Thonburi Kingdom

Last updated

Thonburi Kingdom
Anachak Thonburi
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg
Kingdom of thonburi 1782.png
The Thonburi Kingdom at its maximum extent in 1782.
Capital Thonburi
Common languages Thai
Northern Thai
Southern Thai
Theravada Buddhism
Government Feudal monarchy
Taksin the Great
 Independence from Burma
6 November 1767
28 December 1767
6 April 1782
Currency Pod Duang
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Ayutthaya Kingdom
Blank.png Principality of Phimai
Blank.png Principality of Phitsanulok
Blank.png Principality of Sawangburi
Blank.png Principality of Nakhon Si Thammarat
Rattanakosin Kingdom Flag of Thailand (1782).svg
Today part of Thailand

The Thonburi Kingdom (Thai : ธนบุรี) was a major Siamese kingdom which existed in Southeast Asia from 1767 to 1782, centered around the city of Thonburi, in Siam or present-day Thailand. The kingdom was founded by Taksin the Great, who reunited Siam following the collapse of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which saw the country separate into five separate warring states along with small-scale Burmese occupation of the country. The Thonburi Kingdom oversaw the resumption of conflicts with its major regional rival, Burma, and the reestablishment of Siam as a major regional military power, with Siam expanding to its greatest territorial extent to that point in its history, which saw the incorporations of Lan Na, the Laotian kingdoms (Luang Prabang, Vientiane, Champasak), the northern Malay states, and Cambodia under the Siamese sphere of influence. [1]


The Thonburi Kingdom lasted for only 14 years, ending in 1782 when Taksin was deposed by a major military commander, Chao Phraya Chakri, who subsequently founded the Rattanakosin Kingdom, the fourth and present ruling kingdom of Thailand.


Reestablishment of Siamese authority

Historical map of Thonburi on Chao Phraya River Thonburi-history-map.svg
Historical map of Thonburi on Chao Phraya River
Taksin's coronation at Thonburi (Bangkok), 28 Dec 1767 KingTaksin's coronation.jpg
Taksin's coronation at Thonburi (Bangkok), 28 Dec 1767

In 1767, after dominating Southeast Asia for 400 years, the Ayutthaya Kingdom was destroyed. The royal palace and the city were burnt to the ground. The territory was nominally occupied by the Burmese army, while local leaders declared themselves as independent overlords, including the lords of Sakwangburi, Phimai, Chanthaburi, and Nakhon Si Thammarat. Chao Tak, a nobleman of Chinese descent and a capable military leader, proceeded to make himself a lord by right of conquest, beginning with the legendary sack of Chanthaburi. Based at Chanthaburi, Chao Tak raised troops and resources, and sent a fleet up the Chao Phraya to take the fort of Thonburi. In the same year, Chao Tak was able to retake Ayutthaya from the Burmese only seven months after the fall of the city, on 6 November 1767, the symbolic date of liberation against Burmese occupation, still celebrated in Thailand to this day. [2]

Upon Siamese independence, Hsinbyushin of Burma ordered the ruler of Tavoy to invade Siam. The Burmese armies arrived through Sai Yok and laid siege on the Bang Kung camp – the camp for Taksin's Chinese troops – in modern Samut Songkhram Province. Taksin hurriedly sent one of his generals Boonma to command the fleet to Bang Kung to relieve the siege. Siamese armies encircled the Burmese siege and defeated them.

Ayutthaya, the center of Siamese authority for hundreds of years, was so devastated that it could not be used as a government center. Tak founded the new city of Thonburi Sri Mahasamut on the west bank of Chao Phraya River. The construction took place for about a year while Tak crowned himself King of Siam on 28 December 1767, at Thonburi Palace, as King Sanphet but he was known to people as King Taksin – a combination of his title and personal name. Taksin crowned himself as a King of Ayutthaya to signify the continuation to ancient glories. [3]

Reunification and expansion

Five Separate States

After the sacking of Ayutthaya the country had fallen apart, due to the disappearance of central authority. 5 major rival states had occupied the vacuum.


Prince Thepphiphit (เทพพิพิธ) [ th], Borommakot's son, who had been unsuccessful in a diversionary action against the Burmese in 1766, had set himself up as the ruler of Phimai holding sway over land in the Isan region, governing from the city of Phimai, which spanned a huge chunk of the Isan region.


