Thai poetry

Last updated

Poetry has been featured extensively in Thai literature, and constituted the near-exclusive majority of literary works up to the early Rattanakosin period (early 19th century). Most of imaginative literary works in Thai, before the 19th century, were composed in poetry. Consequently, although many literary works were lost with the sack of Ayutthaya in 1767, Thailand still has a great number of epic poems or long poetic tales [1] -- some with original stories and some with stories drawn from foreign sources. The Siamese poetical medium consists of five main forms, known as khlong, chan, kap, klon and rai; some of these developed indigenously while others were borrowed from other languages. Thai poetry dates to the Sukhothai period (13th–14th centuries) and flourished under Ayutthaya (14th–18th centuries), during which it developed into its current forms. Though many works were lost to the Burmese conquest of Ayutthaya in 1767, sponsorship by subsequent kings helped revive the art, with new works created by many great poets, including Sunthorn Phu (1786–1855). Prose writing as a literary form was introduced as a Western import during the reign of King Mongkut (1851–68) and gradually gained popularity, though poetry saw a revival during the reign of King Vajiravudh (1910–25), who authored and sponsored both traditional poetry and the newer literary forms. Poetry's popularity as a mainstream form of literature gradually declined afterwards, although it is still written and read, and is regularly employed ceremonially.

Contents

Forms

Thai poetic works follow established prosodic forms, known as chanthalak (Thai : ฉันทลักษณ์, pronounced [tɕʰǎntʰalák] ). Almost all have rules governing the exact metre and rhyme structure, i.e. the number of syllables in each line and which syllable rhymes with which. Certain forms also specify the tone or tone marks of syllables; others have requirements of syllable "heaviness". Alliteration and within-line rhyming are also often employed, but are not required by the rules.

Khlong

The khlong (โคลง, [kʰlōːŋ] ) is the among oldest Thai poetic forms. This is reflected in its requirements on the tone markings of certain syllables, which must be marked with mai ek (ไม้เอก, [máj èːk] , ◌่) or mai tho (ไม้โท, [máj tʰōː] , ◌้). This was likely derived from when the Thai language had three tones (as opposed to today's five, a split which occurred during the Ayutthaya period), two of which corresponded directly to the aforementioned marks. It is usually regarded as an advanced and sophisticated poetic form. [2]

In khlong, a stanza (bot, บท, [bòt] ) has a number of lines (bat, บาท, [bàːt] , from Pali and Sanskrit pāda ), depending on the type. The bat are subdivided into two wak (วรรค, [wák] , from Sanskrit varga). [note 1] The first wak has five syllables, the second has a variable number, also depending on the type, and may be optional. The type of khlong is named by the number of bat in a stanza; it may also be divided into two main types: khlong suphap (โคลงสุภาพ, [kʰlōːŋ sù.pʰâːp] ) and khlong dan (โคลงดั้น, [kʰlōːŋ dân] ). The two differ in the number of syllables in the second wak of the final bat and inter-stanza rhyming rules. [2]

Khlong si suphap

The khlong si suphap (โคลงสี่สุภาพ, [kʰlōːŋ sìː sù.pʰâːp] ) is the most common form still currently employed. It has four bat per stanza (si translates as four). The first wak of each bat has five syllables. The second wak has two or four syllables in the first and third bat, two syllables in the second, and four syllables in the fourth. Mai ek is required for seven syllables and Mai tho is required for four, as shown below. "Dead word" syllables are allowed in place of syllables which require mai ek, and changing the spelling of words to satisfy the criteria is usually acceptable.

The following plan shows the rhyming structure of one stanza. Each letter represents a syllable; A and B (also C, D, E and F in other examples) represent rhyming syllables. Syllables shown by letters in parentheses are optional.

OOOOOOA (OO)
OOOOAOB
OOOOAOO (OO)
OOOOBOOOO

The following plan shows the tone mark requirements; each ◌ represents one syllable.

