military reforms in the country, which contributed to its further development. He issued coins with the inscription Baqi Muhammad Bahodirkhon and the names of the first four caliphs. [13]

The Bukhara Khanate received the highest development during the reign of Imamkuli-Khan (1611-1642).

During the reign of the Tokay Timurids in Samarkand and Bukhara, masterpieces of world architecture were built: the Registan architectural ensemble in Samarkand and the Labi havuz architectural ensemble in Bukhara.

During this period, the Uzbek poet Turdy wrote critical poems and called for the unity of 92 tribal Uzbek people. The most famous Uzbek poet is Mashrab, who composed a number of poems that are still popular today. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, historical works were written in Persian. Among the famous historians, Abdurahman Tole, Muhammad Amin Bukhari, Mutribi should be noted. [14]

List of rulers

Janids

See also

Related Research Articles

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Uzbeks Turkic people of Central Asia

The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group native to wider Central Asia, being the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are also found as a minority group in: Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia, and China. Uzbek diaspora communities also exist in Turkey, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, United States, Ukraine, and other countries.

Samarkand City in Samarkand Vilayat, Uzbekistan

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Kara-Khanid Khanate Turkic dynasty

The Kara-Khanid Khanate, also known as the Karakhanids, Qarakhanids, Ilek Khanids or the Afrasiabids, was a Turkic khanate that ruled Central Asia in the 9th through the early 13th century. The dynastic names of Karakhanids and Ilek Khanids refer to royal titles with Kara Kağan being the most important Turkic title up till the end of the dynasty.

Registan Historical center of Samarkand, Uzbekistan

The Registan was the heart of the ancient city of Samarkand of the Timurid Empire, now in Uzbekistan. The name Rēgistan (ریگستان) means "sandy place" or "desert" in Persian.

Muhammad Shaybani Uzbek leader and warrior

Muhammad Shaybani Khan, was an Uzbek leader who consolidated various Uzbek tribes and laid the foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana and the establishment of the Khanate of Bukhara. He was a Shaybanid or descendant of Shiban, the fifth son of Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son. He was the son of Shah-Budag, thus a grandson of the Uzbek conqueror Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

Abdullah Khan II Abdulla Khan

Abdullah Khan (1533/4–1598), known as "The old Khan", was an Uzbek ruler of the Khanate of Bukhara (1500–1785). He was the last Shaybanid Dynasty Khan of Bukhara, from 1583 until his death.

Khanate of Kokand Former state in Central Asia

The Khanate of Kokand was a Central Asian polity in Fergana Valley, Central Asia that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of eastern Uzbekistan, modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Tajikistan and southeastern Kazakhstan. The name of the city and the khanate may also be spelled as Khoqand in modern scholarly literature.

Uzbek Khanate Shaybanid state preceding the Shaybanid Empire and the Khanate of Bukhara

The Uzbek Khanate, also known as the Abulkhair Khanate was a Shaybanid state preceding the Khanate of Bukhara. During the few years it existed, the Uzbek Khanate was the preeminent state in Central Asia, ruling over most of modern-day Kazakhstan, much of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and parts of southern Russia. This is the first state of the Abulkhairids, a branch of the Shaybanids.

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Emirate of Bukhara Historical Central Asian state between the 18th and 20th centuries)

The Emirate of Bukhara was a Central Asian polity that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River, and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarqand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarazm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana. In 1920, it ended with the establishment of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic.

Sart Historical term used for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia

Sart is a name for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia which has had shifting meanings over the centuries. Sarts, known sometimes as Ak-Sart in ancient times, did not have any particular ethnic identification, and were usually town-dwellers.

Shaybanids

The Shaybanids were a Persianized Turko-Mongol dynasty in Central Asia who ruled over most of modern-day Kazakhstan, much of Uzbekistan, and parts of southern Russia in the 15th century. They were the patrilineal descendants of Shiban, the fifth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. Until the mid-14th century, they acknowledged the authority of the descendants of Shiban's brothers Batu Khan and Orda Khan, such as Öz Beg Khan. The Shaybanids originally led the grey horde southeast of the Urals, and converted to Islam in 1282. At its height, the khanate included parts of modern-day Afghanistan and other parts of Central Asia.

The Mangghud, Manghud were a Mongol tribe of the Urud-Manghud federation. They established the Nogai Horde in the 14th century AD and the Manghit Dynasty to rule the Emirate of Bukhara in 1785. They took the Islamic title of Emir instead of the title of Khan since they were not descendants of Genghis Khan and rather based their legitimacy to rule on Islam. The clan name was used for Mongol vanguards as well. Their descendants live in several regions of the former Mongol Empire.

Abul-Khayr Khan Khan

Abu'l-Khayr Khan (1412–1468) was a Khan of the Uzbek Khanate which united the nomadic Central Asian tribes. He created one of the largest and most powerful Turkic states during the period of 15th century. The Uzbek Khanate weakened in the decades following his death in 1468. He was succeeded by his son Sheikh Khaidar.