The Governor of Phitsanulok, whose first name was Rueang (เรือง) [ th], had proclaimed himself independent, with the territory under his control extending from Tak to Nakhon Sawan.


Chao Phra Fang (เจ้าพระฝาง) [ th], an influential monk, established his own state with the capital set in the town of Sawangburi, 10 km east of Uttaradit city. His territory extended from Uttaradit to Nan.

Nakhon Si Thammarat

The governor of Nakhon Si Thammarat (เจ้าพระยานครศรีธรรมราช) [ th], declared his independence and raised himself to princely rank. [4] His territory covered most of what is now southern Thailand.


Having firmly established his power at Thonburi, Taksin set out reunify the old kingdom by crushing his regional rivals. After being repulsed by the Governor of Phitsanulok, [5] he concentrated on the defeat of the weakest one first. Teppipit was quelled and executed in 1768. [6] Chao Narasuriyawongse, one of Taksin's nephews, replaced him as governor. Taksin led an expedition against him and took Phimai. The prince disappeared and could not be found again. [7]

Unification of the Five Separate States

The five states that emerged following the dissolution of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in 1767 Five separate states of siam.png
The five states that emerged following the dissolution of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in 1767

In 1768, Taksin attacked Phitsanulok. Taksin was injured during the campaign and had to retreat. Phitsanulok was weakened by the invasion and was in turn subjugated by Sawangburi. In the same year, Taksin sent two brothers, Thong Duang and Bunma, members of a powerful Mon noble family, to attack Phimai. Thepphiphit fled to Vientiane but was captured and then executed.

In 1769, Phraya Chakri (later Rama I), Taksin's servant, attacked Nakhon Si Thammarat, but got bogged down at Chaiya. Taksin sent his army to help capturing Nakhon Si Thammarat and finally won. In dealing with the Prince of Nakhon Si Thammarat, who was taken prisoner by the loyal governor of Pattani, [8] the ping not only pardoned him but also favoured him with a residence at Thonburi.

In 1770, Chao Phra Fang invaded Thonburi and reached Chai Nat. Taksin saw the invasion as a threat to his rule, this he decided to invade Sawangburi. Taksin was accompanied by Phraya Pichai, who led the west army and Bunma who led the east army. The Thonburi forces easily took Phitsanulok and captured Sawangburi in the next 3 days. Thonburi had finally reunified Siam as one kingdom. [9]

Taksin stayed at Phitsanulok to oversee the census and levy of northern population. He appointed Boonma to Chao Phraya Surasi as the governor of Phitsanulok and all northern cities and Phraya Abhay Ronnarit to Chao Phraya Chakri the chancellor.

In 1771, Taksin would eliminate the last threat to his rule over Siam by conquering Hà Tiên (Banteay Mas), whose Cantonese leader was attempting to undermine Taksin during the civil war in order to expand his own domain. [10]

Wars with Burma

Flag of Konbaung Burma, the Thonburi Kingdom's main regional rival Flag of the Alaungpaya Dynasty of Myanmar.svg
Flag of Konbaung Burma, the Thonburi Kingdom's main regional rival

Taksin had consolidated the old Siamese kingdom with a new base at Thonburi. However, the Burmese were still ready to wage massive wars to bring the Siamese down again. From their base at Chiang Mai, they invaded Sawankhalok in 1770 but the Siamese were able to repel. This realized Taksin the importance of Lanna as the base of resources for the Burmese to attack northern territories. If Lanna was brought under Siamese control then the Burmese threats would by annihilated.

At the time Lanna, centered on Chiang Mai, was ruled by a Burmese general Paw Myunguaun. He was the general who led the invasion of Sawankhalok in 1770 but was countered by Chao Phraya Surasi’s armies from Phitsanulok. In the same year, the Siamese pioneered a little invasion of Chiang Mai and failed to gain any fruitful results.

In 1772, Paw Thupla, another Burmese general who had been in wars in Laos, headed west and attack Phichai and Uttaradit. The armies of Phitsanulok once again repelled the Burmese invasions. They came again in 1773 and this time Phraya Phichai made his legendary sword break.