◌◌◌◌่◌้◌◌ (◌◌)
◌◌่◌◌◌◌่◌้
◌◌◌่◌◌◌◌่ (◌◌)
◌◌่◌◌◌้◌่◌้◌◌
Example
เสียงฦๅเสียงเล่าอ้างอันใด พี่เอย
เสียงย่อมยอยศใครทั่วหล้า
สองเขือพี่หลับใหลลืมตื่น ฤๅพี่
สองพี่คิดเองอ้าอย่าได้ถามเผือ
Unknown, Lilit Phra Lo (ลิลิตพระลอ), c 15th–16th centuries

Transcriptions:

Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS):
siang lue siang lao angan dai phi oei
siang yom yo yot khraithua la
song khuea phi lap lailuem tuen rue phi
song phi khit eng aya dai tham phuea
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA):
sǐaŋ lɯ̄ː sǐaŋ lâw ʔâːŋʔān dāj pʰîː ʔɤ̄ːj
sǐaŋ jɔ̂m jɔ̄ː jót kʰrājtʰûa lâː
sɔ̌ːŋ kʰɯ̌a pʰîː làp lǎjlɯ̄ːm tɯ̀ːn rɯ̄ː pʰîː
sɔ̌ːŋ pʰîː kʰít ʔēːŋ ʔâːjàː dâːj tʰǎːm pʰɯ̌a

Translation:

What tales, what rumours, you ask?
Of whom is this praise being spread throughout the world?
Have you two been asleep, having forgotten to wake up?
You both can think of it yourselves; do not ask me.

Chan

The chan (ฉันท์, [tɕʰǎn] from Pali chando), is derived from Pali and Sanskrit metres, and based on the Vuttodaya, a Sri Lankan treatise on Pali prosody. It developed during the Ayutthaya period, and became a prominent poetic form, but declined afterwards until it resurfaced in a 1913 revival. [3]

The main feature of the chan is its requirements on the "heaviness" of each syllable. Syllables are classified as either "light" (lahu, ลหุ, [lahù] ), those with a short vowel and open ending, or "heavy" (kharu, ครุ, [kʰarú] ; See also Light and heavy syllables under Sanskrit prosody). The Thai metres follow their Pali/Sanskrit origins, with added rhyming schemes. Modern authors have also invented new forms for their compositions. Two traditional forms are shown here. [3]

Inthrawichian chan

The inthrawichian chan (อินทรวิเชียรฉันท์, [īn.tʰrá.wí.tɕʰīːan tɕʰǎn] , from Indravajra, a form of Sanskrit poetry and meaning Indra's thunderbolt) has two bat per stanza, with eleven syllables in each bat, following the pattern HHLHH LLHLHH (H represents heavy and L represents light syllables):

HHLHHLLHLHH
HHLHHLLHLHH

The rhyming scheme (which is identical to that of kap yani, see below) is shown here in two stanzas:

OOOOAOOAOOB
OOOOBOOOOOC
OOOODOODOOC
OOOOCOOOOOO
Example
สายัณห์ตะวันยามขณะข้ามทิฆัมพร
เข้าภาคนภาตอนทิศะตกก็รำไร
รอนรอนและอ่อนแสงนภะแดงสิแปลงไป
เป็นครามอร่ามใสสุภะสดพิสุทธิ์สี
Chit Burathat (1892–1942), Na Hat Sai Chai Thale Haeng Nueng (ณ หาดทรายชายทะเลแห่งหนึ่ง, "At a Seaside Beach")

Transcription:

RTGS:
sayan tawan yamkhana kham thikhamphon
khao phak napha tonthisa tok ko ramrai
ron ron lae on saengnapha daeng si plaeng pai
pen khram aram saisupha sot phisut si
IPA:
sǎː.jān ta.wān jāːmkʰa.nàʔ kʰâːm tʰí.kʰām.pʰɔ̄n
kʰâw pʰâːk ná.pʰāː tɔ̄ːntʰí.sàʔ tòk kɔ̂ rām.rāj
rɔ̄ːn rɔ̄ːn lɛ́ʔ ʔɔ̀ːn sɛ̌ːŋná.pʰáʔ dɛ̄ːŋ sìʔ plɛ̄ːŋ pāj
pēn kʰrāːm ʔa.ràːm sǎjsù.pʰáʔ sòt pʰí.sùt sǐː

Translation:

The evening settles as the sun crosses the sky.
As it sets in the west, its light fades.
Its last rays flicker, and the sky turns from red
Into a clear glowing indigo, so bright and pure.