The history of Bukhara stretches back for millennia. The origin of its inhabitants goes back to the period of Aryan immigration into the region. The city itself, currently the capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat) of Uzbekistan, is about two and a half thousand years old. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long been a centre of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. During the Golden age of Islam, under the rule of Samanids, Bukhara became the intellectual centre of the Islamic world. In medieval times, Bukhara served as the capital of the Khanate of Bukhara and was the birthplace of Imam Bukhari.

The Kazakh War of Independence (1468–1500) was a conflict fought in Central Asia between the Kazakh Khanate and the Uzbek Khanate which attempted to maintain its control over most of modern-day Kazakhstan, which at the time was under Uzbek rule. The war started after Abu'l-Khayr, Khan of the Uzbek Khanate, attacked Zhetysu in 1468 which was controlled by a small band of rebel Kazakhs who had split from the original Uzbek Khanate. Abu’l Khayr did so in an attempt to prevent the growing Kazakh influence among the steppe. However, he unknowingly died, making it easier for the Kazakhs to expand their influence. After Abu'l-Khayr Khan's death, the Uzbeks continued to be ruled by the Shaybanids who fought against the Kazakhs in the cities that were on the Syr Darya until both sides agreed to peace in 1500 with the Kazakh Khanate gaining its sovereignty from the Uzbek control. At the end of the war, the Uzbek Khanate transferred most of Kazakhstan to the Kazakh Khanate.

Imamkuli-Khan

Imamkuli-khan the son of Din Muhammad khan (1582-1644) was the third ruler of the Bukhara Khanate, who reigned from 1611 to 1642.

Kuchkunji Khan (1452-1531) - a descendant of the Timurid Mirzo Ulugbek, the third representative of the Uzbek dynasty of Shaybanids, who ruled in the Bukhara Khanate in 1512–1531.

Boqi Muhammad Khan the son of jani Muhammad/jani bek was a leader of the Ashtarkhanid dynasty in the Khanate of Bukhara from 1599–1605 AD.

References

  1. Ulugbek Azizov (2015). Freeing from the 'Territorial Trap'. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 58. ISBN   9783643906243 . Retrieved 22 July 2017. The Bukhara Khanate as a new administrative entity was founded in 1533 and was the continuation of the Shaybanid dynas- ty. The khanate occupied the territory from Kashgar (west of China) to the Aral Sea, from Turkestan to the east part of Chorasan. The official language was Persian as well as Uzbek was spoken widely.
  2. Ira Marvin Lapidus - 2002, A history of Islamic societies, p.374
  3. Grenoble, Lenore (2003). Language Policy of the Soviet Union. Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 143. ISBN   1-4020-1298-5.
  4. Vegetation Degradation in Central Asia Under the Impact of Human Activities, Nikolaĭ Gavrilovich Kharin, page 49, 2002
  5. Peter B.Golden (2011) Central Asia in World History, p.115
  6. Soucek, Svat. A History of Inner Asia (2000), p. 180.
  7. Malikov A. “92 Uzbek tribes” in official discources and the oral traditions from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries in Golden Horde Review. 2020, volume 8 issue 3, p.520
  8. A.J.E.Bodrogligeti, «Muhammad Shaybani’s Bahru’l-huda : An Early Sixteenth Century Didactic Qasida in Chagatay», Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher, vol.54 (1982), p. 1 and n.4
  9. B. V. Norik, Rol' shibanidskikh praviteley v literaturnoy zhizni Maverannakhra XVI v. // Rakhmat-name. Spb, 2008, p.230
  10. Aminova Gulnora, Removing the Veil of Taqiyya: Dimensions of the Biography of Agha-yi Buzurg (a sixteenth-century female saint from Transoxiana). Ph.D. thesis, Harvard university, 2009
  11. Khasan Nisari. Muzahir al-Ahbab
  12. McChesney, R. D. "The reforms" of Baqi Muhammad Khan in Central Asiatic Journal 24, no. 1/2 (1980): 78.
  13. Davidovich Ye. A., Istoriya monetnogo dela Sredney Azii XVII—XVIII vv. Dushanbe, 1964.
  14. "Welcome to Encyclopaedia Iranica".
  15. László Karoly (14 November 2014). A Turkic Medical Treatise from Islamic Central Asia: A Critical Edition of a Seventeenth-Century Chagatay Work by Subḥān Qulï Khan. BRILL. pp. 5–. ISBN   978-90-04-28498-2.
  16. Orvostörténeti Közlemények: Communicationes de historia artis medicinae. Könyvtár. 2006. p. 52.
  17. Nil Sarı; International Society of the History of Medicine (2005). Otuz Sekizinci Uluslararası Tıp Tarihi Kongresi Bildiri Kitabı, 1-6 Eylül 2002. Türk Tarih Kurumu. p. 845. ISBN   9789751618252.

Further reading