Wars over Lan Na
Battle of Bangkaeo in Ratchaburi Battle of Bangkeo.jpg
Battle of Bangkaeo in Ratchaburi

In 1774, Taksin ordered Chao Phraya Chakri and Chao Phraya Surasi to invade Chiang Mai. After nearly 200 years of Burmese rule, Lanna passed to the Siamese hands. The two Chao Phrayas were able to take Chiang Mai with the help of local insurgents against Burma and Taksin appointed them the local rulers: Phraya Chabaan as Phraya Vichianprakarn the Lord of Chiangmai, Phraya Kawila as the Lord of Lampang, and Phraya Vaiwongsa as Lord of Lamphun. All the lordships paid tribute to Thonburi. Paw Myunguaun and the Burmese authority retreated to Chiang Saen.

During Taksin’s northern campaigns, the Burmese armies took the opportunity to invade Thonburi through Ta Din Daeng. The Burmese encamped at Bangkaeo but were surrounded by the Siamese armies commanded by Taksin in the Battle of Bangkaeo. For more than a month the Burmese had been locked in the siege and thousand of them died. [11] [ dead link ] Another thousand became captives to the Siamese.

In 1775, there came the largest invasion of the Burmese led by Maha Thiha Thura. Instead of dividing the forces invading through various ways, Maha Thiha Thura amassed the troop of 30,000 as a whole directly towards Phitsanulok whose inhabitants were only 10,000 in number. Paw Thupla and Paw Myunguaun from Chiang Saen attempted to retake Chiang Mai but were halted by the two Chao Phrayas, who after Chiang Mai hurried back to Phitsanulok to defend the city. The engagements occurred near Phitsanulok.

Maha Thiha Thura directed the troops at Phitsanulok so immensely that the Siamese were about to fall. He cut down the supply lines and attacked the royal army. The two Chao Phrayas decided to abandon Phitsanulok. The Burmese entered the city with victory but due to the death of Hsinbyushin the Burmese king the same year. They had to retreat.

After the death of the Burmese king Hsinbyushin the Burmese were plunged in their own dynastic struggles. In 1776, the new monarch Singu Min sent Maha Thiha Thura to invade Lan Na again with such a huge army that Lord Vichianprakarn of Chiang Mai had to abandon the city. Chao Phraya Surasi and Lord Kawila of Lampang retook Chiang Mai from the Burmese but decided to left the city abandoned as there was no population to fill the city. No further Burmese invasions came as Singu staged his dynastic purges on the princes and Maha Thiha Thura himself.

Wars with Cambodia and Laos

Campaigns in Cambodia

Prince Ang Non the Uparaja of Cambodia fled to Thonburi in 1769 after his conflicts with King Narairaja [ id] for Siamese supports. Taksin then took this opportunity to request tributary from Cambodia, which Narairaja refused. Taksin sent Phraya Abhay Ronnarit and Phraya Anuchit Racha to subjugate Cambodia, taking Siem Reap and Battambang. But Taksin's absence from the capital (in wars with Nakhon Si Thammarat) shook the political stability and the two generals decided to retreat to Thonburi.

Later in 1771, Taksin decided to finish off the Cambodian campaign by assigning Chao Phraya Chakri command of land forces with Prince Ang Non and Taksin himself went by sea. The Siamese took various Cambodian cities and drove Narairaja out of the throne. Ang Non was installed as Reamraja and Narairaja became the Uparaja with the Cambodian court paying tribute to Thonburi.

Campaigns in Laos

In 1776, a governor of Nangrong (modern Nakhon Nayok) had a row with the governor of Nakhon Ratchasima, the head city of the region. The governor then sought supports from King Sayakumane of Champasak. This became a casus bellum for Taksin to send Chao Phraya Chakri to conquer Champasak. King Sayakumane fled but was captured and detained in Thonburi for two years until he was sent to rule his kingdom again in 1780 paying tribute to Thonburi. The Champasak campaign earned Chakri the title Somdet Chao Phraya Maha Kasatseuk. Taksin invented the title Somdet Chao Phraya for a mandarin with equal honor as a royalty.

In 1778, a Laotian mandarin named Phra Wo sought Siamese supports against King Bunsan of Vientiane but was killed by the Laotian king. Taksin then dispatched the troops in 1779 led by the two famous brothers commanders, Phraya Chakri and his brother, Phraya Surasi to subjugate Vientiane. At the same time King Suriyavong of Luang Prabang submitted himself to Thonburi and joined the invasion of Vientiane. King Bunsan fled and hid in the forests but later gave up himself to the Siamese. The Vientiane royal family was deported to Thonburi as hostages. Thonburi forces took two valuable Buddha images, the symbolic icons of Vientiane – the Emerald Buddha and Phra Bang to Thonburi. Then all of the three Laotian kingdoms became Siamese tributaries and remained under Siamese rule for another hundred years.