Wasantadilok chan

The wasantadilok chanวสันตดิลกฉันท์, [wá.sǎn.tà.dì.lòk tɕʰǎn] , from Sanskrit vasantatilaka) has fourteen syllables per bat, with the pattern HHLHLLLH LLHLHH:

HHLHLLLHLLHLHH
HHLHLLLHLLHLHH

The following plan shows the rhyme structure in two stanzas.

OOOOOOOAOOAOOB
OOOOOOOBOOOOOC
OOOOOOODOODOOC
OOOOOOOCOOOOOO
Example
ช่อฟ้าก็เฟื้อยกลจะฟัดดลฟากทิฆัมพร
บราลีพิไลพิศบวรนภศูลสล้างลอย
Phraya Sisunthonwohan (Phan Salak), Inlarat Kham Chan (อิลราชคำฉันท์), c 1913

Transcription:

RTGS:
chofa ko fueai kala cha fatdala fak thikhamphon
brali philai phisa bawonnapha sun salang loi
IPA:
tɕʰɔ̂ː.fáː kɔ̂ fɯ́aj ka.lá tɕa fátda.la fâːk tʰí.kʰām.pʰɔ̄ːn
brāː.līː pʰí.lāj pʰí.sa ba.wɔ̄ːnná.pʰá sǔːn sa.lâːŋ lɔ̄ːj

Translation:

The chofa stretches out as if it would fight the very sky.
The roof crest-plates are such a grand beauty to look at; the spire of the stupa soars up high.

Kap

There are several forms of kap (กาพย์, [kàːp] ), each with its specific metre and rhyming rules. The kap may have originated either from the Indic metres or from Cambodian forms. [4]

Kap yani

The kap yani (กาพย์ยานี, [kàːp jāː.nīː] , or yani sip et, sip et meaning eleven, referring to the number of syllables per bat) has two bat per stanza. Each has two wak, with five and six syllables. It is slow in rhythm, and usually used to describe beauty and nature. The following plan shows the rhyming scheme in two stanzas; the spaces show the usual rhythmic breaks (not shown in writing). [4]

OO OOAOOA OOB
OO OOBOOO OOC
OO OODOOD OOC
OO OOCOOO OOO
Example
เรือสิงห์วิ่งเผ่นโผนโจนตามคลื่นฝืนฝ่าฟอง
ดูยิ่งสิงห์ลำพองเป็นแถวท่องล่องตามกัน
นาคาหน้าดั่งเป็นดูเขม้นเห็นขบขัน
มังกรถอนพายพันทันแข่งหน้าวาสุกรี
Chaofa Thammathibet (1705–46), Kap He Ruea (กาพย์เห่เรือ พระนิพนธ์เจ้าฟ้าธรรมธิเบศร, Kap for the Royal Barge Procession)

Transcription:

RTGS:
ruea sing wing phen phonchon tam khluen fuen fa fong
du ying sing lamphongpen thaeo thong long tam kan
nakha na dang pendu khamen hen khopkhan
mangkon thon phai phanthan khaeng na wasukri
IPA:
rɯ̄a sǐŋ wîŋ pʰèn pʰǒːntɕōn tāːm kʰlɯ̂ːn fɯ̌ːn fàː fōːŋ
dūː yîŋ sǐŋ lām.pʰɔ̄ːŋpēn tʰɛ̌w tʰôŋ lôŋ tāːm kān
nāː.kʰāː nâː dàŋ pēndūː kʰa.mên hěn kʰòp.kʰǎn
māŋ.kɔ̄ːn thɔ̌ːn pʰāːj pʰāntʰān kʰɛ̀ŋ nâː wāː.sù.krīː

Kap chabang

The kap chabang (กาพย์ฉบัง, [kàːp tɕʰa.bāŋ] , or chabang sip hok, sip hok meaning sixteen, the number of syllables per stanza) has three wak per stanza, with six syllables in the first and third, and four syllables in the second. It is often used for narratives, and often accompanies the chan. The following plan shows two stanzas. [4]

OOOOOAOOOA
OOOOOB
OOOOOBOOOB
OOOOOO
Example
ธรรมะคือคุณากรส่วนชอบสาธร
ดุจดวงประทีปชัชวาล
แห่งองค์พระศาสดาจารย์ส่องสัตว์สันดาน
สว่างกระจ่างใจมนท์
Phraya Sisunthonwohan (Noi Acharayangkun) (1822–91), Veneration of the Dhamma (บทนมัสการพระธรรมคุณ)

Transcription:

RTGS:
thamma khue khunakonsuan chop sathon
dut duang prathip chatchawan
haeng ong phra satsadachansong sat sandan
sawang krachang chai mon
IPA:
tʰām.máʔ kʰɯ̄ː kʰú.nāː.kɔ̄ːnsùan tɕʰɔ̂ːp sǎː.tʰɔ̄ːn
dùt dūaŋ pra.tʰîːp tɕʰát.tɕʰa.wāːn
hɛ̀ŋ ʔōŋ pʰráʔ sàːt.sa.dāː.tɕāːnsɔ̀ŋ sàt sǎndāːn
sawàːŋ kra.tɕàːŋ tɕāi mōn

Translation:

The Dhamma is the foundation of good, that which itself is good.
Like a bright lantern,
Of the great prophet-teacher, shining into each being's character,
Bringing light to foolish hearts.

Kap surangkhanang

The kap surangkhanang yi sip paet (กาพย์สุรางคนางค์ 28, [kàːp sù.rāːŋ.kʰa.nāːŋ jîː sìp pɛ̀t] , yi sip paet means twenty-eight) has seven wak per stanza, with four syllables in each wak. A less common form is surangkhanang sam sip song (thirty-two), with eight wak per stanza. Its rhythm is fast, and is used to describe anger and fighting. The following plan shows two stanzas of surangkhanang 28. [4]

OOOAOOOAOOOB
OOOCOCOBOOOBOOOD
OOOEOOOEOOOD
OOOFOFODOOODOOOO

Klon

In the generic sense, klon (กลอน, [klɔ̄ːn] ) originally referred to any type of poetry. In the narrow sense it refers to a more recently developed form where a stanza has four wak, each with the same number of syllables. It is usually considered an original Thai form. [5] The klon metres are named by the number of syllables in a wak, e.g. klon hok (กลอนหก, [klɔ̄ːn hòk] ) has six syllables per wak (hok means six). All metres have the same rhyming scheme, and there are also requirements on the tone of the final syllable of each wak. The klon is also divided into several types according to their manner of composition, with klon suphap (กลอนสุภาพ, [klɔ̄ːn sù.pʰâːp] ) being the basic form.

The following plan shows the structure of klon suphap (two stanzas) in the most common eight-syllable variety, which was employed extensively by Sunthorn Phu, and is the most common form of the Rattanakosin period. The letters in parentheses represent alternative rhyming syllables. In practice, occasional wak with seven or nine syllables are also acceptable.

OOO OO OOAOOA O(A) OOB
OOO OO OOBOOB O(B) OOC
OOO OO OODOOD O(D) OOC
OOO OO OOCOOC O(C) OOO

Example

ถึงโรงเหล้าเตากลั่นควันโขมงมีคันโพงผูกสายไว้ปลายเสา
โอ้บาปกรรมน้ำนรกเจียวอกเราให้มัวเมาเหมือนหนึ่งบ้าเป็นน่าอาย
ทำบุญบวชกรวดน้ำขอสำเร็จพระสรรเพชญโพธิญาณประมาณหมาย
ถึงสุราพารอดไม่วอดวายไม่ใกล้กรายแกล้งเมินก็เกินไป
ไม่เมาเหล้าแล้วแต่เรายังเมารักสุดจะหักห้ามจิตคิดไฉน
ถึงเมาเหล้าเช้าสายก็หายไปแต่เมาใจนี้ประจำทุกค่ำคืน
Sunthorn Phu, Nirat Phukhao Thong (นิราศภูเขาทอง, c 1828)