Political and economic troubles, downfall, establishment of Rattanakosin

Despite Taksin's successes, by 1779, Taksin was showing signs of mental instability. He was recorded in the Rattanahosin's gazettes and missionaries's accounts as becoming maniacal, insulting senior Buddhist monks, proclaiming himself to be a sotapanna or divine figure. Foreign missionaries were also purged from times to times. His officials, mainly ethnic Chinese, were divided into factions, one of which still supported him but the other did not. The economy was also in turmoil, famine ravaged the land, corruption and abuses of office were rampant, the monarch attempted to restore order by harsh punishments leading to the execution of large numbers of officials and merchants, mostly ethnic Chinese which in turn led to growing discontent among officials.

In 1782 Taksin sent a 20,000 man army to Cambodia, led by generals Phraya Chakri and Bunma, to install a pro-Siamese monarch upon the Cambodian throne following the death of the Cambodian monarch. While the army was en route to Cambodia, Taksin was overthrown in a rebellion that successfully seized the Siamese capital, which, depending on the sources, captured Taksin or allowed Taksin to peacefully step down from the throne and become a monk. Phraya Chakri, upon receiving news of the rebellion while on campaign, hurriedly marched his army back to Thonburi. The story behind Phraya Chakri's seizure of the Siamese throne is disputed, either Phraya Chakri accepted the rebels' offer to give him the throne after Taksin was deposed or Phraya Chakri, with his strong support from established nobles, staged a bloody coup d'teat upon arriving at the Siamese capital. What is supported by sources however is that Taksin was executed shortly after Phraya Chakri's seizure of the capital. [12] [13] [14]

After securing the capital, Phraya Chakri took the throne as King Ramathibodi, posthumously known as Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, today known as King Rama I, founding the House of Chakri, the present Thai ruling dynasty. After Taksin's death, Rama I moved his capital from Thonburi, across the Chao Phraya River, to the village of Bang-Koh (meaning "place of the island"), where he would construct his new capital. The new capital was established in 1782, called Rattanakosin, today now known as Bangkok.

The city of Thonburi remained an independent town and province until it was merged into Bangkok in 1971.


Phra Racha Wang Derm (Thonburi Palace), the former royal palace of Taksin, now used as the Royal Thai Navy's HQ, view from Phra Prang of Wat Arun, Thonburi, Bangkok. Phra Racha Wang Derm (I).jpg
Phra Racha Wang Derm (Thonburi Palace), the former royal palace of Taksin, now used as the Royal Thai Navy's HQ, view from Phra Prang of Wat Arun, Thonburi, Bangkok.

Thonburi government organization was centered around a loose-knit organization of city-states, whose provincial lords were appointed, often based on their personal ties to the king. With the exception of Bunma, a member of the old Ayutthaya artistocracy who had joined Taksin early on in his campaigns of reunification, and later Bunma's brother, Thongduang, high political positions and titles within the Thonburi Kingdom were mainly given to Taksin's early followers, instead of the already established Siamese nobility who survived after the fall of Ayutthaya, many of whom having supported Thep Phiphit, the governor of Phitsanulok and an Ayutthaya aristocrat, during the Siamese civil war. In the Northern cities, centered around Sukhothai and Phitsanulok, Taksin installed early supporters of his who had distinguished themselves in battle, many of whom were allowed to establish their own local dynasties afterwards, but elsewhere, several noble families had kept their titles and positions within the new kingdom, forming a powerful faction within the Thonburi court. [15] [16]


With the exception of the western Tenasserim Coast, the Thonburi Kingdom reconquered most of the land previously held under the Ayutthaya Kingdom and beyond. The following provinces included: Thonburi, Ayutthaya, Ang Thong, Singburi, Lopburi, Uthai Thani, Nakhon Sawan, Chachoengsao, Prachinburi, Nakhon Nayok, Chonburi, Rayong, Chanthaburi, Trat, Nakhon Chai Si, Nakhon Pathom, Suphanburi, Ratchaburi, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Phetchaburi, Kanchanaburi, and Prachuap Khiri Khan.