Transcription:

RTGS:
thueng rong lao tao klan khwan khamongmi khan phong phuk sai wai plai sao
o bap kam nam narok chiao ok raohai mua mao muean nueng ba pen na ai
tham bun buat kruat nam kho samretphra sanphet phothiyan praman mai
thueng sura pha rot mai wotwaimai klai krai klaeng moen ko koen pai
mai mao lao laeo tae rao yang mao raksut cha hak ham chit khit chanai
thueng mao lao chao sai ko hai paitae mao chai ni pracham thuk kham khuen
IPA:
tʰɯ̌ŋ rōːŋ lâw tāw klàn kʰwān kʰamǒːŋmīː kʰān pʰoːŋ pʰùːk saːj wáj plāːj sǎw
ʔôː bàːp kām náːm na.rók tɕīaw ʔòk rāwhâj mūa māw mɯ̌an nɯ̀ŋ bâː pēn nâː ʔāːj
tʰām būn bùat krùat náːm kʰɔ̌ː sǎm.rètpʰrá sǎn.pʰét pʰōː.tʰí.jāːn pra.māːn mǎːj
tʰɯ̌ŋ sù.rāː pʰāː rɔ̂ːt mâj wɔ̂ːtwāːjmâj klâj krāːj klɛ̂ːŋ mɤ̄ːn kɔ̂ kɤ̄ːn pāj
mâj māw lâw lɛ́ːw tɛ́ː rāw jāŋ māw ráksùt tɕa hàk hâːm tɕìt kʰít tɕʰa.nǎj
tʰɯ̌ŋ māw lâw tɕʰáw sǎːj kɔ̂ hǎːj pāːjtɛ̀ː māw tɕāj níː pra.tɕām tʰúk kʰâm kʰɯ̄ːn

Rai

The rai (ร่าย, [râːj] ) is probably the oldest Thai poetic form and was used in laws and chronicles. It is also the simplest. It consists of a continuing series of wak of unspecified number, usually with five syllables each, and with rhymes from the last syllable of a wak to the first, second or third of the next. Some variations don't specify the number of syllables per wak and are actually a form of rhymed prose. A composition consisting of rai alternating with (and ending with) khlong is known as lilit (ลิลิต, [lí.lít] ), and suggests that the khlong developed from the rai. The following is the form of rai known as rai boran (ร่ายโบราณ, [râːj bōː.rāːn] ). [6]

OOOA   A(A)(A)OB   B(B)(B)OC   C(C)(C)OD   D(D)(D)OE   E(E)(E)OO ...

Example

สรวมสวัสดิวิชัย เกริกกรุงไกรเกรียงยศ เกียรติปรากฏขจรขจาย สบายทั่วแหล่งหล้า ฝนฟ้าฉ่ำชุ่มชล ไพศรพณ์ผลพูนเพิ่ม เหิมใจราษฎร์บำเทิง...ประเทศสยามชื่นช้อย ทุกข์ขุกเข็ญใหญ่น้อย นาศไร้แรงเกษม โสตเทอญ

King Chulalongkorn, the Nitra Chakrit (ลิลิตนิทราชาคริต, 1879)

Reading

When read aloud, Thai poetry may be read conventionally, or in a melodic fashion known as thamnong sano (ทำนองเสนาะ, [tʰām.nōːŋ sanɔ̀ʔ] , lit. pleasing melody). Thamnong sano has many melodic styles, and there are also other specific styles used for certain performances, such as sepha. Thamnong sano reading is often featured in student competitions, along with other forms of language-related performances.

Notes

  1. In literary studies, line in western poetry is translated as bat. However, in some forms, the unit is more equivalent to wak. To avoid confusion, this article will refer to wak and bat instead of line, which may refer to either.

Related Research Articles

Poetry Form of literature

Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

Thai language Language spoken in Thailand

Thai, Central Thai, is a Tai language of the Kra–Dai language family spoken by Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai Chinese. It is the national language of Thailand and de facto official language.

The Thai script is the abugida used to write Thai, Southern Thai and many other languages spoken in Thailand. The Thai alphabet itself has 44 consonant symbols, 16 vowel symbols that combine into at least 32 vowel forms and four tone diacritics to create characters mostly representing syllables.

Ayutthaya Kingdom Siamese kingdom from 1350 to 1767

The Ayutthaya Kingdom was a Siamese kingdom that existed in Southeast Asia from 1350 to 1767, centered around the city of Ayutthaya, in Siam, or present-day Thailand. The Ayutthaya Kingdom is considered to be the precursor of modern Thailand and its developments are an important part of the History of Thailand.

Shloka or śloka is a poetic form used in Sanskrit, the classical language of India. In its usual form it consists of four pādas or quarter-verses, of 8 syllables each, or of two half-verses of 16 syllables each. The metre is similar to the Vedic anuṣṭubh metre, but with stricter rules.

Thai literature

Thai literature is the literature of the Thai people, almost exclusively written in the Thai language. Most of imaginative literary works in Thai, before the 19th century, were composed in poetry. Prose was reserved for historical records, chronicles, and legal documents. Consequently, the poetical forms in the Thai language are both numerous and highly developed. The corpus of Thailand's pre-modern poetic works is large. Thus, although many literary works were lost with the sack of Ayutthaya in 1767, Thailand still possesses a large number of epic poems or long poetic tales —some with original stories and some with stories drawn from foreign sources. There is thus a sharp contrast between the Thai literary tradition and that of other East Asian literary traditions, such as Chinese and Japanese, where long poetic tales are rare and epic poems are almost non-existent. The Thai classical literature exerted a considerable influence on the literature of neighboring countries in mainland Southeast Asia, especially Cambodia, Laos, and Burma.

Common metre or common measure—abbreviated as C. M. or CM—is a poetic metre consisting of four lines that alternate between iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter, with each foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The metre is denoted by the syllable count of each line, i.e. 8.6.8.6, 86.86, or 86 86, depending on style, or by its shorthand abbreviation "CM".

The klon, also spelled glawn or gaun, is a Thai/Lao term referring to either poetic verse in general, or a specific prosodic form in Thai and Lao poetry.

This is a glossary of poetry.

Fixed verse forms are a kind of template or formula that poetry can be composed in. The opposite of fixed verse is free verse poetry, which by design has little or no pre-established guidelines.

William J. Gedney American linguist

William J. Gedney was an American linguist and Southeast Asian language specialist. Gedney did extensive work relating to Tai historical linguistics.

Sanskrit prosody or Chandas refers to one of the six Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies. It is the study of poetic metres and verse in Sanskrit. This field of study was central to the composition of the Vedas, the scriptural canons of Hinduism, so central that some later Hindu and Buddhist texts refer to the Vedas as Chandas.

Vietnamese poetry originated in the form of folk poetry and proverbs. Vietnamese poetic structures include six-eight, double-seven six-eight, and various styles shared with Classical Chinese poetry forms, such as are found in Tang poetry; examples include verse forms with "seven syllables each line for eight lines," "seven syllables each line for four lines", and "five syllables each line for eight lines." More recently there have been new poetry and free poetry.

<i>Yuan Phai</i>

Yuan Phai, "Defeat of the Yuan," is a historical epic poem in the Thai language about rivalry between Ayutthaya and Lanna culminating in a battle that took place in 1474/5 AD at the place then called Chiang Cheun at Si Satchanalai. The Yuan are the people of Lanna or Yonok, then an independent kingdom in the upper reaches of the Chao Phraya River basin with a capital at Chiang Mai. The poem was written to celebrate King Boromma Trailokanat of Ayutthaya, the victor. The poem was probably written soon after the battle. It counts among only a handful of works of Thai literature from the Early Ayutthaya era that have survived, and may be still in its original form, without later revisions. The main body of the poem consists of 1,180 lines in a variant of the khlong meter. The poem is considered important as a source of historical information, as an example of poetic form and style, and as a repository of early Ayutthayan Thai language. A definitive edition was published by the Royal Institute of Thailand in 2001.