Vassal (mandala) states of the Thonburi Kingdom at its height in 1782, to varying degrees of autonomy, included the Nakhon Si Thammarat Kingdom, the Northern Thai principalities of Chiang Mai, Lampang, Nan, Lamphun, and Phrae, and the Lao Kingdoms of Champasak, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane.


Economy and society

Wat Arun in Thonburi. A principal temple of the Thonburi and Rattanakosin periods; the temple's iconic central prang was later rebuilt to its present appearance during the reign of Rama III. Wat Arun Ratchawararam Ratchawaramahawihan.jpg
Wat Arun in Thonburi. A principal temple of the Thonburi and Rattanakosin periods; the temple's iconic central prang was later rebuilt to its present appearance during the reign of Rama III.

The years of warfare and the Burmese invasions prevented any peasants to engage in agricultural activities. The Siamese war captives who had been taken to Burma following the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767 and the general lack of manpower were the source of problems. Taksin had tried his best to encourage people to come out of forest hidings, of whom had fled into the countryside prior to and during the 1765-67 Burmese invasion, and to promote farming. He promulgated the Conscription Tattooing in 1773, which left a permanent mark on commoners' bodies, preventing them from fleeing or moving. The practice continued well into the Rattanakosin period until the abolition of levy during the reign of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V). As Taksin was from a Chinese merchant family, he sold both his royal and familial properties and belongings to subsidize production by giving money off to people. This proved to be a temporary relief for such an economic decline. Nevertheless, the Siamese economy after the wars needed time to rehabilitate. Thonburi began forming its society.

Taksin gathered resources through wars with neighboring kingdoms and deals with Chinese merchants. Major groups of people in Thonburi were local Thais, phrai, or 'commoners', Chinese, Laotians, Khmers, and Mons. Some powerful Chinese merchants trading in the new capital were granted officials titles. After the king and his relatives, officials were powerful. They held numbers of phrai, commoners who were recruited as forces. Officials in Thonburi mainly dealt with military as well as 'business' affairs.

Taksin himself also commissioned trade missions to neighbouring and foreign countries to bring Siam back to outside world, the Qing dynasty being at the forefront of these missions. He dispatched several tributary missions to the Qing in 1781 to resume diplomatic and commercial relationships between the two countries which had stretched back, beginning in the Sukhothai period and had expanded significantly during the late Ayutthaya period. [17]

See also

Related Research Articles

History of Thailand Aspect of Southeast-Asian history

The Tai ethnic group migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of centuries. The word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည, probably the same root as Shan and Ahom. Chinese: 暹羅; pinyin: Xiānluó was the name for Ayutthaya Kingdom merged from Suphannaphum city state centered in modern-day Suphan Buri and Lavo city state centered in modern-day Lop Buri. To the Thai, the name has mostly been Mueang Thai.

Rama I Founder and first ruler of the Rattanakosin Kingdom from 1782 to 1809

Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok Maharaj, personal name Thongduang (ทองด้วง), also known as Rama I, was the founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom and the first monarch of the reigning Chakri dynasty of Siam. His full title in Thai is Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paramoruracha Mahachakkriborommanat Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok. He ascended the throne in 1782, following the deposition of King Taksin of Thonburi. He was also celebrated as the founder of Rattanakosin as the new capital of the reunited kingdom.

Krabi–krabong Weapon-based martial art from Thailand

Krabi-Krabong is a weapon-based martial art from Thailand. It is closely related to other Southeast Asian fighting styles such as Malay silat, Burmese banshay and Cambodian kbach kun boran. The royal bodyguard corps of the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej were said to be highly trained in krabi-krabong.

Naresuan 18th monarch of Ayutthaya Kingdom

King Naresuan the Great was the 18th monarch of Ayutthaya Kingdom and 2nd monarch of the Sukhothai dynasty. He was the king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1590 and overlord of Lan Na from 1602 until his death in 1605. Naresuan is one of Thailand's most revered monarchs as he is known for his campaigns to free Ayutthaya from the vassalage of the Taungoo Empire. During his reign, numerous wars were fought against Taungoo Burma. Naresuan also welcomed the Dutch.

Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782–1932) Fourth kingdom in the history of Thailand (1782 to 1932)

The Rattanakosin Kingdom is the fourth and present Thai kingdom in the history of Thailand, which was formerly known as Siam until 1939. It was founded in 1782 with the establishment of Rattanakosin (Bangkok), which replaced the city of Thonburi as the capital of Siam. This article covers the period until the Siamese revolution of 1932.