Thawathotsamat

Thawathotsamat, meaning "Twelve Months," is a poem of 1,042 lines in Thai, probably composed in the late fifteenth century CE. The title is a Thai adaptation of the Pali-Sanskrit words dvā dasa māsa, two ten months. The male speaker laments over a lost lover through the course of one year, drawing on the seasonal weather for similes of his emotions. Both the speaker and beloved are addressed with royal forms. A late verse declares that the poem was written by a "young-king" with the help of three court poets. The work has sometimes been mistakenly classified as a treatise on Siamese royal ceremonies. The work is less studied and less well-known than other early works of Thai literature, partly because of the obscurity of its archaic language, and partly because of conservative concerns over its erotic passages. A new annotated Thai edition appeared in 2017.

Si Prat legendary Thai poet

Si Prat is a legendary Thai poet believed to have served King Narai during the 17th century. According to traditional tellings, he was subsequently banished to South Thailand as a result of his personal indiscretions and executed after having an affair with the wife of a provincial governor.

<i>Kamsuan Samut</i>

Kamsuan Samut or Kamsuan Siprat is a nirat traditionally attributed to legendary 17th century Thai poet Si Prat and generally regarded as a seminal work from the Ayutthaya era. The poem tells of a distraught lover who describes his journey into exile to Southern Thailand while lamenting the loss of his love.

<i>Lilit Phra Lo</i>

Lilit Phra Lo is a narrative poem of around 3,870 lines in Thai. Lilit is a poetic form; Phra is a prefix used for royalty and monks; Lo is the personal name of the hero, sometimes transcribed as Lor or Law. Date and authorship are unknown but the work was probably composed in the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century CE and counts among the five earliest works of Thai literature. The plot is a courtly romance that ends with a tragic massacre and political reconciliation. The work has been criticized for portraying feudal indulgence. The story has been repeatedly reworked by prominent novelists and film-makers, often adapting the plot to conform to modern values.

The Royal Ceremonies of the Twelve Months is a historical description of the annual royal ceremonies undertaken throughout the year by the monarchy of Siam. They are described in the Palace Law of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, and mentioned in the 15th-century Thawathotsamat epic poem.

Eulogy of King Prasat Thong is a long poem in Thai, composed during the king’s reign (1629–1956) by a senior noble. It is the first Thai poem which is specifically a royal panegyric and titled as such. It recounts the main events of the reign, including the building and renaming of the Chakkawat Phaichaiyon audience hall, adjustment of the calendar, a grand almsgiving, and a military parade and festival, all also described in the Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya. It also states that King Prasat Thong is a bodhisatta, destined to become the tenth in a sequence of ten future Buddhas beginning with Metteyya. This claim is currently found in no other document. The sole manuscript, which was discovered in the 1980s, was copied in 1747/8 and is clearly incomplete. An annotated edition, including a facsimile of the original, was prepared by Buntuean Siworaphot and published in 2000.

References

  1. Low, James (1836). On Siamese Literature (PDF). pp. 162–174.
  2. 1 2 "โคลง Khloong". Thai Language Audio Resource Center. Thammasat University. Retrieved 6 March 2012. Reproduced form Hudak, Thomas John (1990). The indigenization of Pali meters in Thai poetry. Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN   978-0-89680-159-2.
  3. 1 2 "ฉันท์ Chan". Thai Language Audio Resource Center. Thammasat University. Retrieved 6 March 2012. Reproduced form Hudak, Thomas John (1990). The indigenization of Pali meters in Thai poetry. Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN   978-0-89680-159-2.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "กาพย์ Kaap". Thai Language Audio Resource Center. Thammasat University. Retrieved 6 March 2012. Reproduced form Hudak, Thomas John (1990). The indigenization of Pali meters in Thai poetry. Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN   978-0-89680-159-2.
  5. "กลอน Klon". Thai Language Audio Resource Center. Thammasat University. Retrieved 6 March 2012. Reproduced form Hudak, Thomas John (1990). The indigenization of Pali meters in Thai poetry. Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN   978-0-89680-159-2.
  6. "ร่าย Raay". Thai Language Audio Resource Center. Thammasat University. Retrieved 6 March 2012. Reproduced form Hudak, Thomas John (1990). The indigenization of Pali meters in Thai poetry. Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN   978-0-89680-159-2.