Lao rebellion (1826–1828) Rebellion of the Kingdom of Vientiane against Siam

The Lao Rebellion of 1826–1828 was an attempt by King Anouvong of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang. In January 1827 the Lao armies of the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak moved south and west across the Khorat Plateau, advancing as far as Saraburi, just three days march from the Siamese capitol of Bangkok. The Siamese mounted a counterattack to the north and east, forcing the Lao forces to retreat and ultimately taking the capital of Vientiane. Anouvong failed in both his attempt to resist Siamese encroachment, and to check the further political fragmentation among the Lao. The kingdom of Vientiane was abolished, its population was forcibly moved to Siam, and its former territories fell under the direct control of Siamese provincial administration. The kingdoms of Champasak and Lan Na were drawn more closely into the Siamese administrative system. The kingdom of Luang Prabang was weakened but allowed the most regional autonomy. In its expansion into the Lao states, Siam overextended itself. The rebellion was a direct cause Siamese-Vietnamese wars in the 1830s and 1840s. The slave raids and forced population transfers conducted by Siam led to a demographic disparity between the areas that would ultimately become Thailand and Laos, and facilitated the "civilizing mission" of the French into Lao areas during the latter half of the nineteenth century. The legacy of the rebellion remains controversial. Thai historiography has portrayed Anouvong as petty and his rebellion which came close to Bangkok as dangerous. Thai nationalist movements in the mid-twentieth century have seized onto local heroes such as Lady Mo, and Chao Phaya Lae as symbols of loyalty and "Thai" identity. Lao historiography has emphasized the role of Anouvong in promoting a sense of "Lao" identity, and has become a symbol of independence against foreign influence. Laos similarly promotes local heroes including Ratsavong Ngau and Anouvong himself, who was memorialized in 2010 with a large statute in central Vientiane.

Phraya Phichai

Phraya Phichai, or popularly known as Phraya Phichai Dap Hak was a historic Mon hero of Thonburi period who fought with a sword in each hand until one was broken.

Maha Sura Singhanat

Somdet Phra Bawornrajchao Maha Sura Singhanat (1744–1803) was the younger brother of Rama I, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty of Siam. As an Ayutthayan general, he fought alongside his brother in various campaigns against Burmese invaders and the local warlords. When his brother crowned himself as the king of Siam at Bangkok in 1781, he was appointed the Front Palace or Maha Uparaj, the title of the heir. During the reign of his brother, he was known for his important role in the campaigns against Bodawpaya of Burma.

Burmese–Siamese War (1785–1786) 18th Century War in Southeast Asia

The Burmese–Siamese War (1785–1786), known as the Nine Armies' Wars in Siamese history because the Burmese came in nine armies, was the first war between the Konbaung dynasty of Burma and the Siamese Rattanakosin Kingdom of the Chakri dynasty.

Maha Chakkraphat King of Ayutthaya

Maha Chakkraphat was king of the Ayutthaya kingdom from 1548 to 1564 and 1568 to 1569. Originally called Prince Thianracha, or Prince Tien, he was put on the throne by Khun Phiren Thorathep and his supporters of the Sukhothai clan, who had staged a coup by killing the usurper King Worawongsathirat and Sudachan.

Kingdom of Rattanatingsa or Kingdom of Chiang Mai was the vassal state of the Siamese Rattanakosin Kingdom in the 18th and 19th century before being annexed according to the centralization policies of Chulalongkorn in 1899. The kingdom was a successor of the medieval Lanna kingdom, which had been under Burmese rule for two centuries until it was captured by Siamese forces under Taksin of Thonburi in 1774. It was ruled by the Thipchak Dynasty and came under Thonburi tributary.

Anurak Devesh Prince Anurak Devesh

Somdet Phra Chao Lan Ther Chaofa Thong-In Krom Phra Rajawang Boworn Sathan Phimuk was a Siamese Prince and military leader. A nephew of King Phutthayotfa Chulalok the founder of the Chakri Dynasty, he was appointed Deputy Viceroy or Rear Palace, the 3rd highest position in the kingdom. Becoming the only person to hold that title during the Rattanakosin Kingdom.

Kingdom of Vientiane Former country in Southeast Asia

Kingdom of Vientiane was formed in 1707 as a result of the split of the Kingdom of Lan Xang. The kingdom was a Burmese vassal from 1765 to 1824. It then became a Siamese vassal until 1828 when it was annexed by Siam.

The Burmese–Siamese War (1775–1776) was a major military conflict between the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) and the Thonburi Kingdom of Siam (Thailand). After the Fall of Ayutthaya 8 years prior, King Taksin and his followers had rebuilt Siam by reunifying the breakaway states following the fall of Ayutthaya. The Burmese invasion forces faced tough heavy resistance from the Siamese forces and ultimately withdrew from Siam following King Hsinbyushin's death on 10 June 1776. The war ultimately saw the loss of Lan Na to Siam, which marked the end of 200-year Burmese rule of Lan Na.

Taksin King of Thonburi

King Taksin the Great or the King of Thonburi was the only King of the Thonburi Kingdom. He had been an aristocrat in the Ayutthaya Kingdom and then was a major leader during the liberation of Siam from Burmese occupation after the Second Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, and the subsequent unification of Siam after it fell under various warlords. He established the city of Thonburi as the new capital, as the city of Ayutthaya had been almost completely destroyed by the invaders. His reign was characterized by numerous wars; he fought to repel new Burmese invasions and to subjugate the northern Thai kingdom of Lanna, the Laotian principalities, and a threatening Cambodia.

Phitsanulok City Municipality in Thailand

Phitsanulok is an important, historic city in lower northern Thailand and is the capital of Phitsanulok Province. Phitsanulok is home to Naresuan University and Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University, as well as to a major Royal Thai Army base. As of 2019, the population of the city was 66,106.

The Thai nobility was a social class comprising titled officials in the service of the monarchy. They formed part of a hierarchical social system which developed from the time of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, through the Thonburi (1767–1782) and early Rattanakosin periods. Reforms by King Chulalongkorn ended the system around the end of the 19th century, though noble titles continued to be granted until the abolition of absolute monarchy in 1932.

Chao Fa Krom Khun Inthra Phithak, born Chui (จุ้ย), was a prince of the Thonburi Kingdom.

Taksins reunification of Siam

Following the Sack of Ayutthaya and the collapse of the Ayutthaya Kingdom during the Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767), a power vacuum left Siam divided into 5 separate states—Phimai, Phitsanulok, Sawangburi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Thonburi. The state of Thonburi, led by Taksin, would ultimately prevail, subjugating its rivals to successfully reunify Siam under the Thonburi Kingdom by 1770/71.

The Burmese-Siamese War (1797–1798) was the military conflict between the Kingdom of Burma under the Konbaung dynasty and Kingdom of Siam under the Chakri dynasty over the Lan Na city-states.


  1. Wyatt, David K. (2003). Thailand : A Short History (2nd ed.). Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. p. 122. ISBN   974957544X. "Within a decade or so, a new Siam already had succeeded where Naresuan and his Ayutthaya predecessors had failed in creating a new Siamese empire encompassing Lan Na, much of Lan Sang [sic], as well as Cambodia, and large portions of the Malay Peninsula."
  2. จรรยา ประชิตโรมรัน. (2548). สมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช. สำนักพิมพ์แห่งจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย. หน้า 55
  3. David K. Wyatt. Thailand: A Short History. Yale University Press
  4. Wood, p. 254
  5. Damrong Rajanubhab, pp. 414–415
  6. Damrong Rajanubhab, pp. 418–419
  7. Damrong Rajanubhab, p. 430
  8. Damrong Rajanubhab, pp. 423–424
  9. Wood, p. 259.
  10. Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk. A History of Ayutthaya (p. 263-264). Cambridge University Press. (Kindle Edition.)
  11. "view diary".
  12. Wyatt, David K. (2003). Thailand : A Short History (2nd ed.). Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. p. 128. ISBN   974957544X.
  13. Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk. A History of Ayutthaya, p. 267-268. Cambridge University Press. (Kindle Edition.)
  14. Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk. A History of Thailand Third Edition (p. 26). Cambridge University Press. (Kindle Edition.)
  15. Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk. A History of Ayutthaya, p. 265, 267. Cambridge University Press. (Kindle Edition.)
  16. Wyatt, David K. (2003). Thailand : A Short History (2nd ed.). Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. p. 127-128. ISBN   974957544X.
  17. Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya: Siam in the Early Modern World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1-316-64113-2.
Royal house
Thonburi Dynasty
Founding year: 1767
Preceded by Ruling Dynasty of the
Kingdom of Thonburi

Succeeded by